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Full text of "Proofs of a conspiracy against all the religions and governments of Europe : carried on in the secret meetings of Free Masons, Illuminati, and reading societies"

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IN TME CUSTODY OV ThE 

BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY. 



SMELF N° 




ibO.a/ 









y 



P R OOFS 



OF A 



CONSPIR AGY 

AGAINST ALL THE 

RELIGIONS AND GOVERNMENTS 

OF 

EUROPE, 

CARRIED ON 

IN THE SECRET MEETINGS 

OF 

FREE MASONS, ILLUMINATI, 

AND 

REABING SOCIETIES, 

COLLECTED FROM GOOD AUTHORITIES, 

By J O H N R O B I S O N, A. M. 

PROFESSOR OF NATURAL PHILOSOPRY, AND SECRETARY TO THE 
ROYAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 

Nam tua res agitur paries cu?n proximus ardet. 
The THIRD EDITION. 
To which is added a Postscript. 



PHILADELPHIA: 

printed FOR T. DOBSON, N°. 4I, SOUTH SECOND 
STREET, AND W. COBBET, N°. 25, NORTH 
SECOND STREET. 

1798. 
J 



> 



A0AM8 






TO THE RIGHT HONOURABLE 

WILLIAM W Y N D H A M, 

SECRETARY AT WAR, Sec &c. &c. 

S IRy 

It was with great fat is fa^ Ion that I learned from a 
Friend that you coincided with me in the opinion ^ that the 
information contained in this F^ erf or man ce would make a 
ufeful imprejfiun on the minds of my Countrymen. 

I have prefumed to infcribe it with your Name^ that I 
may publicly exprefs the pleafure which I felt ^ when I found 
that neither a feparation for thirty years , nor the prejjure of 
the moft important hufinefs^ had effaced your kind remem- 
brance of a College Acquaintance^ or abated that obliging 
and polite attention with which you favoured me in thcfe 
early days of life. 

The friendjhip of the accomplifjed and the worthy is the 
highefi honour ; and to him who is cut cff^ by want of healthy 
from almcfi every other enjoyment ^ it is an ineftimable bltf- 
ftng. Accept^ therefore^ I pray^ of ?ny grateful acknow- 
ledgments, and of my earnefi wifhes for your Healthy Prof- 
perity^ and increafing Honour, 

IVithfentimcnts of the greatefl Efteem and Refpe^l^ 

I am, SIR^ 

Tour mcfl obedient^ 
and mcfl humble Servant, 

JOHN ROBISOX. 

Edinburgh, 

Septemlier 5, 1797. 



^UOD fi quis vera vilam ratione guhernet, 

Diviti^ grandes hominijunt^ vivere pdirce 

j^quo a'dimo : neque enim eft unquam penuria parvi. 

At dares Je hor.mies voluerimt atque potentes^ 

Ut fundament ft ahili for tuna maneret^ 

Et placidam pcjjent opiilenti degere vitam : 

Nequicquamy — quoniam ad Jummum Juccedere hojiorem 

Certantes^ iter inf eft urn fe cere vidi, 

Et tamen efummo quafi fulmen dejicit i^os 

Invidia inter dum conte?nptm in Tartar a tetra, 

Ergo^ Regihus cccifis, Juhverja jacehat 
Priftina majeftas Juliorum, etjceptrajuperha ; 
Et capitis Jummi prtsclar urn in figne, cruentumy 
Sub pedibus volgi magnum lugebat honor um : 
Nam cupide conculcatur nimis ante metutum. 
Res itaqueadjummamfa:cem^ turbajqiie redibat, 
Mperiumftbi cum ac Jummatum qui/que petebat, 

Lucretius, V. 1116. 



INTRODUCTION. 



Being at a friend's houfc in the country during 
Ibmc part of the fummer 1795, I there faw a volume 
of a Gernian periodical work, c^Wcdi Religions Bcgehen- 
heiten, i. e. Religious Occurrences : in which there 
was an account of the various fchifms in the Fraternity 
of Free Mafons, with frequent allufions to the origin 
and hiftory of that celebrated affociation. This ac- 
count interefted me a good deal, becaufe, in my 
early life, I had taken fome part in the occupations 
(jQiall I call them) of Free Mafonry; and, having 
chiefly frequented the Lodges on the Continent, I had 
learned many doctrines, and ittn many ceremonials 
which have no place in the nmple f/frem of Free Ma- 
fonry which obtains in this^ country. I had alfo re- 
marked, that the whole was much more the obje6l of 
reflediion and thou2;ht than I could remember it to 
have been among my acquaintances at home. Ther*^, 
I had feen a Mafon Lodge confidered merely as a pre- 
text for paffing an hour or two in a fort of decent con- 
viviality, not altogether void of fome rational occupa- 
tion. I had fometimes heard of difierences of doc- 
trines or of ceremonies, but in terms which miarked 
them as mere frivolities. Bur, on the Continent, I 
found them matters of ferious concern and debate. 

Such 



6 INTRODUCTION. * 

Such too is the contagion of example, that I could not 
hinder myfclf from thinking one opinion better found- 
ed, or one Ritual more appofice and Hgnificant than 
another J and I even feltromething like an anxiety for 
its being adopted, and a zeal for making it a general 
pradice. I had been initiated in a very fplendid Lodge 
at Liege, of which the Prince BiHiop, his Trefonciers, 
and the chief NoblefTe of the State were members. I 
vifited the French Lodges at Valenciennes, at BrufTcls, 
at Aix-la-Chapelle, at Berlin, and Koningiberg ; and 
I picked up fome printed difcourfes delivered by the 
Brother-orators of the Lodges. At St. Peterlburgh I 
connedled myfeif with the Englifli Lodge, and occa- 
fionally vifited the Germ.an and Ruffian Lodges held 
there. I found myfeif received with particular refpe6t 
as a Scotch Mafon, and as an Eleve of ihtLodge de la 
Parfait Intelligence at Liege. I was importuned by 
perfons of the firlt rank to purfue my mafonic career 
through many degrees unknown in this country. But 
all the fplendor and elegance that 1 faw could not con- 
ceal a frivolity in every part. It appeared a bafelefs 
fabric, and I could not think of engaging in an occu- 
pation which would confume much time, coft me a 
good deal of money, and might perhaps excite in me 
fome of that fanaticifm, or at leaP-, enthufiafm, that! 
faw in others, and perceived to be void of any rational 
fupport. I therefore remained in the Englilh Lodge, 
contented with the rank of Scotch Mailer, Vv'hich was 
in a manner forced on me in a private Lodge of French 
Mafons, but is not given in the Englifli Lodge. My 
jnafonic rank admitted me to a very elegant entertain- 
ment in the female hogedela Fidelite, where every ce- 
remonial was compofcd in the higheft degree of ele- 
gance, and every thing conduced with the moft deli- 
cate refpe6l for our fair fillers, and the old fong of bro- 
therly love was chanted in the moft refined ftrain of 

fentimcnt. 



INTRODUCTION. 7 

t 

fentiment. I do not fuppofe that the Parifian Free Ma- 
fonry of forty- five degrees could give me more enter- 
tainment. I had profited fo much by it, that I had 
the honour of being appointed the Brother-orator. In 
this office I gave fuch fatisfi\6i:ion, that a worthy Bro- 
ther fent me at midnight a box, which he committed 
to my care, as a perfon far advanced in mafonic fcience, 
zealoufly attached to the order, and therefore a fit de- 
pofuory of important writings. I learned next day 
that this gentleman had found it convenient to leave the 
empire in a hurry, but taking with him the funds ofan 
eftablifhment of which her Imperial Majefty had made 
him the manager. I wasdefiredto keep thefe writings till 
he fhould fee me again. I obeyed. About ten years 
afterward I law the gentleman on the ftreet in Edin- 
burgh, converfmg v/ith a foreigner. As I paffcd by 
him, I faluted him foftly in the Ruffian language ; but 
without flopping, or looking him diredlly in the face. 
He coloured, but made no return. I endeavoured, in 
vain, to m.eet with him, wiffiing to make a proper re- 
turn for much civility and kindncfs which I had receiv- 
ed from him in his own country. 

I now confidered the box as acceffible to myfelf, and 
opened it. I found it to contain all the degrees of the 
Parfait Macron Ecvjjois^ with the Rituals, Catechifms, 
and InftruAions, and alfo four other degrees of Free 
Mafonry, as cultivated in the Parifian Lodges. I have 
kept them with all care, and mean to give them tofome 
refpedlable Lodge. But asl am bound by no engage- 
ment of any kind, I hold myfelf at liberty to make 
fuch ufe of them as may be ferviceable to the public, 
without enabling any uninitiated perfon to enter the 
Lodges of thefe degrees. 

This acquifition might have roufed my former reliffi 
for mafonry, had it been merely dormant; but, after fo 
long feparation from the Lodge de la Fidelite, the mafo- 
nic 



8 INTRODUCTION. 

nic rpirit had evaporated. Some curiofity however re- 
mained, and Ibme v/ilh to trace this plailic my fiery to 
the pit from which the clay had been dug, which has 
been moulded into fo rhany different Ihapes, ^^ fom.e to 
*' honour, and fome to diflionour.'' But my opportu- 
nities were now gone. 1 have given away (when in 
Rufiia) my volumes of dirccurfes, and fome far-fetched 
and gratuitous hiilories, and nothing remained but the 
pitiful work of Andcrfon, and the Magonnerie Adonhi- 
ramique devoilee^ which are in every one's hands. 

My curiofity was ftrongly roufed by the accounts 
given in the Religions Begehenheiten. There I faw quo- 
tadons v.nthout number, fyftems and fchifms of which 
I had never heard ; but what particularly flruck me 
wa- a zeal and a fanaticifm about what I thought trifles, 
which aftoniflied me. Men of rank and fortune, and 
engaged in fericus and honourable public employments, 
not only frequennng the Lodges of the cities where 
they refided, but journeying from one end of Germany 
or France to the other, to- vifit new Lodges, or to learn 
new fecrets or new do6lrines. I faw conventions held 
at WiQrnar, at WiPoad, at Kohlo, at Brunfvvick, and at 
Wilk-mibad, confifting of fome hundreds of perfons of 
refpe^table fcations. 1 faw adventurers coming to a 
city, profefTing fome new fecret, and in a few days 
forming new Lodges, and inifruding in a troublelbme 
and expenfive manner hundreds of brethren. 

German Mafonry appeared a very ferious concern, 
and to be implicated with other fubje6ls with which I 
had never fufpe6led it to have any connedlion. I faw 
it much connected with many occurrences and fchifms 
in the Chriftian church ; I faw that the Jefuits had 
fcveral times interfered in it ; and that moft of the ex- 
ceptionable innovations and difTcntions had arifen about 
the time that the order of Loyola was fupprefTed j fo 
that it fliould feem, that thefe intriguing brethren had 

attempted 



INTRODUCTION. 9 

attempted to maintain their influence by the help of 
Free Maibnry. I favv it much difturbed by the myftical 
whims of J. Behmcn and Svvedenborg — by the fanatical 
and knavifh do6lrines of the modern Rofycrucians^ — by- 
Magicians — Magnet! fers — Exorcifts, &c. And I ob- 
ferved that thele different ictls reprobated each other, 
as notonlymaintainingerroneous opinions, but even in- 
culcating opinions which were contrary to the cftablilli- 
ed religions of Germany, and contrary to the princi- 
ples of the civil cftablifriments. At the lame time 
they charged each other vvirh miltakes and corruptions, 
both in dodlrine and in practice ; and particularly Vv^ith 
falfification of the firft principles of Free Mafonry, 
and with ignorance of its origin and its hiRory ; and 
they fupported thele charges by aiuhoritles from many 
different books v;hich were unknown to me. 

My curicfity was now greatly excited. I got from 
a much rclpcd:ed friend many of the preceding vo- 
lumes of the Religiofis BegebenheiteYiy in hopes of much 
information from the patient induilry of German eru- 
dition. This opened a new and very interefting 
fcenc ; I was frequently fent back to England, from 
whence all agreed that Free Mafonry had been im- 
ported into Germany. I was frequently led into 
France and into Italy. There, and more remarkably 
in France, I found that the Lodges had become the 
haunts of many projeftors and fanatics, both in fci- 
ence, in religion, and in politic?, who had availed 
themfclves of the fccrecy and the freedom ot fpeech 
maintained in thefe meetings, to broach tlieir parti- 
cular whims or fufpicicus doc'frines, which, if publiili- 
ed to the world in the iifual manner, v/oiild have 
expofed Xa\^ authors to ridicule or to cenfure. Thefe 
projeftors liad contrived to tag their peculiar no- 
(Irums to the mummery of Mafonry, and were even 
allowed to twin the mafcnic emblenis and ceremonies 

B to 



lO INTRODUCTION. 

to their purpofe ; fo that in their hands Free MaHjnrf 
became a thing totally unlike, and ahnoft in direft 
oppolition to the iyftem (if it may get fuch a name) 
imported from England j and forae Lodges had be- 
come fchools of irreligion and licentioulhefs. 

No nation in modern times has lo particularly- 
turned its attention to the cultivation of every thing 
that is retined or ornamental as France, and it has 
long been the refort of all who hunt after entertain- 
ment in its moil refined form ; the French have come 
to confider themfclves as the inftru6lors of the world 
in every thing that ornaments life, and feeling them- 
fclves received as fuch, they have formed their man- 
ners accordingly — full of the moft condefcending com- 
plaifance to rdl who acknowledge their fuperiority. De- 
lighted, in a high degree, vviih this office, they have 
become ze:dous millionarics of refinement in every de- 
partment of human purfuit, and have reduced their 
apoflolic employm.ent to a lyUem, which they profe- 
cute with ardour and deiip-ht. This is not eroundlefs 

CD vj 

declamation, but fober hiftorical truth. It was the 
profelled aim (and it was a magnificent and wife aim) 
of the great Colbert, to make the court of Louis XIV. 
the fountain of human refinement, and Paris the Athens 
of Europe. We need only look, in the prefent day, 
at the plunder of Italy by the French army, to be 
convinced that their low-born generals and ftatefmen 
have in this refpe(!:l: the fame notions with the Colberts 
and the Richlicus. 

I know no lubie61: in which this aim at univerfal in- 
fluence on tfie opinions of men, by holding themfelves 
forth as the models of excellence and elegance, is more 
clearly fecn than in the care that they have been pleafed 
to take of Free Mafonry. It feems indeed peculiarly 
fuited to the talents and tafte of that vain and ardent 
people. Bafclcfs and frivolous, it admits of every 

form 



INTRODUCTION. II 



form that Gallic refinement can invent, to recommend 
it to the young, the gay, the luxurious ; that clafs of 
fociety which alone defcrves theii; care, becaufe, in 
one way or another, it leads all other dalles of fociety. 

It has accordingly happened, that the homely Free 
Mafonry imported from England has been totally 
changed in every country of Europe either by the im- 
poling afcendency of Frcn&h bretfiren, who are to be 
found every where, ready to in(lru6l the world ; or by 
the importation of the do6i:rines, and ceremonies, and 
ornaments of the Parifian Lodges. Even England, 
the birth-place of Mafonry, has exj-)erienced the French 
innovations; and all the repeated injunctions, admo- 
nitions, and reproofs of the old Lodges, cannot pre- 
vent thofe in different parts of the kingdom from ad- 
mitting the French novelties, full of tinfcl and glitter, 
and high -founding titles. 

Were this all, the harm would not be great. But 
long before good opportunities had occurred for fpread- 
ing the refinements on the fimple Free Mafonry of 
England, the Lodges in France had become places of 
very ferious difcufTion, where opinions in morals, in 
religion, and in politics, had been promulgated and 
maintained with a freedom and a keennefs, of which 
we in this favoured land have no adequate notion, be- 
caufe we are unacquainted with the reftraints which, 
in other countries, are laid on ordinary converfation. 
In confequence of this, the French innovations in 
Free Mafonry were quickly follovv'ed in all parts of 
Europe, by the admiffion of fimilar difcuffions, al- 
though in diredt oppoficion to a (landing rule, and a 
declaration made to every newly received Brother, 
" that nothing touching the religion or government 
'' fliall ever be fpoken of in the Lodge." But the 
Lodges in other countries followed the example of 
France, and have frequentlv become the rendezvo :s 

of 



12 INTRODUCTION. 

of innovators in religion and politics, and otj;4er dif- 
turbers of the public peace, in fhort, I have found 
that the covert of a Mafon Lodge had been employed 
in every country for venting and propagating fenti- 
ments in religion and politics, that could not have cir- 
culated in public v^^ithout expofing the author to great 
danger. I found, that this impunity had gradually 
encouraged men of licentious principles to become 
more bold, and to teach do6lr;nes fubverfive of all 
our notions of mordity — of all our confidence in the 
moral government of the univerfe— of all our hopes 
of improvement in a future ftate of exiflience — and of 
all fatisfadlion and contentment v/\th our prefent life, 
fo long as we live in a Hate of civil fubordination. I 
have been able to trace thefe attempts, made, through 
a courfe of fifty years, under the fpecious pretext of 
enlightening the world by the torch of philofophy, and 
of difpelling the clouds of civil and religious fuperfti- 
tion which keep the nations of Europe in darknefs and 
fiavery. I have obferved thefe do6lrines gradually 
diffufmg and mixing with all the different fyllems of 
Free Mafonry ; till, at lafV, an Association has 
BEEN FORMED for the cxprcfs purpofe of rooting out 

ALL the religious ESTABLISHMENTS, AND OVER- 
TURNING ALL THE EXISTING GOVERNMENTS OF 

Europe. I have (cen this Afibciation exerting itfelf 
^ealoufly and fyftematically, till it has become almoft 
irrefiftible : And I have fcen that the moft adive lead- 
ers in the French Revclurion v/ere members of this 
Afibciation, and conduded their iiril" movements ac- 
cording to its principles, and by means of its inftruc- 
tions and alilitance, formally requefted and obtained: 
And, laitly, I have (ten that this Affociation ilill ex- 
ifls, fiill works in fecret, and that not only feveral 
appearances among ourfclves fhow that its emifiaries 
are endeavouring to propagate their drteilable doc- 
trines 



INTRODUCTION. IJ 

trines among us, but that the Afibciation has Lodges 
in Britain correfponding wich the mother Lodge at 
Munich ever fmce 1784. 

If all this were a matter of mere curiofity, and fuf- 
ceptible of no good ufe, it would have been better to 
have kept it to myfeif, than to difturb my neighbours 
with the knowledge of a (late of things which they 
cannot amend. But if it ihall appear that the minds 
of my countrymen are mifltd in the very fame manner 
as were thofe of our continental neighbours — if I can 
fhow that the reafonings which make a very ftrong im- 
prefTion on fome perfons in this country are the fame 
which adtually produced the dangerous alTociation in 
Germany i and that they had this unhappy influence 
folely becaufe they were thought to be fmcere, and 
the expreiTions of the fentiments of the fpeakers — if I 
can fhow that this was all a cheat, and that the Lead- 
ers of this AiTociation difoclieved every word th^t they 
uttered, and every doclrine that they taught; and that 
their real intention was to abolifb ^//religion, overturn 
every government, and make the world a general 
plunder and a wreck — if I can Hiow, that the princi- 
ples which the Founder and Leaders of this AlTociation 
held forth as the perfedion of human virtue, and the 
moft powerful and efficacious for forming the minds of 
men, and making th.em. good and happy, had no in- 
fluence on the Founder and Leaders themfelves, and 
that they were, almofl: without exception, the moft in- 
figniiicant, worthiefs, and profligate of men; I cannot 
but think, that fuch information will make my coun- 
trymen hefitate a little, and receive with caution, and 
even diflrufl:, addreiles and infcruftions which flatter 
our felf-conceit, and which, by buoying us up with 
the gay profpec^l of what feems attainable by a change, 
may make us difcontented with our prefent condition, 
and forget that there never was a government on earth 

Vv'hcre 



14 INTRODUCTION. 

where the people of a great and luxurious nation en- 
joyed ,fo much freedom and fecurity in the polTciTion 
of every thing that is dear and valuable. 

When we fee that thefe boafted principles had not 
that efFcdt on the Leaders which they aficrt to be their 
native, certain, and inevitable confcquences, we fhall 
diftruft the fine defcriptions of the happincfs chat 
ihould refult fpom fuch a change. And when we fee 
that the methods which were pradifed by this AfToci- 
ation for the exprefs purpofe of breaking all the bands 
of fociety, were employed folely in order that the 
Leaders might rule the world with uncontroulable 
power, while all the reft, even of the aflbciated, fnould 
be degraded in their own eflimation, corrupted in their 
principles, and employed as mere tools of the ambition 
of their imknoivn Jwperiors ; lurely a free-born Briton 
will not hefitate to reject at once, and without any far- 
ther examination, a plan fo big with mifchief, fo dif- 
graceful to its underling adherents, and fo uncertain in 
its ifiue. 

Thefe hopes have induced m.e to lay before the 
public a fhort abftraft of the information which I think' 
I have received. It will be fhort, but I hope fufficient 
for eftablifhing the fa6l, that this deteficihle AJfociation 
exifts, and its emijfaries are hujy among ourjelves, 

1 was not contented with the quotations which I 
found in the Religions Begebenheiten, but procured 
from abroad fome of the chief writings from which 
they are taken. This both gave me confidence in the 
quotations from books which I could not procure, and 
furnidied me with more materials. Much, however, 
remains untold, richly deferving the attention of all 
thofe who/^^/ themfelves difpofed to liilen to the tales 
of a pofTible happinefs that may be enjoyed in a ibciety 
where all the magiflrates are wife and juft, and all the 
people are honeft and kind. 

I hope 



INTRODUCTION. I5 

I hope that I am honefl; and candid. I have been 
at all pains to give the true fenle of the authors. My 
knowledge of the German language is but fcanty, but 
I have had the affiftance of friends whenever I was in 
doubt. In comprefTing into one paragraph what I 
have colleded from many, I have, as much as I was 
able, fluck to the words of the author, and have been 
anxious to give his precife meaning. I doubt not but 
that I have fometimes failed, and will receive correc- 
tion with deference. I entreat the reader not to exped: 
a piece of good literary compofition. I am very fen- 
fible that it is far from it — it is written during bad 
health, when I am not at eafe — and I v;ifh to conceal 
my name — but my motive is, without the fmalieft 
mixture of another, to do fome good in the only way 
I am able, and I think that what I fay will come with 
better grace, and be received with more confidence, 
than any anonymous publication. Of thefc I am now 
moil heartily fick. I throw myfeif on my country with 
a free heart, and I bow with deference to its decifion. 

The alTociation of v;/hich Ihave been fpeaking is the 
Order of Illuminati, founded, in 1775, by Dr. 
Adam Weifhaupt, profe (Tor of Canon law in the uni- 
vcrfity of Ingolftadt, and abolifned in 1786 by the 
Eleftor of Bavaria, but revived immediately after, un- 
der another name, and in a different form, all over 
Germany. It was again detected, and feemingly bro- 
ken up j but it had by this time taken fo deep root 
that it ilill fubfifts without being dctedied, and has 
fpread into ail the countries of Europe. It took its 
firll rife among the Free Maibns, but is totally dif- 
ferent from Free Mafonry. It was not, however, the 
mere protection gained by the fecrecy of the Lodges 
that gave occafion to it, but it arofe naturally from 
the corruptions that had gradually crept into that fra- 
ternity, the violence of the parry fpirit which pervaded 

iti 



l6 , INTRODUCTION. 

it, and from the total uncertainty and darknefs that 
hangs over the whole of that myilerious Alfociation. 
It is neceflary, therefore, to give fome account of the 
innovations that have been introduced into Free Ma- 
fonry from the time that it made its appearance on the 
continent of Europe as a myftical fociety, polTcffing 
fecrets different from thofe of the mechanical employ- 
ment whofe name ic afiiimed, and thus affording en- 
tertainment and occupation to perfons of all ranks and 
profcffions. It is by no means intended to give a hif- 
tory of Free Mafonry. This would lead to a very long 
difculTion. The patient induilry of German eruiition 
has been very ferioufly employed on this fubjed, and 
many perform.ances have been publiihed, of which 
fome account is given in the di(Terent volumes of the 
Religions Begebenheiten, particularly in thofe for 1779, 
1785, and 1786. It is evident, from the nature of che 
thing, that they cannot be very inilruclive to the pub- 
lic -y becaufe the obligation of fecrecy refpeding the 
important matters which are the very fubje61:s of de- 
bate, prevents the author from giving that full infor- 
mation that is required from an hiftorian ; and the wri- 
ters have not, in general, been perfons qualitied for 
the taflc. Scanty erudition, credulity, and enthufiafm, 
appear in almofl all their writings ; and they have 
neither attem.pted to remove the heap of rubbifh with 
wliich Anderfon has difgraced his Confiitutions of Free 
Mafonry^ (the bafis of mafonic hiftory,) nor to avail 
themfelves of informations which hiftory really affords 
to a fjber enquirer. Their Royal art mufl: never for- 
footh appear in ailate of infancy or childhood, like all 
other human acquirements ; and therefore, when they 
cannot give proofs of itsexiftencein a (late of manhood, 
pofielTed of all its m.yiferious treafures, they fuppofe 
Vv^hat they do not fee, and fay that they are concealed by 
the oath of fecrecy. Oi fuch inUruction 1 czn make 

no 



INTRODUCTION". ly 

noufe, even if I were difpofed to write ahiftory of the 
Fraternity. I (hall content myielfwith an account of 
fuch particulars as are admitted by all the maibnic 
parties, and which illufirate or confirm my general pro- 
pofition, making fuch ufeof the accounts of the higjier 
degrees in my polTeffion as I can without admitting the 
profane into their Lodges. Being under no tie offe- 
crecy with regard to thefe, I am with-held by difcretion 
alone from putting the public in pofTefTion of all their 
jmyfteries. 



PROOFS 



V 



PROOFS 

O F 

A CONSPIRACY, Sec. 



CHAP, L 

Schifms in Free Majonry. 



X HERE is undoubtedly a dignity in the art of build- 
ing, or in architedture, which no other art pofTefles, and 
this, whether we confider it in its rudeft (late, occu- 
pied in raifing a hut, or as pradifed in a cultivated 
nation, in the erection of a magnificent and ornament- 
ed temple. As the arts in general improve in any 
nation, this mufl always maintain its pre-eminence; 
for it employs them all, and no man can be eminent 
as an archited who docs not pofTefs a confiderable 
knowledge of almoft every fcience and art already cul- 
tivated in his nation. His great works are undertak- 
ings of the moft ferious concern, connect him with 
the public, or with the rulers of the ftate, and attach 
to him the pra6titioners of other arts, who are occu- 
pied in executing his orders : His works are the ob- 
je6ls of public attention, and are not the tranfient fpec- 
taclcs of the day, but hand down to pofterity his in- 
vention. 



•20 THE SCHISMS IN CHAP, t, 

vention, his knowledge, and his tafte. No wonder 
then that he thinks highly of his profefTion, and that 
the public fhould acquiefce in his pretenfions, even 
when in fome degree extravagant. 

It is not at all furprifing, therefore, that the incor- 
porated architedls in all cultivated nations ihould arro- 
gate to themfelves a pre-eminence over the fimilar af- 
fociations of other tradefmen. We find traces of this 
in the remotcft antiquity. The Dionyfiacs of Afia 
Minor were undoubtedly an aflbciation of archite6ts 
and engineers, who had the exclufive privilege of build- 
ing temples, Itadia, and theatres, under the myfterious 
tutelage of Bacchus, and diftinguiihed from the unin- 
itiated or profane inhabitants by the fcicnce which they 
pofTefled, and by many private figns and tokens, by 
which they recognifed each other. This aflbciation 
came into Ionia from Syria, into which country it had 
come from Perfia, along with that ftyle of architedlurc 
that we call Grecian. We are alfo certain that there 
was a fimilar trading aflbciation, during the dark ages, 
in Chriftian Europe, which monopolized the building 
of great churches and cafl:les, working under the patro- 
nage and prote<5tion of the Sovereigns and Princes of 
Europe, and poflefling many privileges. Circum- 
fliances, which it would be tedious to enumerate and 
difcufs, continued this aflbciation later in Britain than 
on the Continent. 

But it is quite uncertain when and why perfons who 
were not builders by profcflion firft fought admiflion 
into this Fraternity. The firfl: diftincl and unequivocal 
infl:ance that we have of this is the admiflion of Mr. 
Aflimole, the famous antiquary, in 1648, into a Lodge 
at Warrington, along with his father-in law Colonel 
Mainwaring. It is not improbable that the covert of 
fecrecy in thofc aflemblies had made them courted hj 
the Royalifls, as occaflons of meeting. Nay, the Ri- 
tual 



eHAl*. I, FRIE MASONRY. 21 

tual of the Mailer's degree feems to have been formed, 
or perhaps twifted from its original inftitution, fo as to 
give an opportunity of founding the political princi* 
ple^ of the candidate, and of the whole Brethren pre- 
fe4t. For it bears fo cafy an adaption to the death of 
^e King, to the overturning of the venerable confli- 
tution of the Englifh government of three orders by a 
mean democracy, and its re-eftablilhment by the ef- 
forts of the loyalifts, that this would flart into every 
perfon's mind during the ceremonial, and could hard- 
ly fail to fhow, by the countenances and behaviour of 
the Brethren, how they were affedled. I recommend 
this hint to the confideration of the Brethren. I have 
met with many particular fadls, which convince me 
that this ufe had been made of the meetings of Ma- 
fons, and that at this time the Jefuits interfered confi- 
derably, infinuating themfelves into the Lodges, and 
contributing to encreafe that religious myfticifm that is 
to be obfcrved in all the ceremonies of the order. 
This fociety is well known to have put on every ihape, 
and to have made ufe of every mean that could pro- 
mote the power and influence of the order. And we 
know that at this time they were by no means with- 
out hopes of re-eftablifliing the dominion of the 
Church of Rome in England. Their fervices were 
not fcrupled at by the diftreifed royalifts, even fuch 
as were Proteftants, while they were iiighly prized by 
the Sovereign. Wc alio know that Charles II. was 
made a Mafon, and frequented the Lodges. It is not 
'vinlikely, that belides the amufemicnt of a vacant hour, 
which was always agreeable to him, he had pleaftire in 
the meeting with his loyal friends, and in the occupa- 
tions of the Lodge, which recalled to his mind their 
attachment and fervices. His brother and fucceflbr 
James II. was of a more lerious and manly caft of 
mind, and had little pleafure in the frivolous ceremo- 
nies 



22 THE SCHISMS IN" CHAP. I, 

monies of Mjiionry. He did not frequent the Lodges. 
But, by this time, they were the refort of many perfons 
who were not of the profelTion, or members of the 
trading corporation. This circumftance, in all proba- 
bility, produced the denominations of Free and Ac* 
CEPTED. A perfcn who has the privilege of working 
at any incorporated trade, is faid to be a freeman of 
that trade. Others were accepted as Brethren, and ad- 
mitted to a kind of honorary freedom, as is the cafe in 
many other trades and incorporations, without having 
(as far as we can learn for certain) a legal title to earn 
a livelihood by the exercife of it. 

The Lodges being in this manner frequented by per- 
fons of various profeffions, and in various ranks of civil 
fociety, it cannot be fuppofed that the employment in 
thofe meetings related entirely to the oftenfible pro- 
feffion of Mafonry. We have no authentic informa- 
tion by which the public can form any opinion about it. 
k v;as not till fome years after this period that the 
Lodges made open profefiion of the cultivation of ge- 
neral benevolence, and that the grand aim of the Fra- 
ternity was to enforce the exercife of all the focial vir- 
tues. It is not unlikely that this was an after-thought. 
The political purpofes of the afTociation being once 
obtained, the converfation and occupations of the 
members mull take fome particular turn, in order to 
be generally acceptal)le. The ellablifliment of a fund 
for- the relief of unfortunate Brethren did not take place 
till the very end of lall century ; and we may prefume 
that it was brought about by the warm recommenda- 
tions of fome benevolent members, who would na* 
rurally enforce it by addrrfles to their afiembled Bre- 
thren. This is the probable origin of thofe philan- 
thropic difcourfes which were delivered in the Lodges 
by one of the Brethren as an official tafl^. Brotherly 
love was the general topic, and this, with great pro- 
priety, 



CHAP. I. FREE MA'SONRY. 23 

priery, when we confider the obje6l aimed at in thofe 
addrelTes. Nor was this objedt altogether a novelty. 
For while the manners of fociety were yet but rude. 
Brother Mafons, who were frequently led by their 
employment far from home and from their friends, 
flood in need of fuch helps, and might be greatly be- 
nefited by fuch an inftituiion, which gave them in- 
trodudtion and citizenfliip wherever they went, and a' 
right to fharc in the charitable contributions of Bre- 
thren w^ho were ftrangers to them. Other incorporat- 
ed trades had fimilar provifions for their poor. But 
their poor were townfmen and neighbours, v/ell known 
to them. There was more perfuafion necefiarv in this 
Fraternity, where the objects of our immediate bene- 
ficence were not of our acquaintance. But when the 
Lodges confifled of many who were not Mafons, and 
who had no particular claim to good ofhces from a 
ftranger, and their number might be great, it is evi- 
dent that ftronger perfuafions were now neceiTary, and 
that every topic of philanthropy muft now be emplo)- 
cd. When the funds became confiderable^ the etFccts 
naturally took the public eye, and recommended the 
Society to notice andrefpedl. And now the Brethren 
were induced to dwell on the fame topic, to join in 
the commendations beftowed on the Society, and to 
fay that univerfal beneficence v/as the great aim of the 
Order. And this is all that could be faid in public, 
without infringing the obligation to fecrecy. The in- 
quifitive are always prying and teazing, and this is the 
only point on which a Brother is at liberty to fpeak. 
He will therefore do it with affedionate zeal, till pei- 
haps he has heated his own fancy a little, and over- 
looks the inconfiftency of this univerfal beneficence 
and philanthropy with the exclufive and monopolizing 
fpirit of an AlTociation, which not only confines its 
benevolence to its own Members, (like any other cha- 
ritable 



^4 'iHE SCHISMS IN CHAP, 1. 

ritable afibciation,) but hoards up in its bofom inefti- 
niable fecrets, whofe natural tendency, they fay, is to 
form the heart to this generous and kind condudl, ancj 
infpirc us with love to all mankind. The profane 
world cannot fee the beneficence of concealing from 
public view a principle or a motive which fo power- 
fully induces a Mafon to be good and kind. The 
Brother fays that publicity would rob it of its force, 
and we mud take him at his vi^ord -, and our curiofity 
is fo much the more excited to learn what are the fc^ 
crets which have fo fingular a quality. 

Thus did the Fraternity condu(5l themfelves, and thus 
were they confidercd by the public, when it was carried 
over from England to the continent ; and here it is to 
be particularly remarked that all our Brethren abroad 
profefs to have received the Myftery of Free Mafonry 
from Britain. This is furely a puzzle in the hiftoryj 
and we mufl: leave it to others to reconcile this with the 
repeated affertions in Anderfon's book of Conftituti- 
ons, " That the Fraternity exifled all over the World," 
and the numberlcfs examples which he adduces of its 
exertions in other countries ; nay, with his repeated 
ailertions, '^ that it frequently was near periiliing in 
*' Britain, and that our Princes were obliged to fend 
^' to France and other countries, for leading men, to 
'^ reftorc it to its former energy among us." We 
fhall find by and by that it is not a point of mere hifto- 
rical curiofity, but that much hinges on it. 

In the mean time, let us juft remember, that the 
plain tale of Brotherly love had been polilhed up to 
protetlatlons of univerfal benevolence, and had taken 
place of loyalty and attachment to the unfortunate Fa- 
mily of Stuart, which was now totally forgotten in the 
Englifh Lodges. The Revolution had taken place, 
and King James, with many of his moft zealous adhe- 
rents, had taken refuge in France. 

But 



CHAP. I, FREE MASONRY. 2^ 

But they took Free Mafonry with them to the con- 
tinent, where it was immediately received by the 
French, and v/as cultivated with great zeal in a man- 
ner iuited to the tafte and habits oTth.at highly poiillied 
people. The Lodges in France naturally became the 
rendezvous of the adherents to the exiled Kinir, and 
the means of carrying on a correfpondence v.'ith their 
friends in England. At this time alfo zhe Jefuits took. 
a more a6live hand in Free Mafonry than ever. They 
infmuated themfelves into the Encrlifh Lod£;es, where 
they were careffed by the CathoHcs, who panted after 
the re-eflablifnment of their faith, and tolerated by 
the Proteilant royalifts, v/ho thought no concefTion too 
great a compenfation for their fervices. At this time 
changes were made in fome of the Mafonic fymbols, 
particularly in the tracing of the Lodge, which bear 
evident marks of Jefuitical interference. 

It was in the Lodo-e held at St. Germain's that the 
degree of Chevalier Mapn Ecoffcis was added to the 
three SYMBOLICAL degrees of Engliih Mafonry. The 
conftitution, as imported, appeared too coarfe for the 
refined tafle of our neighbowrs, and they mull make 
Mafonry miore like the occupation of a gentleman. 
Therefore, the Englifn degrees of Apprentice, Fellow- 
craft, and Mafler, were called ^7;2^c?//c^/, and the whole 
contrivance was confidered either as typical of fome- 
thing more elegant, or as a preparation for it. The 
degrees afterwards fuperadded to this leave us in doubt 
which of thcfe views the French entertained of our 
Mafonrv. But at all events, this rank of Scotch Knio-ht 
was called i\\t: frjl degree of the Macon Parfait. There 
is a device belon2;ine to this Lodixc which deferves no- 
tice. A lion, Vvounded by an arrow, and clcaped 
from the flake to which he had been bound, with the 
broken rope ftill about his neck, is reprefented lying 
at the mouth of a cave, and occuoied vvidi marhenia- 

I) ticai 



26 THE SCHISMS IN CHAP. I 

tlcal inflrumcnts which are lying near him. A broken 
crown lies at the foot of the (lake. There can be lit- 
tle doubt but that this emblem alludes to the dethrone- 
ment, the captivity, the efcape, and the afylum of 
James 11. and his hopes of re-eltablillimcntby the help 
of the loyal Brethren. This emblem is worn as the 
gorget of the Scotch Knight. It is not very certain, 
however, when this degree was added, Vv'hether im- 
mediately after king James's Abdication, or about the 
time of tne attempt to fet his fon on the Briciih Throne. 
But it is certain, that in 17:6, this and ftill higher de- 
grees of Mafonry were much in vogue in the Court of 
France. The refining genius of the French, and their 
love of {how, made the humble denominations of the 
Engiifh Brethren difgufting; and their pafTion for mi- 
litary rank, the only character that conne6i:ed them 
with the court of an abfolute monarch, m.ade them 
adapt Free Mafonry to the fame fcale of public eftima- 
tion, and invent ranks o{ Melons Chevaliers ^ ornam;ent- 
cd with titles, and ribands, and ftars. Thefe were 
highly relifned by that vain people ; and the price of 
reception, which was very high, became a rich fund, 
that was generally applied to relieve the wants of the 
baniilied Britifh and Irifh adherents of the unfortunate 
Family who had taken refuge among them. Three 
new degrees, of Novice, ElevCy and Chevalier, were 
foon added, and the Parfait iVk.gon had now feven re- 
ceptions to go through, for each of which a handfome 
contribution Vv'as made. Afterv/ards, when the firft 
beneficent purpofe of this contribution ceafed to exift, 
the finery that nov; glittered in all the Lodges made a 
Itill more craving demand for reception-money, and 
ii^ePAiitv v/as fet to work to invent new baits fur the 
Parfait Mcgyn. More degrees of chivalry were added, 
interfperfed with degrees q^ Phikjcphe, PeUeriny Clair- 
voyant^ &:c. &c. till fonic Parifian Lodges had forry- 

iive 



ei-IAf*. I. FREE MASONRY. 27 

five ranks of Mafonry, having fifteen orders of chi- 
valry. For a Knighthood, mzh a Riband and a Star, 
was a hnne hcuche, given at every third flep. For a 
long while thefe degrees of chivalry proceeded on fome 
faint analogies with feveral orders of chivalry which 
had been erected in Europe. All of thefe had fome 
reference to foaie myiiical dodlrines of the Chriftian 
church, and were, in fadt, contrivances of the Church 
of Rome for fecuring and extending her influence on 
the laymen of rank and fortune, whom fhe retained in 
her fervice by thefe play-things. The Knights Tem- 
plars of Jerufalem, and the Knights of the Deferr, 
whofe ofHce it v/as to piotedi: pilgrims, and to defend 
the holy city, aftorded very apt models for Mafonic 
inimicry, becaufe the Temple of Solomon, and the 
Holy Sepulchre, always fhared the fame fate. Many 
contefted dcdrines of the theologians had alfo their 
Chevaliers to defend them. 

In all this progrefuve mummery we fee much of the 
hand of the jefuits, and it would fcem that it was en- 
couraged by the church. But a thing happened which 
might eafily have been forefcen. The Lodges had 
become familiar with this kind of invention ; the pro- 
fefTed obje6t of many real Orders of Knighthood was 
often very whimfical, or very refined and far-fetched, 
and it required all the finelTe of the clergy to give to 
it fome flight connedlion with religion or morality. 
The Mafons, protefted by their fecrecy, ventured to 
go farther. The declamations in the lodges by the 
Brother orator, miift naturally refemible the compofi- 
tions of the ancient fophifts, and confilT: of wire -drawn 
dillertations on the focral duties, where every thing is 
amjplificd and flrained to hyperbole, in their far-fetched 
and fanciful explanations ofthefymbols of Mafonry. Thuii 
accuftomiCd to allegory, to fidion, to finefle, and to a fort 
of innocent hypocrify by v/hich tbty cajoled themfclves 

int« 



28 THE SCHISMS IX CHAP. I. 

into a notion that this child's-play had at bottom a 
ferious and important meaning, the zealous champions 
of Free Mafonry found no inclination to check this 
inventive fpirit or circumfcribe its flights. Under the 
prote(5cion of Mafonic fccrecy, they planned fchemes 
of a different kind, and inftead of more Orders of 
Chivah-y direfted againft the enemies of their faith, 
they formed aiTociations in oppofition to the ridiculous 
and opprefiive ceremonies and fuperftitions of the 
church. There can be no doubt, that in thofe hidden 
afiemblies, a free communication of fentiment was 
highly relifhed and much indulsred. It was foon fuf- 
pedied that fuch ufe was made of the covert of a Mafon 
Lodge ; and the church dreaded the confequenccs, 
and endeavoured to fupprefs the Lodges. But in vain. 
And when it was found, that even auricular confellion, 
and the fpiritual threatenings of the church, could not 
make the Brethren break their oath of fecrecy ; a full 
contidence in their fccurity made thefe free-thinking 
Brethren bring forward, v.'ith all the eagernefs of a 
miffionary, fuch fentiments as they were afraid to ha- 
zard in ordinary fociety. This was long fufpedled ; 
but the rigours of the church only ferved to knit the 
Brethren more firmly together, and provoked them to 
a more eager exercile of their bold criticifms. The 
Lodges became fchools of fcepticifm and infidelity, 
and the fpirit of converfion or profclytifm grev/ every 
day flronger. Cardinal Dubois had before 'this time 
laboured with all his might to corrupt the minds of 
the courtiers, by patronifing, direftiy and indiredlly, 
all fcepcics who were otherwife men of talents. He 
gave tlie young courtiers to underftand, that if he 
fnould obtain the reins of government, they Ihould be 
entirelv freed from the bis-otry of Louis XIV. and the 
oppreilion of the church, and fhould have the free m- 
dujgence of their inclinations. His own plans were 

difap- 



CHAP. I. FREE MASONRY. fi^ 

dlfappointed by his deaths but the Regent Orleans 
wjas equally indulgent, and in a few years there 
was hardly a man in France who pretended know- 
ledge and reflc(5lion, who did not laugh at all reli- 
gion. Amidft the almofl: infinite number of publi- 
cations from the French prefTes, there is hardly a do- 
zen to be found where the author attempts to vindicate 
religion from the charges of univerfal fuperftition and 
faifehood. And it muft be acknowledged that little 
tlfc was to be feen in the ellabliflied religion of the 
kingdom. The people found nothing in Chrillianity 
bvt a nevcr-ceafing round of infignificant and trouble- 
fome ceremonies, which confumed their time, and 
fiirnilhed a fund for fupporting a fet of lordly and op- 
prelTive dignitaries, who declaired in the plained man- 
n-rr their own dilbelief of their religion, by their total 
difregard of common decency, by their continual reii- 
dence at court, and by abfolute neglecft, and even the 
mod haughty and opprefTive treatment of the only part 
of their order that took anv concern about the reiiiiious 
lentiments of the nation, namely the Cures or parifh- 
priefts. The monks appeared only as lazy drones ; but 
the parifli-priefbs inflrufted the people, vifited the fick, 
reconciled the ofFefider and the offended, and were the 
great mediators between the landlords and their vaf- 
fais, an office which endeared them m.ore to the peo- 
ple than all the other circumftances of their profefllon. 
And it is remarkable, that in all the licentious writings 
and biti'er fatirical tales of the philofophic freethink- 
ers, fuch as Voltaire, who never fails to have a taunting 
hit at the clergy, the Cure is generally an amiable perfon- 
age, a charitable man, a friend to the poor andunfor- 
tunate, a peace-maker, and a man of piety and worth. 
Yet thele men were kept in a ilate of the mod flavifn 
•and cruel fubjection by the higher orders of the cler- 
gy, and all hopes of advancement cut off. Rarely, 

hardly 



30 THE SCHISMS IN CHAP. I. 

hardly ever, does it happen, that a Cure becomes a 
Bifhop. The Abbes Itep into every ]Inc of prefer- 
ment. When fuch procedure is obferved by a v/hcle 
nation, what opinion can be formed but- that the whole 
is a vile cheat ? This however was the cafe in France, 
and therefore infidelity was almolt univerfal. Nor 
was this overtrained freedom or iicentioufnefs confia- 
ed to religious opinions. It was perhaps more natu- 
rally direded to the refiraints arifing from civil fub- 
ordination. The familiar name of Brother could not 
but tickle the fancy of thofe of inferior rank, when 
they found themfeives fide by fide with perfons whom 
they cannot approach out of doors but with cautious 
refpe6l; and while thefe men of rank have their pride 
lulled a little, and perhaps their hearts a little foftened 
by the hackneyed cant of fentimental declamation on 
the topic of Brotherly love and Utopian felicity, the 
others begin to fancy the happy days arrived, and the 
light of philanthropy beaming from the eafl and illu- 
minating the Lodge. The Garret Pamphleteer enjoys 
his fancied authoriry as Senior Warden, and conducts 
with affedlionate folemmity the young nobleman, who 
pants for the honour of Mailerfhip, and he praifes the 
trufty Brother who has guarded him in his perilous 
journies round the room. What topic of declamation 
can be more agreeable than the equality of the worthy 
Brethren ? and how naturally will the Brother Orator 
in fupport of this favourite topic, Aide into all the 
common-place pi6tures of human fociety, freed from 
ail the anxieties attending civil diftintlion, and pnfiing 
their days in happy fimplicity and equality. From 
this (late of the fancy, it is hardly a ftep to defcant on 
the propriety, the expediency, and at laft, the juftice 
of fuch an arrangement of civil fociety \ and in doing 
this, one cannot avoid taking notice of the great ob- 
flruclions to human felicity which we fee in every 

quarter. 



CE'AP. I. TREE MASONRY. ^I 

quarter, proceeding from the abufes of thofe diftinc- 
tions of rank and fortune which have arifen in the 
world : and as the mifchiefs and horrors of fuperfli- 
tion are topics of continual declamation to thofe who 
wifh to throw off the redraints of religion ; fo the op- 
prcflion of the rulers of this world, and the fufferings 
of talents and worth in inferior [tations, will be no lefs 
greedily liftened to by all whofe notions of morality 
are not very pure, and who would be glad to have the 
enjoyments of the wealthy without the trouble of la- 
bouring for them. Free Mafonry may be affirmed to 
have a natural tendency to fofter fuch levelling wifhes; 
and wc cannot doubt but that o:reat liberties are takcQ 
with thvofe fubje6ls in the Lodges, efpeciaily in coun- 
tries where the dillin6tions of rank and fortune are 
ftrongly exprcfied and noticed. 

But iris not a matter of m.ere probability that the 
Mafon Lodv^^-es were the feminaries of thefe libertine 
infcruclions. We have diltind; proof of it, even in 
fome of the French degrees. In the degree called the 
Chevalier aeSclcil, the v/hoie inftruclion is aimed againil: 
the ellablilhcd religion of the kingdom. The profeiled 
object is the emancipation from error and the difcovery 
of truth. The infcription in the eail is Sagcjfe^ that in 
the north is Ltherte^ that in the fouth is Fermete, and in 
the weft it ii. Caution; terms which are very fignificant. 
The Tres Venerable is Adam; the Senior Warden is 
Truth, and all the Brethren are Chikiren of Truth. 
The proccfj of reception is very well contrived : the 
whole ritual is decent and circumifpe61:, and nothing 
occurs which can alarm the moP: timiid. Brother 
Truth is afivcd. What is the hour ? He informs Fa- 
ther Adam, that among men it is the hour of dark- 
nefs, but th.at; it is mid-day in the Lodge. The can- 
didate is allied. Why he has knocked at the door, and 
v/h^t is become of his eight companions fhe is one of 

the 



32 . THE SCHISMS I >: CHAP. t. 

the Elus)? He fays, that the world is In darknefs, 
and his companions and he have loft each other ; th!at 
Hejperus^ the ftar of Europe, is obfcured by clouds^ of 
incenfe, offered up by fuperftition to defpots. Who 
have made themfelves f?;ods, and have rctu'ed into /the 
inmoft receffes of their palaces, that they may not be 
recognifed to be men, while their prielts are deceiving 
the people, and caufmg them to worlliip thefe divi- 
nities. This and many fimilar fentim.ents are evident 
allufions to the pernicious dodrine of the book called 
Origine du Defpotifme Oriental, where the religion of all 
countries is conlidered as a mere engine of ftate^ 
where it is declared that reafon is the only light which 
nature has given to man : that our anxiety about futu- 
rity has made us imagine endlefs torments in z. future 
world ; and that princes, taking advantage of our 
weaknefs, have taken the management of oiir hopes 
and fears, and direded them fo as to fuit their own 
purpofes i and emancipation from the fear of death is 
declared to be the greateft of all deliverances. Quef- 
tions are put to the candidate, tending to difc/over whe- 
ther and how far he may be trulled, and what facrilices 
he is willing to m.ake in fearch after truth. 

This fhape givea to the plaftic m.yfteries of Mafonry 
was much reliflied, and in a very fhort time this new 
path was completely explored, and a new fcries of de- 
crees was added to the lift, viz. the Nov^ice, and the 
Elil de la Verite, and the Suliime Fhtlcjophe. In the 
progrefs through thefe degrees, the Brethren muft for- 
get that they have formerly been Chevaliers de rOrient, 
Chevaliers de VAigle^ when the fymbols were all ex- 
plained as typical of the life and immortality brought 
to light by the gofpel. Indeed they are taught to clafs 
this among the other clouds which havepcen difpelled 
by the fun of reafon. Even in the Chezplerie de VAigle 
there is a twofold explanation given of die fymbols, by 

' which 



CHAP. r. FREE MASONRY. Jj 

which a lively imagination may conceive the whole 
hiltory and peculiar doftrincs of the New Teilamenr, 
as being typical of the final triumph of reafon and phi- 
lofophy over error. And perhaps this degree is the 
very firft ilep in the plan of Illumination. 

We are not to fuppofe that this v/as carried to ex- 
tremity at once. But it is certain, that before 1743, 
it had become univtrfal, and thac the Lodges of Free 
Mafons had become the places for m.aking profclyces 
to every flranse and obnoxious doclrine. Theurgy. 
Cofincgcny, Cabala^ and many whimificai and myftical 
doctrines which have been grafted on the difliinguifli- 
ing tenets and tlie pure morality of the Jews and Chrif- 
tians, were fubjedis of frequent difcuffion in the Lodges. 
The celebrated Chevalier Ram^fay had a great fliare in 
all this bufincfs. Affectionately attached to the family 
of Suuartj and to his native country, he had co-ope- 
rated heartily with thofe v/ho endeavoured to employ 
Mafonry in the fervice of the Pretender, and, availing 
himfcif of the pre-eminence given (at liril perhaps as 
a courtly com*piiment) to Scotch Mafonry, he laboured 
to iliew that it exided, and indeed arofe, during the 
Crufades, and that there really v/as either an order of 
chivalry whofe bufinefs it was to rebuild the Chriftian 
churclics dcilroyed by the Saracens, or that a frater- 
nity of Scotch Mafons v^^ere thus employed in the eaR, 
under the ])rote£tlon of the Knights of St. John of Je- 
rufalen^. He found fome fads v.'hich were thought 
fufBcient grounds for fuch an opinion, fuch as the 
biiilding of the college of thefe Knights in London, 
called the Temple, v/nich v^as aflually done by the 
public Fraternity of Mafons who had been in the holy 
wars. It is chiefly to him that we are indebted for 
that rage of Mafonic chivalry v/hich difLine^uifhes the 
French Free Mafonry. Rainfiy v;as as eiriincnt for 
his piety as he v/ac for his entliufiafm, but his cpinion.s 

E were 



J4 THE SCHISMS IN CHAP.i^ 

were fingular. His eminent learning, his elegant ta- 
lents, his amiable charader, and particularly his efti- 
mation at court, gave great influence to every thing 
he faid on a lubje6t: which was merely a matter of 
fafnion and amufement. Whoever has attended much 
to human affairs, knows the eagernefs with which men 
propagate all fingular opinions, and the delight which 
attends their favourable reception. None are more 
zealous than the apoftles of infidelity and atheifm. It 
is in hum.an nature to catch with greedinefs any op- 
portunity of doing v/hat lies under general reftraint. 
And if our apprehcnfions are not completely quieted, 
in a cafe v/here our wifnes lead us ftrongly to fome fa> 
vourite but hazardous obie6t, we are confcious of a 
kind of felf bullying. This naturally gets into our 
difcourfe, and in our eagernefs to get the encourage- 
ment of joint adventurers, v/e enforce our tenets wiih 
an energy, and even a violence, that is very inconfif- 
tent with the fubjedt in hand. If I am an Atheiil, and 
my neighbour a Theift, there is furely nothing thac 
ihould make me violent in m.v endeavours to rid him 
of his error. Yet how violent were the people of this 
party in Fiance. 

Thefc facts and obfervations fully account for the 
zeal with which all this patch-work addition to the 
fimple Free Mafonry of England was profecuted in 
France. It furprifes us Britons, who are accuilomed 
to confider the whole as a matter of amufement for 
young men, who are glad ef any pretext for indulging 
in conviviality. We generally confider a man ad- 
vanced in life with hfs refpecl, if he fliows any ferious 
attachment to fuch things. But in France, the civil 
and religious reftraints in converfation made thefe fe- 
cret aiTemblies very precious ; and they were much 
frequented by men of letters, v/ho there found an op- 
portunity of exprefTing in fakty their diffatisfadlion 

with 



CAAP. I. FREE MASONRY 






with chofe reflraints, and with that inferiority of rank 
and condition to which they v/cre fubje6tedj and which 
appeared to themfelves fo inadequate to their own ta- 
lents and merits. The Avcccts au Parlement^ the un- 
benehced Abbes, the vounj^" men of no fortune, and 
the Joidijant philofophers, formed a numerous band^ 
frequented the Lodges, and there difcufTcd every topic 
of religion and policies. Specimens of this occupation 
appeared from tim.e to time in Colledlions of Difcourfes 
delivered by the Fr ere Or at ear. I once had in my pof- 
felTion two volumes of thefe difcourfes, v/hich I now 
regret that I left in a Lodge on the continent, when 
my reliih for Free Mafonry had forfaken me. One 
of thefe is a difcourfe by Brother Robinet, delivered 
in the 'hcge des Chevaliers Bienfalfants de la Saint e Cite at 
Lyons, at a vifitation by the Grand Mailer the Due de 
Chartres, afterwards Orleans and Egalite. In this difc- 
courfe we have the germ and fubftance of his noted 
work. La Nature, ou I' Homme VAoral et -phyfique* In 
another difcourfe, delivered by Brother Condorcec in 
the Loge des Philakthes at Straibourg, we have the 
outlines of his poft humous work, Le Pr ogres de FEfprit 
humain ; and in another, delivered by Mirabeau in the 
Loge des Chevaliers Bienfaijants at Paris, we have a great 
deal of the levelling principles, and cofmopolitifm,-j- 
which he thundered from the tribunes of the National 
Afiembly. But the moll remarkable performances of 
this kind are, the Archives Myftico-Hermetiques^ and i\\q 
Des Erreurs^ et de la Verite. The firfl: is con fide red as 
an account, hiflorical and dogmiaticai, of the proce- 
dure and fyflem of the Loge des Chevaliers Bienfaijants 

ac 

* And I may add the Syfleme de la Nature of Diderot, who cor- 
redled the crude whims of Robinet by the more refined rnechanifm 
of Hartley. 

f Citizendiip of the World, from the Greek words Cofmos, world, 
and Poll St a ciiy. 



36 THE SCHISMS IN CHAP. T. 

at Lyons. This was the mofl: zealous and fyftcmatical 
of all the cofmopolitical Lodges in France. It worked 
long under the patronage of its Grand iVLfter the Due 
des Chartres^ afterwards Orleans^ and at laft Fh. Ega- 
lite. It fent out many affiiiared Lodo-es, which v/ere 
eredledin various pares of the French dominions. The 
daughter Lodges at Paris, Srrafbourg, Lille, Thou- 
loufe, took the additional title of Philaletbes. There 
arofe fome fchifms, as may be expedled, in an Affo- 
ciation where every man is encouraged to broach and 
to propagate any the moil fingular opinion. Thefe 
fchifms were continued with fome heat, but v/ere in a 
great meafure repaired in Lodges which took the name 
of ylmis reunis de la Veritk One of this denomination 
at Paris became very eminent. The mother Lodge 
at Lyons extended its correfpondence into Germany, 
and other foreign countries, and fent conftiturions or 
fyftems, by which the Lodges conducled their opera- 
tions. 

I have not been able to trace the fbeps by which this 
Lodge acquired fuch an afcendancy ; but I fee, that in 
1769 and 1770, all the refined or philofophicai Lodges 
in Alface and Lorraine united, and in a convention at 
Lyons, formally put themftlves under the patronage 
of this Lodge, cultivated a continual correfpondence, 
and confidcrcd themfeives as profeffino; one Ivlafonic 
Faith, fufficiently diftingu'.fhable from that of other 
Lodges. What this v/as v/e do not very diftincily 
know. We can only infer it from fome hiftorical cir- 
cumflances. One of its flivourite daucyhters, the Lod^e 
Theodor vcn dcr guten Ratby at Munich, became fo re- 
markable for difcourfes dano-erous to church and fhate, 
that the Ele6bor of Bavaria, after repeared admonitions 
during a courfe of five or fix years, v/as obliged to iup- 
pi^efs it in 1786. Another of its fufFrrgan Lodges at 
Regeniburgh became exceedingly obnoxious to the 

llaccj 



CHAP. I. FREE MASONRY. ^1 

dare, and occafioned feveral commotions and infurrec- 
tions. Another, at Paris, gradually refined into the 
Jacobin club — And in the year 1791, the Lodges in 
Alface and Lorraine, with thofe of Spire and Worms, 
invited Cuftine into Germany, and delivered Mentz 
into his hands. 

When we refle6l on thefe hiilorlcal fa^ls, we get 
fome key to the better underftanding of the two perfor- 
mances which Imentiunedas defcriptive of the opinions 
and occupations of this Sed; of Free-Mafons. The 
Archives Myfrico-Hermetiques exhibit a vei-y (Irange mix- 
ture of Myfticifm, Theofophy, Cabaliftic whim, real 
Science, Fanaticifm, and Freethinking, both in reli- 
gion and politics. They mud not be confidered as an 
account of any fettled fyftem, but rather as annals of 
the proceedings of the Lodge, and abftra6ls of the 
llrange doctrines whichmade their fucefiive appearance 
in it. But if an intelligent and cautious reader examine 
them, attentively, he will fee, that the book is the 
work of one hand, and that all the wonders and oddi- 
ties are caricatured, 'lo as to engrofs the general atten- 
tion, while they aifo are twiftcd a little, fo that in one 
way or another they accord with a general fpirit of li- 
centioufnefs in morals, religion, and politics. Although 
every thing is exprelTed decently, and with fome cau- 
tion and moderation, atheifm, materialifm, and difcon- 
tent vv^ith civil fubordination, pervade the whole. It 
is a work of great art. By keeping the ridicule and 
the danger of fuperftition and ignorance continually in 
view, the mind is captivated by the relief which free 
enquiry and communication of fentiment feems to fe- 
cure, and we are put off our guard againft the rifle of 
delufion, to which we are expofed when our judgment 
is warped by our pafTions. 

The other book, '' Des Erreurs et de la Verire," 
came tl-om the lame fchool, and is a fort of holy fcrip- 

ture, 



3$ THE SCHISMS IN GHAP. I. 

tnre, or at lead a Talmud among the Free Mafons of 
France. It is intended only for the initiated^ and is 
indeed a myftery to any other reader. But as the ob- 
ject of it was to fpread the favourite opinions of fome 
enthufiaftic Brethren, every thing is laid that does not 
diredtly betray the fccretsofthe Order. It contains a 
fyftefn of Theofophy that has often appeared in the 
writings of philofophers, both in ancienc and modern 
times. *' All the intelligence and moral fentiment 
*' that appears in the univerfe, either dire6lly, as in 
''^ the minds of men, or indiredly, as an inference 
^^ from the marks of defisn that we fee around us, fome 
" of which Ihow us that men have adted, and many 
" more that fome other intelligence has a61:ed, are con- 
*' fidered as parts or portions of a general mafs of in- 
*' teliigence which exifts in the univerfe, in the fame 
*' manner as matter exifts in it. This intelligence has 
*^ an infcrutable connexion with the material part of 
<f the univerfe, perhaps refembling the connexion, 
<« equally unfearchable, that fubfifis between the mind 
^^ and body of man 3 and it may be confidered as the 
<f Soul of the World. It is this fubilance, the natural 
<f obje6t of wonder and refpe^l, that men have called 
<f God, and have made the obje6t of religious wor- 
<' fhip. In doing fo they have fallen into grofs mif- 
<^ takes, and have created for themfelves num.berlefs 
<' unfounded hopes and fears, which have been the 
" fource of fuperftition and fanaticifm, the moft 6.t{' 
'^ trudtive plagues that have ever afflidled the human 
*"■ race. The Soul of Man is feparated from the ge- 
**^ neral mafs of intelligence by fome of the operations 
** of nature, which we fnall never underftand, juft as 
^^ water is raifed from the ground by evaporation, or 
" taken up by the root of a plant. And as the water, 
** after an unfearchable train of changes, in which it 
** Ibmetimes makes part of a flower, fomctimes part 

'' of 



CHAP. I. FREE MASONHy. J^ 

*' of an animal^ &c. is at lafl reunited, in its original 
" form, to the great mafs of waters, ready to run over 
'' the fame circle again ; fo the Soul of Man, after 
" performing its office, and exhibiting all that train 
" of intelleftual phenomena that we call human life, 
*^ is at laft fwallowed up in the great ocean of intelli- 
^' gence." The author then may fmg 

•* Felix qui potuit rerum cognofcere caufas, 

" Ataue metus omnes et inexorabile fatum 

** Subjecit pedibus, ftrepitumque Acheronds avari." 

For he has now got to his afylum. This deity of his 
may be the obje6t of wonder, like every thing great 
and incomprehenfible, but not of woriLip, as the mo- 
ral Governor of the univerfe. The hopes are at end, 
which reft on our notions of the immortality and in- 
dividualitv of the human foul, and on the encourage- 
ment which religion holds forth to believe, that im- 
provement of the mind in the courfe of this life, by 
the exercife of wifdom and of virtuous difpofiticns, is 
but the beginning of an endlefs progrefs in all that can 
give delight to the rational and v\;eil-difpo fed mind. 
No relation now fubfifts between man and Deity that 
can Vi^irm the heart. But, as this is contrary to fome 
natural propenlity in the human mind, which in all 
ages and nations has panted after fome connedtion with 
Deitv, the author ftrives to avail hlmfclf of fome cold 
principles of fymmetry in the works of nature, fome 
ill-fupported notions of propriety, and other fuch con- 
fiderations, to make this anma mundi an obje6l of love 
and refpe6l. This is done in greater detail in another 
work, Tableau^ des rapports entre VRcnime^ Dieu, et 
VUnherSf which is undoubtedly by the fame hand. 
But the intelligent reader will readily fee, that fuch 
incongruous things cannot be reconciled, and that we 
can expect nothing here but fophiftry. The author 

proceeds. 



40 THE SCHISMS IN CHAP. I, 

proceeds, in the next place^ to confider man as relat- 
ed to man^ and to trace out the path to happinels in 
this life. Here we have the fame overftrained mora- 
lity as in the other work, the fame univerfai Benevo- 
lence, the fame lamentations over the miferable finite 
of mankind, refuking from the opprefiion of the pow- 
erful, the great ones of the earth, who have combined 
againil the happinefs of mankind, and have iucceeded, 
by debafing their minds, fo that they have become 
wiilinor Haves. This could not have been brou2"ht 
about v/ithouc the affiftance of fuperftition. But the 
princes of tliis world eniiiled into their fervice the 
priefts, who exerted them.felves in darkening the un- 
derflandings of men, and tilled their minds with reli- 
gious terrors. The altar became the chief pillar of 
the throne, and m.en were held in complete fubjeclion. 
Nothing can recover them from this abje6l ftate but 
knowledge. While this difpels their fears, it will alio 
ihow them their rights, and the way to attain them. 

It deferves particularly to be remarked, that this 
fyftem of opinions (if fuch an inconfiftent mafs of af- 
fcrtions can be called a fyftem) bears a great refem- 
biance to a performance of Toland's, publiil:ed in 
1720, called Panibeijliccni fell Celelratio Scdalitii Sccra- 
tid. It is an account of the principles of a Fraternity 
which he calls Socratica, and the Brothers Fantheiftaf. 
They are fuppofed to hold a Lodge, and the author 
gives a ritual of the procedure in this Lodge -, the ce- 
rem.onics of opening and fjiutting of the Lodge, the 
admiifiion of Members into its different degrees, &c. 
Realbn is the Sun that illuminates the v^hole, and Li- 
berty and Equality are the objects ol their occupa- 
tions. 

We fhall fee afterwards that this book v/as fondly 
pufhed into Grrmany, tranflated, commAcnted upon, 
and fo mifrepreicnted, as to call oif the atttntion from 

the 



CHAP. I. f^REE MASONRt. 4I 

the real fpiric of the book, which is Intentionally wrap- 
ped up in cabala and enigma. Mirabeau was at much 
pains to procure it notice ; and it mud therefore be 
confidered as a treafui-e of the cofmo-political opini- 
ons of the AlTociation of Chevaliers Bienfaijants^ Phila- 
lethes^ and Amis Reunisy who were called the improved 
Lodges, working under the D. de Chartres — of thefe 
there were 266 in 1784. This will be found a very 
important remark. Let it alfo be recollcded after- 
wards, that this Lodge of Lyons fenc a deputy to a 
grand Convention in Germany in 1772, viz. Mr. Wil- 
lermooz, and that the bunnefs was thought of fuch 
importance, that he remained there two years. 

The book Des Erreiirs et de la Verite^ niuft therefore 
be confidered as a claflical book of thefe opinions. We 
know that it originated in the Lege des Chcv, Bienfai- 
Ja7its at Lyons. We know that this Lodge ftood as it 
were at the head of French Free Mafonry, and that 
the fictitious Order of Mafonic Knights Templars was 
formed in this Lodge, and was confidered as the mo- 
del of all the red of this mimic chivalry. They pro- 
ceeded fo-far in this mummery, as even to have the 
clerical tonfure. The Duke of Orleans, his fon, the 
Ele6lor of Bavaria, and fome other German Princes^ 
did not fcruple at this mummiery in their own perfons. 
In all the Lodges of reception, the Brother Orator 
never failed to exclaim on the topics of funerftition, 
blind to the exhibition he was then making", or indif- 
ferent as to the vile hypocrify of it. We have, in the 
lifts of Orators and Office-bearers, many n'>imes of 
perfons, who have had an opportunity at iaft of pro- 
claiming their fentiments in public. The Abbe Sieyes 
was of the Lodo;e of Philalcthes at Paris, and alfo at 
Lyons. Lequinio, author of the moft profligate book 
that ever dil'graced a prefs, the Prejiiges vaincus par la 
Rai/hi, was Warden in the Lodffe CcmPrJJe Sociale, 

F Defprcmenil^ 



42 THE SCHISMS IN CHAP. I, 

Dcfpremenil, Baiily, Fauchcr, Maury, Mounier, were 
of the fame lyftem, though in cii(^ercnt Lodges. They 
were called Martinifts, from a St. Martin, who form- 
ed a fchifm in the fyftem of the Chevaliers Bienfaijants, 
of which we have not any very precile account. Mer- 
cier gives fome account of it in his Tableau de PariSy 
and in his Anne 2440. The breach alarmed the Bre- 
thren, and occafioned great heats. But it was heal- 
ed, and the Fraternity took the name of Mija du Re- 
7ns, which is an anagram oi' d:s Amis Reimis. The_Bi- 
fhop of Aiitun, the man fo bepraifed as the benevolent 
Citizen of the World, the friend of mankind and of 
o^ood order, was Senior Warden of another Lodo-e at 
Paris, efiablifiied in 1786, (I think chieiiy by Orleans 
and himfclf,) which afterv/ards became the Jacobin 
Club. In fhort, we may aflert with confidence, that 
the Mafon Lodges in France were the hot-beds, where 
the feeds were fown, and tenderly reared, of all the 
pernicious dodrines which foon after choaked every 
moral or religious cultivation, and have made the So- 
ciety worie than a waile, have made it a noifome 
marfn of human corruption, filled with every rank 
and poilbnous weed. 

Thefe Lodges were frequented by perfons of all 
ranks, and of every profefTion. The idle and the fri- 
volous found amufement, and glittering things to tickle 
their fatiated fancies. There they becamic the dupes 
of the declamations of the crafty and licentious Abbes, 
and writers of every denomination. Mutual encou- 
raoement in the induioence of hazardous thoughts and 
opinions which flatter our wifl-ies or propenfities is a 
lure which few minds can refill. 1 believe that moft 
men have felt this in fome period of their lives. I 
can find no other way of accounting for the company j 
that I havelbmetimes feen in a Mafon Lodge. The ' 
Lodge de la Farfaite Intelligcme at Liege, contained, in 

Decem.ber 



CHAP. I. FREE MASONRY. 43 

December 1770, the Prince Bifnop, and the greateft 
part of his Chapter, and all the Ofiice- bearers were 
dignitaries of the church j yet a dircourfe given by the 
Brother Orator was as poignant a fatire on fuperftition 
and credulity, as if it had been written by Voltaire. 
It was under the aufpices of this Lodge that the collec- 
tion of difcourfes, which I mentioned above, v/as pub- 
lifhed, and there is no fault found with Brother Robi- 
ner, nor Brother Condorcet. Indeed the Trefonciers 
of Liege were proverbial, even in Brabant, for their 
Epicurifm in the moft extenfive fenfe of the word. 

Thus was corruption fpread over the kingdom un- 
der the rnafk of moral in(tru6tion. For thefe difcourfes 
were full of the mod refined and drained morality, and 
florid paintings of Utopian felicity, in a ilate where 
all are Brothers and citizens of the world. But alas 1 
thefe wire- drawn principles feem to have had little in- 
fluence on the hearts, even of thofe who could befl: 
difplay their beauties. Read the tragedies of Voltaire ^ 
and fome of his grave performances in profe — What 
man is there who feems better to know his Mailer's 
will ? No man cxprelles with more propriety, with 
more exa6tnefs, the feelings of a good mind. No 
man feems more fenfible of the immutable obligation 
of juftice and of truth. Yet this man, in his tranfac- 
tions with his bookfellers, with the very men to whom 
he was immediately indebted for his affluence and his 
fame, was repeatedly, nay inceiTantly, guilty of the 
meanefl:, the vileft tricks. When he fold a work for 
an enormous price to one bookfeiler, (even to Cramer, 
whom he really refpe6led,) he took care that a furrep- 
titious edition fhoukl appear in Holland, almoft at the 
fame moment. Proof-ilieets have been traced from 
Ferney to Amflerdam. When a friend of Cramer's 
expoflulated with Vokaire on the injuflice of this con- 
dud, he fiid;, grinning, Oh le ton Crame'r — ch Men — // 



44 THE SCHISMS IN CHAP. I. 

n'a que d' etre du parti — he may take a fliare — he vvill 
not give me a liv^re the lefs for the firft piece I offer 
him. Where iliall we fee more tendernefs, more ho- 
nour^ more love of every thing that is good and fair, 
than in Diderot's Pere de Fa?nille? — Yet this man did 
not fcruple to fell to the Emprefs of Ruffia an immenfe 
library^ which he did not poiTefs, for an enormious 
price, having got her promifc that it fliould remain in 
his poiTefTion in Paris during his life. When her am- 
baffador wanted to fee it, after a year or tvv^o's pay- 
ments, and the vifitation could be no longer ftaved off^ 
Diderot was obliged to fet o^ in a hurry, and run 
through all the bookfellers fliops in Germany, to help 
him to fill his empty Iheives. He had the good for- 
tune to fave appearances-— but the trick took air, be- 
caufe he had been niggardly in his attention to the am- 
bafTador's fecretary. This, however, did not hinder 
him from honouring his Imperi?.! pupil with a vifit. 
He expected adoration, as the light of the world, and 
was indeed received by the Ruffian courtiers with all 
the childifh fondnefs that they feel for every Parifian 
mode. But they did not urderftand him, and as he 
did not like to lofe money at play, they did not long 
court his company. He found his pupil too clear 
fig h ted. Ces philofophes, fa id fhe, font beaux y vus de 
loin ; mais de plus preSj h diamcnt parait cryjlal. He 
had contrived a poor fcory, by vvhich he hoped to get 
his daughter married in parade, and portioned by her 
Majefty— but it was fecn through, and he was difap- 
pointed. 

When v/e fee the inefHcacy of this refined humanity 
on thefe two apoflles of philofophical virtue, we fee 
ground for doubting of the propriety and expediency 
of trufling entirely to it for the peace and happinefs of 
a (late, and we fhould be on our guard when we liflen 
to the florid fpeeches of the Brother Orator, and his 

congra- 



CHAP. I. FREE MASONRY. 45 

congratulations on the emancipation from fuperftition 
and opprefiion, which will in a fliorc time be efFedtu- 
ated by the Chevaliers Bienfaijants^ the Philalethes, or 
any other fed: of cofmo-political Brethren. 

I do not mean by all this to maintain, that the Ma- 
fon Lodges were the fole corrupters of the public mind 
in France.--^No. — In all nations that have made much 
progrefs in cultivation^ there is a great tendency to 
corruption, and it requires all the vigilance and exer- 
tions of magiflirates, and of moral inftrudtors, to pre- 
vent the fpreading of licentious principles and maxims 
of conduct. They arife naturally of them.feives, as 
weeds in a rich foil ; and, like weeds, they are perni- 
cious, only becaufe they are, w^here they fhould not 
be, in a cultivated fit\d. Virtue is the cultivation of 
the human foul, and not the miCre pofieflion of good 
difpofitions j all men have thefe in fome degree, and 
occafionally exhibit them. But virtue fuppofes exer- 
tion ; and, as the hufbandman muft be incited to his 
laborious talk by fome cogent motive, fo muft man be 
prompted to that exertion which is necefTary on the 
part of every individual for the very exiftence of a 
great fociety : For man is indolent, and he is luxuri- 
ous 5 he v/ifnes for enjoym.ent, and this with Tittle trou- 
ble. The lefs fortunate envy the enjoyments of others, 
and repine at their ov^n inability to obtain the like. 
They fee the idle in affluence. Few, even of good 
men, have the candour, nay, I may call it the v/ifdom, 
to think on the adivity and the labour which had pro- 
cured thofe comforts to the rich or to their anceftors ; 
and to believe that they are idle only becaufe they are 
wealthy, but would be adive if they were needy. — 
Such fpontaneous reflexions cannot be expe61;ed in per- 
fons who are engaged in unceafmg labour, to procure 
a very moderate fnare (in their eilimacion at leaft) of 
the comforts of life. Yet fuch ^eilexions would, in 

tlie 



■^ 



46 THE SCHISMS IN CHAP. I. 

the main, be jud, and furely they would greatly tend 

to quiet the minds of the unfuccefsful. 

This excellent purpofe may be greatly forwarded 

by a national eftablilTiment for moral inftrudion and 

admonition ; and if the public inftrudors fhould add 

all the motives to virtuous moderation which are fugr- 

. . . *-* 

gelled by the coniiderations of genuine religion, every 
advice would have a tenfold influence. Religious and 
moral inftrudions are therefore, in their own nature, 
unequivocal fupports to that moderate exertion of the 
authority arifmg from civil fubordination, which the 
moft refined philanthropift or cofmo- polite acknow- 
ledges to be necellary for the very exiftence of a great 
and cultivated fociery. I have never Ictn a fcheme of 
Utopian happinefs that did not contain fome fyfiiem of 
education, and I cannot conceive any fydem of edu- 
cation of which moral inftrudion is not a principal 
part. Such eiiablifhments are didates of nature, and 
obtrude themfelves on the mind of every perfon who 
begins to form plans of civil union. And in all exift- 
ing focieties they have indeed been formed, and are 
confidered as the greateft corredor and foother of thofe 
difcontents that are unavoidable in the minds of the 
unfuccefsful and the unfortunate. The ma^ifcrate, 
therefore, whofe profciTional habits lead him frequently 
to exert himfelf for the maintenance of public peace, 
cannot but fee the advantages of fuch ftated remem- 
brancers of our duty. He will therefore fupport and 
cherifh this public eRabiifhment, which fo evidently 
affifbs him in his beneficent and important labours. 

But all the evils of fociety do not fpring from the 
difcontents and the vices of the poor. The rich come 
in for a large and a confpicuous Hiare. They fre- 
quently abufe their advantages. Pride and haughty 
behaviour on their part rankle in the breafrs, and af- 
fed the tempers of their inferiors, already fretted by 

the 



CHAP. I. FREE MASONRY. ^J 

the hardfhips of their own condition. The rich alfo 
are luxurious ; and are often needy. Grafping at every 
mean of gratification, they are inattentive to the rights 
of inferiors whom they defpife, and, defpifmg, opprefs. 
Perhaps their own fuperiority has: been acquired by in- 
jutlice. Perhaps moft fovcreignries have been acquired 
by cpprcfTion. Princes and Rulers are but men -, as 
fuch, they abufe many of their greated blefiings. Ob- 
ferving that religious hopes make the good refigned 
under the hardfhips of the prefcnt fcene, and that its 
terrors frequently reftrain the bad -, they avail them- 
felves of thefe obfervations, and fupport religion as an 
engine of fiate, and a mean of their own fecurity. But 
they are not contented with its real advantages ; and 
they are much more afraid of tbe refentment and the 
crimes of the offended profligate, than of the murmurs 
of the fuiTering worthy. Therefore they encourage 
fuperfiition, and call to their aid the vices of the prieft- 
hood. The priefts are men of like pafiions as other 
men, and it is no ground of peculiar blame that they 
alfo frequently yield to the temptations of their fitua- 
tion. They are encouraged to the indulgence of the 
love of influence natural to all men, and they heap ter- 
ror upon terror, to lubdue the minds of men, and dark- 
en their underilandings. Thus the moft honourable of 
all employments, the moral infiruclion of thefcate, is 
degraded to a vile trade, and is pradifed v^ith ail the 
deceit and rapacity of any other trade ; and religion, 
from being the honour and the fafeguard of nation, be- 
comes its greatefl: difgrace and curfe. 

Wiien a nation has fallen into this lamientable fdate, 
it is extremely diflicuk to reform. Although nothing 
would fo immediately and fo completely remove all 
ground of complaint, as the re-eilablifhing private 
virtue, this is of all others the leafb likely to be adopt- 
ed. The really worthy, who fee the miifchief where ic 

ad: u ally 



THE SCHISMS IN CHAP. I. 

a6lually Is, but who view this life as the fchool of im- 
provement, and know that man is to be made pcrfed: 
through fufFering, are the laft perfons to complain. 
The worthlefs are the mofl difcontented, the moil 
noify in their complaints, and the lead fcrupulousabouD 
the means of redrefs. Not to improve the nation, but 
to advance themfelves, they turn the attention to the 
abufes of power and influence. And they begin their 
attack where they think the place moil defencelefs, and 
where perhaps they expedl affiftance from a difcon- 
tented garrifon. They attack fuperftition, and are 
not at all folicitous that true religion (hall not fufFer 
along with it. It is not perhaps, v^^ith any direct in- 
tention to ruin the ftate, but merely to obtain indul- 
gence for themfelves and the co-operation of the 
wealthy. They expedt to be jiflened to by many who 
wifh for the fame indulgence ; and thus it is that reli- 
gious free-thinking is generally the firil: tlep of anarchy 
and revolution. For in a corrupted ftate, perfons of 
all ranks have the fame licentious wifhes, and if fu» 
perftitious fear be really an ingredient of the human 
mind, it requires {omc Jlriiggle to fhake it off. No- 
thing is fo effeftual as mutual encouragement, and 
therefore all join againft prieft-craft ; even the rulers 
forget their intereft, which fliould lead them to fupport 
it. In fuch a ftate, the pure morality of true religion 
vanlihes from the fight. There is commonly no re- 
mains of it in the religion of the nation, and therefore 
all g;ocs together. 

Perhaps there never was a nation wnere ail tnefe co- 
operadng caufes had acquired greater ftrengdi than in 
France. OppreiTions of all kinds were at a height. The 
luxuries of life were enjoyed exclufively by the upper 
clafies, and this in the higheft degree of rennement j 
fo that the deftrcs of the reft were whetted to the utmoft. 
Religion appeared in its worft form, and feemed cal- 
culated 



CHAP. r. FREE MASONRY. 49 

Ciliated folcly for procuring eilablifhments for the 
yoiinorer fons of the infolcnc and ufciefs noblelfe. The 
morals of the higher orders of the clergy and of the 
laity were equally corrnpted. Thoufands of literary 
men were excluded by their ilation from all hopes of 
advancement ro the more ref]::)e6]:able offices in the 
church. Thefe vented their difconrents as far as there 
was fafety, and were encouraged by many of the upper 
clalTes, who joined them in their fatires on the prieflhood. 
The clergy oppofed them, it is true, but feebly, be- 
caufe they could not fupport their oppofition by ex- 
amples of their ovvn virtuous behaviour, but were al- 
ways obliged to have recourfe to the power of the 
church, the very objecl of hatred and difguil. The 
whole nation becam.e inficiel ; and when in a few inftan- 
ces a worthy Cure uttered the fmall dill voice of true 
religion, it was not heard amidft the general noife of 
fatire and reproach. The mdfconducl of adminiftra- 
tion, and the abufe of the public treafures, were every 
day growing mxore impudent and glaring, and expofed 
the ofovernmient to continual criticifm. But it was ilill 
too powerful to fuller this to proceed to extremities ; 
while therefore infidelity and loofe fcntimients of mo- 
rality paiTed unpuniihed, it was flill very hazardous to 
publifh any thing againft the fLare. It vv'as in this ref- 
peft, chiefly, that the Mafon Lodges contributed to 
the difTemination of dangerous opinions, and they were 
employed for this purpofe all over the kingdom. This 
is not an affertion hazarded merely on account of its 
probability. Abundant proof will appear by and by, 
that the mod turbulent char:ici:ers in the nrition f^'c- 
quented the Lodges. We cannot doubt, but that un- 
der'this covert they indulged their fadious difpoiitions ; 
ray, we fhall find the greateft part of the Lodges of 
France, converted, in the courfe of a vcrf few weeks, 
into correfpondino: political focieries.. 



50 THE SCHISMS IN CHAP. U 

But it is now time to turn our eyes to the progrefs of 
Free Malbnry in Germany and the north of Europe ; 
there it took a more ferious turn. Free Mafonry was 
imported into Germany fomewhat later than into 
France. The firft German Lodge that wc have any 
account of is that at Cologne, erected in 17 16, but 
very foon fuppreifed. Before the year 17C15 there 
were many, both in Proteiiant and CathoUc Germa- 
ny. Thofe of Wetziar, Frankfort on the Mayne, 
Brunfwick, and Hamburg, are the oldell, and their 
priority is doubtful All of them received their infti- 
tution from England, and had patents from a mother 
Lodge in London. All feem to have got the myftery 
through the fame channel, the banifned friends of the 
Stuart family. Many of thcfe were Catholics, and 
entered into the fervice of Auftria and the Catholic 
princes. 

The true hofpitality, that is no where more confpi- 
cuous than in the charadter of the Germans, made 
this inilitution a mod agreeable and ufeful palTport to 
thefe gentlemen; and as m.any of them were in mili- 
tary ftations, and in gar.rifon, they found it a very eafy 
matter to fet up Lodges in all parts of Germany. 
Thefe afforded a very agreeable paflime to the officers, 
Vv'ho had little to occupy them, and were already ac- 
cuftomed to a fubordinacion which did not affe6l their 
vanity on account of family didinclions. As the En- 
fign and the General were equally gentlemen, the al- 
legory or play of univerfal Brotherhood was neither 
novel nor difo-udino-. Free Mafonry was then of the 
fimpleil form, confiding of the three degrees of Appren- 
tice, Fellow-craft, and Madcr. it is remarkable, that 
the Germans had been longaccudomcd to the word, the 
do-n, and the ,qriue of the Mafons, and fome other 
handicraft trades. In many parts of Germany there 
was a didindion of operative Mafons into Wort- 

Maurers 



GHAP. 1. FREE MASONPs^Y. , 5 1 

Maiirers and Schrifc-Maurers. The Wort-Maurers 
had no other oroof to s^ive of their having been rej^u- 
larly brought np to the trade of builders, but the word 
and figns -, the Schrift-Maurers had written indentures 
to fhew. There are extant and in force, borough- 
laws, enjoining the Mafters of Mafons to give em- 
ployment to journeymen who had the proper words 
and fign. In particular it appears, that fome cities 
had more extenfive privileges in this refpe6l than 
others. The word given at Wetzlar, the feat of the 
great council of revifion for the empire, entitled the 
pofTeffor to work over the whole empire. We may 
infer from the procelTcs and decifions in fome of thofe 
municipal courts, that a mafter gave a word and token 
for each year's progrefs of his apprentice. He gave 
the word of the incorporated Imperial city or borough 
on which he depended, and alfo a word peculiar to 
himfelf, by which all his own pupils could recognife 
each other. This mode of recognifance was probably 
the only document of education in old times, while 
writing was confined to a very fmall part of the com^ 
munity. When we refled: on the nature of the Ger- 
man empire, a confederation of fmall independent 
dates, we fee that this profeffion cannot keep pace 
with the other mechanic arts, unlefs its practitioners 
are invefted with greater privileges than others. Their 
great works exceed the flrengch of the immediate 
neighbourhood, and the workmen muft be brought 
together from a diflance. Their aiTociation muft there- 
fore be more cared for by the public* 

When Englifn Free Mafonry was carried into Ger- 
many, it was hofpitably received. It required little 

elTort 



* Note. The Wort or Grufs-Maurer were abolifhed by an Im > 
perial eJifl: in 1731, and no.ie were intitle4 to the privileges of the 
cprporation but luch as could Ihcw written indentures. 



5'2 ^ THE SCHISMS IN CHAP. I. 

effort to give it refpedlability, and to make it the oc- 
cupation of a gentleman, and its fecrets and myfteries 
were not inch novelties as in France. It ipread ra- 
pidly, and the limple topic of Brotherly love was fuf- 
ficient for recommending it to the honed and hofpita- 
ble Germans. But it foon took a very different turn. 
The German character is the very opponte of frivo- 
lity. It tends to ferioufnefs, and requires ferious oc- 
cupatiouc The Germans are eminent for their turn 
for inveiligation ; and perhaps they indulge this to 
excels. We call them plodding and dull, bccaufe we 
have little reiitli for enquiry for its own fake. But 
this is furely the occupation of a rational nature, and 
deferves any name but Itupidity. At the fame time it 
muft be acknowledge:], that the fpirit of enquiry re- 
quires regulation as much as any propenfity of the hu-^ 
man mind. But it appears that the Germans are not 
nice in their choice of their objcclsj it appears that 
fingularity, and Vv'onder, and difficulty of refearch, are 
to them irrefifdble recommendations and incitements. 
They have always exhibited a (Irong prediieclion for 
every thing that is wonderful, or folemn, or terrible j 
and in fpite of the greac progreis which men have 
made in the courfe of thefe two laft centuries, in 
the knowledge of nature, a progrefs too in which we 
fhould be very unjuft if we did not acknowledge that 
the Germans have been generally in thaeforemoll ranks, 
the grofs abfurdities of magic, exorcifm, wirchcrafr, 
fortune-tellino;. tranfmutation of metals, and univerfal 
medicine, have always had their zealous partisans, who 
have liftened with greedy ears to the nonfenfe and jar- 
gon of fanatics and cheats ; and though they every 
day faw examples of many v;ho had been ruined or 
rendered ridiculous by their credulity, every new pre- 
tender to fecrets found numbers ready to liilen to him, 
and to run over the fam.e courfe. 

Free 



CHAP. I. FREE MASONRY. 5 



o 



Free Mafonry, profefTing myfteries, inftantly roufed 
all thefc people, and the Lodges appeared to the ad- 
venturers who wanted to profit by the enthufiafm or 
the avarice of their dupes, the litceft places in the 
world for the fcene of their operations. The Rofy- 
crucians were the firfl: who availed themfelves of the 
opportunity. This was not the Society which had ap- 
peared formerly under that name, and was now extindl, 
but a fet of Alchymifts, pretenders to the tranfmuta- 
tion of metals and the univerfai medicine, who, the 
better to inveigle their votaries, had mixed with their 
own tricks a good deal of the abfurd fuperfticions of 
that fe6l, in order to give a greater air of myllery to 
the whole, to protraft the time of infl:ru6lion, and to 
afiord more room for evafions, by m.aking fo many 
difFiCult conditions neceffary for perfe6ling the grand 
work, that the unfortunate gull, who had thrown away 
his time and his money, might believe that the failure 
was owing to his own incapacity or unfitnefs for being 
the polTeffor of the grand fecret. Thefe cheats found 
it convenient to m^ake Mafonry one of their conditions, 
and by a fmall degree of art, perfuaded their pupils 
that they were the only true Mafons. Thefe Rofy- 
crucian Lodges were foon eilabiiilied, and became nu- 
merous, becaufe their m-yderies v/ere addrefTed, both 
to the curiofity, the knfuality, and the avarice of 
men. They becamjc a very formidable band, adopt- 
ing the conilitution of the Jefuits, dividing the Frater- 
nity into circles, each under the management of its 
own fuperior, knovv^n to the prcfident, but unknown to 
the individuals of the Lodges. Thefe fuperiors were 
conne6ted with each other in a way known only to 
themfelves, and the v^/hole was under one General. 
At lead this is the account v/hich they willi to be be- 
lieved. Ifitbejuft, nothing but the abfurdity of the 
oftenfible m.otives of their occupations could have pre- 
vented 



54 THE SCHISMS IN CHAP. I. 

vented this combinati'on from carrvino; on Ichemes h'vr 
with hazard to the peace of the world. But the Ro- 
fycrucian Lodges have always been coniidered by other 
Free Mafons as bad Societies, and as grofs ichilmatics. 
This did not hinder, however, their alchymical and 
medical fecrets from being frequently introduced into 
the Lodges of fimple Free Mafonry -, and in like man- 
ner, exorcifm, or ghoH-raifing, magic, and other 
grofs fuperilitions, were often held out in their meet- 
ings as attainable myflieries, vvhich v»?ould be immenfe 
acquifitions to the Fraternity, without any necefiity of 
admitting along with them the religious deliriums of 
the .Rofycrucians. 

In 1743, Baron Hunde, a gentleman of honourable 
charadler and independent forcune, was in Paris, where 
he faid he had o-ot acquainted with the Earl of Kilmar- 
nock and fon:ie other o-entlemen who were about the 

o 

Pretender, and learned from them that they had fome 
wonderful fecrets in their Lodges. He vvas admitted, 
through the medium of that nobleman, and of a Lord 
Clifford, and his Mafonic patent was figned George 
(faid to be the fignature of Kilmarnock). Hunde 
had attached himfelf to the fortunes of the Pretender, 
in hopes (as he fays himfelf) of rifing in the world 
under his protedlion. The mighty fecret was this. 
'^ When the Order of Knights Templars was abolifli- 
'^ ed by Philip the Fair, and cruelly perfecuted, fome 
worthy perfons efcaped, and took refuge in the 
Flighlands of Scotland, where they concealed them- 
feives in caves. Thefe perfons polfeired the true 
fecrets of Mafonry, which had always been in that 
Order, having been acquired by the Knights, du- 
^^ ring their ftrvices in the Eaft, from the pilgrims 
whom they occafionally prOte(5led or delivered. The 
Chevaliers de la Rofe-Crcix continued to have the 
^^ fame duties as formerly, though robbed of their 

^^ emolu- 



cc 






CHAP. I. FREE MASONRY. ^j 

^^ emoluments. In fine, every true Mafon is a Knight 
" Temiplar.*' It is very true that a clever fancy can 
accommodate the ritual of reception of the Chevalier de 
rEfee, &c. to fomething like the inftitution of the 
Knights Templars, and perhaps this explanation of 
young Zerobabel's pilgrimage, and of the rebuilding 
of the Temple by Ezra, is the mofh (igr.ificant expla- 
nation that has been given of the meagre fymbols of 
Free Mafonry. ' 

AVhen Baron Hunde returned to Germany, he ex- 
hibited to feme friends his extenfive powers for pro- 
pagating this fyftem of Mafonry, and made a few 
Knights. But he was not very a(flive. Probably the 
failure of the Pretender's attempt to recover the throne 
of his anceilors had put an end to Hunde's hopes of 
making a figure. In the mean time Free Mafonry 
was cultivated with zeal in Germany, and many ad- 
venturers found their advantage in fupporting particu- 
lar fchifms. 

But in 1756, or 1757, a complete revolution took 
place. The French officers v/ho were prifoners at 
large in Berlin, undertook, with the aflurance peculiar 
to their nation, to inftrudl the fimple Germans in every 
thing that embcllifhes fociety. They faid, that the 
honiefpun Free Mafonry, which had been imported 
from England, was fit only for the unpolifned minds 
of the Britiih ; but that in France it had grown into 
an elegant fyftem, fit for the profcfiion of Gentlemen. 
Nay, they (aid, that the Englilh v/ere ignorant of true 
Mafonry, and pofTeiTed nothing but the introduction 
to it; and even this was not underilood by them. 
When the ribbands and ftars, with which the French 
had ornamented the Order, were fhown to the Ger- 
mans, they could not refill the enchantment. A Mr. 
Rofa, a French commifiary, brought fiom Paris a 
com[Jcte v/aggon load of Mafonic Qrnaments, which 

were 



§6 THE SCHISMS IN CHAP. I. 

were all dliliibuted before It had reached Berlin, and 
he was obliged to order another, to furnlfli the Lodges 
of that city. It became for a while a moft profitable 
bufinefs to many French ofncers and commiflarles dif- 
perfed over Germany, having little elfe to do. Every 
body gaped for inftru'flion, and thcfe kind teachers 
were alv/ays ready to befrow it. Iti half a year Free 
Mafonry underwent a complete revolution all over 
Germany, and Chevaliers multiplied without number. 
The Rofaic fyftern was a gofpel to the Mafons, and 
the poor Britifh fyftem was defpifed. But the new 
Lodges of Berlin, as they had been the teachers of the 
W'hole empire, wanted aifo to be the governors, and 
infifled on complete fubje6lion from all the others. 
This ftartled the Free Malbns at a diflance, and awa- 
kened them from their golden dreams. Now began a 
flrugglc for dominion and for independency. This 
made the old Lodges think a little about the whole 
affair. The refuk of this was a counter revolution. 
Though no man could pretend that he underfbood the 
true meaning of Free Mafonry, its origin, its hiftory, 
or its real aim, all faw that the interpretations of their 
hieroglyphics, and the rituals of the new degrees im- 
ported from France, were quite gratuitous. It ap- 
peared, therefore, that the fafefc thing for them was 
an appeal to the birth-place of Mafonry. They fent 
to London for Infiruclions. There they learned, that 
nothing was acknowledged for genuine unfophillicated 
Mafonry but the three degrees -, and that the mother 
Lodge of London alone could, by her inflruftions, 
prevent the m.ofl dangerous fchifms and innovations. 
Many Lodges, therefore, applied for patents and in- 
ftruc^ticns. Patents were cafily made out, and moil 
willingly fent to the zealous Brethren -, and thefe were 
thankfully received and paid for. But inftruclion v/as 
not fo cafy a matter. At that time we had nothing 

but 



CHAP. I. FREE MASONRY. ^y 

but the book of conftitutionSj drawn up about 1720, 
by Anderfon and Defaguilliers, two perfons of little 
education, and of low manners, who had aimed at little 
more than making a pretext, not altogether contemptible, 
for a convivial meeting. This, however, was receiv- 
ed with refpe6l. We are apt to fmile at grave men's 
being fatistied with fuch coarfe and fcanty fare. But 
it was of ufe, merely becaufe it gave an oftenfible rea- 
fon for refitting thedefpotifm of the Lodges of Berlin. 
Several refpedlable Lodges, particularly that of Frank- 
fort on the Mayne, that of Brunfwick, that of Wetz- 
lar, and the Royal York of Berlin, refolutely adhered 
to the Englilh fyilem, and denied themfelves all the 
enjoyment of the French degrees, rather than acknow- 
ledge the fupremacy of the Rofaic Lodges of Berlin. 

About the year 1764 a new revolution took place. 
An adventurer, who called himfclf Johnfon, and pafled 
himfelf for an Englifhman, but who v^as really a Ger- 
man or Bohemian named Leucht, faid that he was am- 
baifadorfrom the Chapter of Knights Templars at Old 
Aberdeen in Scotland, fent to teach the Germans what 
was true Mafonry. He pretended to tranfmute metals, 
and fome of the Brethren declared that they had fccn 
him do it repeatedly. This reached Baron Hunde, 
and brought back all his former enthufiafm. There is 
fomething very dark in this part of the hidory ; for in 
a little Johnfon told his partifans that the only point he 
had to inform them of was, that Baron Hunde was the 
Grand Mafter of the 7th province of Mafonry, which 
included the whole of Germany, and the royal do- 
minions of Pruffia. He fnowed them a map of the Ma- 
fonic Empire arranged into provinces, each of which 
had diftinguifhing emblems. Thefe are all taken from 
an old forgotten and infignificant book, Typotii Symbohz 
Divina et Humana, publifned in 1601. There is not 
the Icaft trace in this book either of Mafonry of Tem- 
pi plars. 



58 THE SCHISMS IK CHAP. i. 

piarSj and the emblems are taken out without the 
imallcil ground of feiedion. Some inconfiftency with 
the former magnificent promifes of Johnfon ftartled 
them at firil, but they acquiefced and fubmitted to 
Baron Hunde as Grand Mafrer of Germany. Soon af- 
ter johnfon turned out to be a cheat, efcaped, was ta- 
ken, and put in prifon, where he died. Yet this feems 
not to have ruined the credit of Baron Hunde. He 
ere6led Lodges, gave a few fimple inflirucSlions, all in 
the fyftem of Englifli Mafonry, and promifed, that 
when they had approved themfelves as good Mafons, 
he would then impart the mighty fecret. After two 
or three years of noviciate, a convention was held at 
Altenberg ; and he told them that his whole fecret was, 
ibat every true Majon was a Knight Templar, They 
Were aftonifhed, and difappointed ; for they expedted 
in general that he would teach theai tne philofopher^s 
fbone, or ghofl-raifmg, or m.agic. After much dif- 
content, falling out, and difpute, many Lodges united 
in this fyftem, made fomewhat moderate and palatable, 
under the nzrat of the Strict Disciplinarians, 
Strickten Obfervanz. It v/as acceptable to many, be- 
caufc they infilled that they were really Knights, pro- 
perly confecrated, though without temporalities J and 
they krioufly {<:i themfelves about forming afund which 
fnould fecure the Order in a landed property and re- 
venue, which would give them a refpe6uable civil ex- 
iftence. Hunde declared that his whole eftate fhould 
devolve on the Order. But the vexations which he af- 
terv/ards met with, and his failing in love with a lady 
who prevailed on him to become Roman Catholic, 
made him aker his intention. The Order went on, 
however, and acquired confiderable credit by the feri- 
ous regularity of their proceedings ; and, although in 
the mean time a new apoftk^ of Myfceries, a Dr. Zin- 
zendorff, one of the Stri^ Olfirvanz, introduced a new 

fvftem. 



eHAF. I. FREE MASONP-Y. C 



•/ 



fyftem, which he faici was from Sweden, dldinguifhefl 
by fome of the myftical doclrines of the Swtrdcnborgh 
fed:, and though the fy (tern obtained the Royal patron- 
ao-e, and a National Lodfre was cilabiiriied at Berlin 
by patent, ftili the Tempciorden, or Orden des Striken 
Ohfervanz, continued to be very refprftable. The 
German gentry were better pleafed with a Grand Maf- 
ter of their own choofing, than with any impofed on 
them by authority. 

During; this (late of thino-s, one Stark, a Proteftanc 
divine, well knov/n in Germany by his writings, made 
another trial of public faith. One Gug®mos, (a pri- 
vate gentleman, but who would pais for fon to a King 
of Cyprus), and one Schropfer, keeper of a coitee- 
houfe at Nuremberg, drew crowds of Free Mafons 
around them, to learn ghoft-raifing, exorcifm, and al- 
chymy. Numbers came from a great difrance to 
Weifbad to^tt and learn thefe myfteries, and Free Ma- 
fonry was on the point of another revolution. Dr. 
Stark was an adept in all thefe things, and had contended 
with Caglioilro in Courland for the palmof Ibpcriority. 
He faw that this deception could not long iland its 
ground. He therefore came forward, at a convcmtion 
at Braunfchweig in 1772, and faid to the Su'xdt Dif- 
ciplinarians or Templars, That he was of their Order, 
but of the fpiritual department, and was deputed by 
the Chapter of K — m — d — t in Scotland, where he 
was Chancellor of the Consrreo\uion, and had the name 
of Archidemides, Eqties ab Aquila fuha : That this 
Chapter had the fuperintendance ot the Order: That 
they alone could confecrate the Knights, or tl^e un- 
known fuperiors ; and that he was deputed to inn:ru6t 
them in the real principles of the Order, and impart iis 
ineftimable fecrets, which could ik)l be known to Ba- 
ron Hunde, as he would readily acknowledge vvr.cn i^e 
fhould convcrfe with him. Johnfon, he faid^ \\ id been 

a z\\ 



V Li w ) 



60 THE SCHISMS IN CHAP. I. 

a cheat, and probably a murderer. He had got fome 
knowledge from papers which he muft have ftolen from 
a mifnonary, who had difappeared, and was probably 
killed. Gugomos and Schropfer muft have had fome 
fimilar information j and Schropfer had even deceived 
him for a time. He was ready to execute his com- 
mifTion, upon their coming under the necellary obliga- 
tions of fecrecy and of fubmiflion. Hunde (whofc name 
in the Order was the Eqiies ah Enje) acquiefced at once, 
and propofed a convention, with full powers to decide 
and accept. But a Schubart, a gentleman of chara6i:er, 
who was treafurer to the Templar Mafons, and had an 
employment which gave him confiderable influence in 
the Order, ftrongly dilTuaded them from fuch a mea- 
lure. The moft unqualified fubmiffion to unknown ^ij| 
fuperiors, and to conditions equally unknown, was re- 
quired previous to the fmallett communication, or any 
knowledge of the powers which Archidemides had to 
treat v/ith them. Many meetings were held, and 
many attempts were made to learn fomething of this 
fpiritual court, and of v/hat they might expe6l from 
them. Dr. Stark, Baron Weggenfak, Baron von Ra- 
ven, and fome others of his coadjutors in the Lodges 
at Koningfberg in PrufTia, and at Wifmiar, were re- 
ceived into the Order. But in vain — nothing was ob- 
tained from thefe ghoftly Knights but fome infignificant 
ceremonials of receptions and confecrations. Of this 
kind of novelties they were already heartily Tick; and . 
though they all panted after the expedled wonders, " 
they were fo mucli frightened by the unconditional fub- 
miflion, that tliey could come to no agreemient, and 
the fccrets of the Scotch Cono-regation of K — m — d — t 
ftill remain with Dr. Stark. They did, however, a 
fenfible thing, theyfenta deputation to Old Aberdeen, 
to enquire after the caves where their venerable myf- 
tcric'S were known, and their treafures were hid. They 

had 



CHAP. I. FREE MASONRY. 6l 

had, as they thought, merited fome more confidence; 
for they had remitted annual contributions to thefe 
unknown fuperiors, to the amount of fome thoufands 
of rix dollars. But alas ! their ambaffadors found the 
Free Mafons of Old Aberdeen ignorant of all this, 
and as eager to learn from the ambalfadors what was 
the true origin and meaning of Free Mafonry, of 
which they knew nothing but the fnnple tale of Old 
Hiram. This broke Stark's credit ; but he flill in- 
fifted on the reality of his commiffion, and laid that 
the Brethren at Aberdeen were indeed ignorant, but 
that he had never faid otherwife^ their expectations 
from that quarter had refted on the fcraps purloined 
by Johnlon. He reminded them of a thing well known 
to themfelves ; that one of them had been fent for by 
a dying nobleman to receive papers on this fubjeCt, and 
that his vifit having been delayed a few hours by an 
unavoidable accident, he found all burnt but a frag- 
ment of a capitulary, and a thing in cypher, part 
of which he (Dr. Stark) had explained to them. 
They had employed another gentleman, a H. Wach- 
ter, to make fimiiar enquiries in Italy, vy/here Schrop- 
fer and others (even Hunde) had told them great le- 
crets were to be obtained from the Pretender's fecre- 
tary Approfi, and others. VVachter told them, thdZ 
all this was a h6lion, but that he had ften at Florence 
fome Brethren from the Holy Land, who really pof- 
felTed wonderful fecrets, which he was willing to im- 
part, on proper conditions. Thelc, however, they 
could not accede to -, but they were cruelly tortured by 
feeing Wachter, who had left Germany in Ibber cir- 
cumftances, now a man of great wealth and expence. 
He would not acknowledge that he had got the fecret 
of gold-making from the Afiatic Brethren; but faid 
that no man had any ris?ht to afk him how^ he had come 
by his fortune. It v/as enough that he behaved hono- 
rably. 



Si THE SCHISMS I iV CHAP. I. 

rably, and owed no man any thing. He broke off all 
connexions with them, and left them in great diftrefs 
about their Order, and panting after his fecrcts. Rifum 
taieatis amici] 

Stark, in revenge for the oppofition he had met 
with from Schubart, left no (lone unturned to hurt 
him with his Brethren, and fucceeded, fo that he left 
them in difguft. Hunde died about this time. A 
book appeared, called. The Stumblmg Block and Rock 
cf Offence^ which betrayed (by their own confeffion) 
the whole fecrets of the Order of Templars, and foon 
made an end of it, as far as it went beyond the fimple 
Englifh Mafonry. 

Thus was the faith of Free Mafons quite unhinged 
in Germany. But the rage for myileries and wonder 
was not in the leaft abated ; and the habits of thefe 
fecret AfTemblies were becoming every day more crav- 
ing. DiiTenfion and fchifm was multiplying in every 
quarter; and the Infcitution, inftead of being an in- 
citement to mutual complaifance and Brotherly love, 
had become a fource of contention, and of bitter en- 
mity. Not fatisfied Vv^ith defending the propriety of 
its own Infututions, each Syftem cf Free Mafonry 
was bufy in enticing away the partifans of other Syi- 
tems, fnut their Lodges againfl each other, and pro- 
ceeded even to vilify and perfccute the adherents of 
every Syftem but their own. 

Thefe animofities arofc chiefly from the quarrels 
about precedency, and the arrogance (as it was thought) 
of the patent Lodge of Berlin, in pretending to have 
any authority in the other parts of the empire. But 
thefe pretenfions were not the refult of mere vanity. 
The French importers of the new degrees, always true 
to the glory of their nation, hoped by this means to 
fecure the dependence even of this frivolous fociety ; 
perhaps they might forefee political ufes and benefits 

which 



.CHAP. I. FREE MASONRY. 63 

which might arife from it. One thing is worth notice : 
The French Lodges had all emanated from the great 
Confederation under the Duke de Chartrcs ; and, 
even if we had no other proof, we might prefume that 
they would cultivate the fame principles that chara6le- 
rifed that Se6t. But we are ceitain that infidelity and 
laxity of moral principles were prevalent in the Rofaic 
Lodges, and that the obfervation of this corruption 
had offended many of the fober old-fafliioned Lodges, 
and was one great caufe of any check that was given 
to the brilliant Mafonry of France. It is the obferva- 
tion of this circumftance, in which they all refembled, 
and which foon ceafcd to be a diflindtion, becaufe it 
pervaded the other Lodges, that has induced me to 
expatiate more on this hifcory of Free Mafonry in Ger- 
many, than may appear to my readers to be adequate 
to the importance of Free Mafonry in the general fub~ 
jedl-matter of thefe pages. But I hope that it will 
appear in the courfe of my narration that I have not 
given it a greater value than it dcferves. 

About this very time there was a great revolution> 
of the public mind in Germany, and fcepticifm, infi- 
delity, and irreligion, not only were prevalent in the 
minds and manners of the wealthy and luxurioits, and 
of the profligate of lower ranks, but began to appear 
in the produ6Lions of the preis. Some circumftances, 
peculiar to Germany, occaiioned thefe declenfions 
from the former acquiclcencc in the faith of their fore- 
fathers to become more uniform and rem.arkahlc than 
they would otherwifc have been. The confeffions of 
Germany are the Roman Catholic, the Lutheran^, 
(which they call Proteflanr,) and the Calvinift, (which 
they call Reformed). Thefe are profcffed in many fmali 
contiguous principalities, and there is hardly one of 
them in which all the three have not free exercile. The 
defire of making profelyies is natural to all fsriou.s pre- 

fcilbrs 



64 THE SCHISMS IN CHAP. I. 

fefTors of a rational faith, and was frequently exercifed. 
The Roman Catholics are fuppofed by us to be parti- 
cularly zealous, and theProteftants (Lutherans andCal- 
vinids) were careful to oppofe them by every kind of 
argument, among which thofe of ridicule and reproach 
were not fpared. The Catholics accufcd them of infi- 
delity refpedling the fundamental dc(51:rines of Chrifti- 
anity which tliey profellcd to believe, and even with 
rcfpe61; to the docfirines of natural religion. This ac- 
cufation was long very Hightly fupported -, but, of late, 
by better proofs. The Ipirit of free enquiry was the 
great boaft of the Proteftants, and the only fupport 
againd the Catholics, fecuringthem both in their reli- 
gious and civil rights. It was therefore encouraged by 
their governments. It is not to be wondered at that it 
fhould be indulged to excefs, or improperly, even by 
ferious men, liable to error, in their difputes with 
the Catholics. In the progrefs of this contell, even 
their own Confeflions did not efcape criticifm, and it 
was aficrted that the Reformation which thofe Con- 
fefiions exprefs was not complete. Further Refor- 
mations were propofed. The Scriptures, the foun- 
dation of our faith, were examined by clergymen of 
very different capacities, difpofitions, and views, till 
by explaining, correcting, allegorifrng, and otherwife 
twiiling the Bible, men's minds had hardly any thing 
left to reft on as a dodirinc of revealed religion. This 
encouraged others to go farther, and to fay that reve- 
lation was a folecifm, as plainly appeared by the ir- 
reconciicable differences among thofe Enlighteners (fo 
they were called) of the public, and that man had no-' 
thing to truft to but the dictates of natural reafon. 
Another let of writers, proceeding from this as a point 
already fettled, profcribed all religion whatever, and 
openly taught t\\^ doctrines of materialifm and atheifm. 
Mofc of thefc innovations were the work of Proteftant 

divines 



CHAP. I. FREE MASONRY. 6^ 

divines, from the caufes that I have mentioned. Tel- 
ler, Semlcr, Eberhardt, Lefling, Bahrdt, Riem, and 
Shultz, had the chief hand in all thcfe innovations. 
But no man contributed more than Nicholai, an emi- 
nent and learned bookfeller in Berlin. He has been 
for many years the publifher of a periodical work, 
called the General German Library, (Algt;mein deutfche 
Bibliothek,) confifting of original difiertations, and re- 
views of the writings of others. The great merit of 
this work, on account of many learned diiTertations 
which appear in it, has procured it much influence on 
that clafs of readers whofe leifure or capacity did not 
allow them a more profound kind of reading. This 
is the bulk of readers in every country. Nicholai 
gives a decided preference to the writings of the En- 
lighteners, and in his reviews treats them with parti- 
cular notice, makes the public fully acquainted with 
their works, and makes the mod favourable com- 
ments ; whereas the performances of their oppo- 
nents, or more properly fpeaking, the defenders 
of the National Creeds, are negledled, omitted, 
or barely m.entioncd, or they are criticifed with 
every feverity of ridicule and reproach. Fie fell upon 
a very fure method of rendering the orthodox writers 
difagreeable to the public, by reprefenting them as 
the abetters of fuperftition, and as fecret Jefuits. He 
alTerted, that the abolition of the Order of Loyola is 
only apparent. The Brethren ftill retained their con- 
nexion, and moft part oi' their property, under the 
fecret patronage of Catholic Princes. They are, there- 
fore, in every corner, in every habit and character, 
working with unwearied zeal tor the reiloration of 
their empire. He raifed a general alarm, and made a 
journey through Germany, hunting for Jefuits, and 
for this purpofe, became Free Mafon and Rofycrucian, 
being introduced by his. friends Gedicke and Bjcfler, 

1 clergymen. 



€S THE SCHISMS IN * CHAP. I. 

clergymen, publilhers of the Berlin Monatjchrift^ and 
moll zealous promoters of the new do6lriiies. This 
favour he has repaid at his return, by betraying the 
myfteries of the Lodges, and by much bitter fatire. 
His journey was publiihed in fevcral volumes, and is 
full of frightful Jefuitilms. This man, as I have faid, 
found the greateft fuccefs in his method of flandering 
the defenders of Bible-Chriltianicy, by reprefenting 
them as concealed Jefuits. But, not contented v;ith 
open difcufiion, he long ago publiflied a fort of ro- 
mance, called Sehaldus 'Nothanker^ in which thef^ di- 
vines are introduced under feigned names, and made 
as ridiculous and deteftable as pofTibie. All this was 
a good trading job 3 for fceptical and free-thinking 
writings have every where a good market; and Ni- 
cholai was not only reviewer, but publilher, having 
prefles in different cities of the Empire. The im- 
menfe literary manufa6lure of Germany, far exceeding 
that of any nation of Europe, is carried on in a very 
particular v/ay. The books go in flieets to the great 
fairs of Leipfic and Frankfort, twice a-year. The 
bookfellers meet there, and fee at one glance the ftate 
of literature j and having fpeculated and made their 
bargains, the books are inlfantly difperfed through 
every part of the Empire, and appear at once in all 
quarters. Although every Principality has an officer 
for licenfmg, it is impolTible to prevent the currency 
of a performance, although it may be prohibited] for 
it is to be had by the carrier at three or four miles dif- 
tance in another ftate. By this mode of traffic, a plot 
m.ay be formed, and adtually has been formed, for 
giving any particular turn to the literature of the coun- 
try. There is an excellent work printed at Bern by 
the author Heinzmann, a bookfrller, called. Appeal 
to my Country y concerning a Combinaticn cf JVriterSy and 
Bookfellers i to rule the Literature of Germany ^ and form 

the 



CHAP. I. FREE MASONRY. 67 

the Puhlk Mind into a Cent empt for the Religicn and Civil 
EftabliJJjments of the Empire. It contains a hiilorical ac- 
count of the publications in every branch of literature 
for about thirty years. The author fliows, in the mod 
convincing naanner, that the prodigious change from 
the former fatisfadion of the Germans on thofe fub- 
jeds to their prefent difcontcnt and attacks from every 
quarter, is neither a fair pi^Uire of the prevailing fen- 
tmients, nor has been the iimple operation of things, 
but the rcfiih of a combination of trading Infidels. 

1 have here fomewhat anticipated, (for I hope to 
point out the fources of this combination,) becaufe it 
helps to explain or illuflrare the progrefs of infidelity 
and irrelio-ion that I was fpeaking; of It was much 
accelerated by another circumftance. One BaJedoWy a 
min of talents and learning, fet up, in the Principality 
of Anhalt-DefTau, a Philantkropine, or academy 
of general education, on a plan extremely different 
from thofe of the Univerfities and Academies. By 
this appellation, the founder hoped to make parents 
expedt that much attention v/ould be paid to the mo- 
rals of the pupils ', and indeed the programs or adver- 
tifements by which Bafedovv announced his inftitution 
to the public, defcribed it as the profeiTed feminary 
of pra6lical Ethics. Languages, fciences, and the or- 
namental exercifes, were here confidered as mere ac- 
ceflbries, and the great aim was to form the young 
mind to the love of mankind and of virtue, by a plan 
of moral education which was very fpecious and unex- 
ceptionable. But there vv^as a circumftance which 
greatly obftrufted the wide profpeds of the founder. 
How v/ere the religious opinions of the youth to be 
cared for ? Catholic:., Lutherans, and Calvinifts, were 
almoil- equally numerous in the adjoining Principali- 
ties ; and the exclufion cA any two of thefe commu- 
nions would prodigioiifly limit the propoR-d ufefulnefs 

cf 



6% THE SCHISMS IN 



CHAP. I. 



of the inflitution. Bafedow v^^as a man of talents, a 
good fcholar, and a perfuafive writer. He framed a 
fet of rules, by which the education fliould be con- 
dudled, and which, he thought, lliould make every 
parent eafy -, and the plan is very judicious and manly. 
But none came but Lutherans. His zeal and intereft 
in the thing made him endeavour to interefb others; 
and he found this no hard matter. The people of 
condition, and all fenfible men, faw that it would be 
a very great advantage to the place, could they induce 
men to fend their children from all the neighbouring 
ftates. What we wifh, we readily believe to be the 
truth ; and Bafcdow's plan and reafonings appeared 
complete, and had the fupport of all claffes of men. 
The moderate Calvinifts, after fome time, were not 
averfe from them, and the literary manufadlure of 
Germany was foon very bufy in making pamphlets, 
defending, improving, attacking, and reprobating the 
plans. Innumerable were the prcje6ts for moderating 
the differences between the three Chriftian commu- 
nions of Germany, and making it poffible for the 
members of them all, not only to live amicably among 
each other, and to worfliip God in the fame church, 
but even to communicate together. This attempt na- 
turally gave rife to much fpeculation and refinement j 
and the propofals for am.endment of the formulas and 
the inflrudions from the pulpit were profecuted with 
fo much keennefs, that the ground-work, Chriftianity, 
was refined and refined, till it vanifhed altogether, 
leaving Deifm, or Natural, or, as it was called, Phi- 
lofophical Religion, in its place. I am not much mif- 
taken as to hiflorical facSb, when I fay, that the aflo- 
nifhing change in religious dodrine which has taken 
place in Froteflant Germ.any within thefe laft thirty 
years was chiefly occafioned by this fcheme of Bafe- 
dow*s. The predifpofing caufes exiflcd, indeed, and 

were 



gHAP. I. FREE MASONRY. 69 

were general and powerful, and the diforder had al- 
ready broken out. But this fpecious and enticing ob- 
jedt firft gave a title to Proteftant clergymen to put to 
their hand without rifk of being cenfured. 

Bafedow corredled, and corrc6led again, but not 
one Catholic came to the Philanthropine. He feems 
to have thought that the beil plan would be, to banifh 
all pofitive religion whatever, and that he would then 
be fure of Catholic fcholars. Cardinal Dubois was fo 
far right with refped to the firft Catholic pupil of the 
church. He had recommended ^a man of his own 
ftamp to Louis XIV. to fill fome important office. 
The monarch was aftoniflied, and told the Cardinal, 
that " that would never do, for the man was a Janfe- 
" nift; Eh! que nsn. Sire/' faid the Cardinal, '' il 
*^ n'eft qu' Athee ;'' all was fafe, and the man got the 
priory. But though all was in vain, Bafedow's Phi- 
lanthropine at Dcflau got a high charader. He pub- 
lifhed many volumes on education that have much 
merit. 

It were well had this been all. But moft unfortu- 
nately, though moft naturally, writers of loofe moral 
principles and of wicked hearts were encouraged by 
the impunity which the fceptical writers experienced, 
and ventured to publifti things of the vileft tendency, 
inflaming the paflions and juftifying licentious m.anners. 
Thefe maxims are congenial with irreligion and Athe- 
ifm, and the books found a quick market. It v^as 
chiefly in the Pruffian States that this went on. The 
late King was, to fay the beft- of him, a naturalift, and, 
holding this life for his all, gave full liberty to his fub- 
jeds to write what they pleafed, provided they did not 
touch on ftate matters. He declared, however, to a 
minifter of his court, long before his death, that "he 
" was extremely forry that his indifi^erence had pro- 
" duced fuch effeds i that he was fcnfible it had greatlv 



'^ contri- 



70 THE SCHISMS IN CHAP. I. 



cc 



" contributed to hurt the peace and mutual good treat- 
ment of his fubjedis;'' and he faitl, '' that he would 
willingly give up the glory of his bed- fought battle, 
to have the fatisfadion of leaving his people in the 
fame ftate of peace and fatisfadlion with their reli- 
*^ gious eftablilliments, that he found them in at his 
" acceflion to the throne." His fucceribr Frederick 
William found that things had gone much too far, and 
determined to fupport the church-efcablifliment in the 
mofl peremptory manner; but at the lame time to al- 
low perfect freedom of thinking and convcrfing to the 
profelTors of every Chriflian faith, provided it was en- 
joyed without difturbing the general peace, or any 
encroachment on the rights of thofe already fupported 
by law. He publiflied an edi(5l to this effedl, which 
is really a model worthy of imitation in every country. 
This was the epoch of a ilrange revolution. It was 
attacked from all hands, and criticifms, fatires, flan- 
ders, threatenings, poured in from every quarter. The 
independency of the neighbouring ftates, and the mo- 
narch's not beino; a ereat favourite amono; feveral of 
his neighbours, permitted the publication of thofe 
pieces in the adjoining principalities, and it was im.- 
poffible to prevent their circulation even in the Pruf- 
fian States. His edict was called an unjuftifiable ty- 
ranny over the confciences of men -, the dogmas fup- 
ported by it were termed abfurd fuperftitions ; the 
King's private chara6ler, and his opinions in religious 
matters, were treated with little reverence, nay, were 
ridiculed and fcandaloufly abufed. This field of dif- 
cuflion being thus thrown open, the writers did not 
confine themfelves to religious matters. After flatly 
denying that the prince of any country had the fmalleft 
right to prefcribe, or even diredl the faith of his fub- 
jed:s, they extended their difcuflions to the rights of 
princes in general; and now they fairly opened their' 

trenches^j 



CHAP. I. TREE MASONRY. yi 

trenches, and made an attack in form on the conftitu- 
tions of the German confederacy, and, after the ufual 
aoproaches, they fet up the ftandard of univerfal citi- 
zenfhip on the very ridge of the glacis, and fummoned 
the fort to furrender. The moil darins; of thefe attacks 
was a colle6lion of anonymous letters on the conftitu- 
tution of the PrufTian States. It was printed (or faid 
to be fo) at Utrecht; but by comparing the faults of 
fome types with fomc books printed in Berlin, it was 
fuppofcd by all to be the produftion of one of Nicho- 
lai's prefTes. It v/as thought to be the compofition of 
Mirabeau. It is certain that he wrote a French tranf- 
lation, with a preface and notes, more impudent than 
the work itfelf The monarch is declared to be a ty- 
rant; the people are addrelTed as a parcel of tame 
wretches crouching under oppreffion. The people of 
Siieiia are reprefented as ftill in a worfe condition, and 
are repeatedly called to roufe themfelves, and to rife 
up and alTert their rights. The King is told, that 
there is a combination of philofophers (^conjuration) 
who are leagued together in defence of truth and rea- 
fon, and which no power can v/ithftand; that they are 
to be found in every country, and are connedted by 
mutual and folemn engagement, and will put in prac- 
tice every mean of attack. Enlightening, inftru61:ion, 
was the general cry am^ong the writers. The triumph 
of realbn over error, the overthrow of fuperilition and 
flaviOi fear, freedom from religious and political pre- 
judices, and the eftabiifhment of liberty and equality, 
the natural and unalienable rights of m,an, were the 
topics of general declamation ; and it was openly main- 
tain-jd, that fecret focieties, v^here the communication 
of fcntiment (liould be free from every reftraint, was 
the mcll effc6lual means for indruclin^ and enliehten- 
ing the world » 

And 



72 THE SCHISMS IN CHAP. I. 

And thus it appears, that Germany has experienced 
the fame gradual progrefs, from Religion to Atheifm, 
from decency to dilTolutenefs, and -from loyalty to re- 
bellion, which has had its courfe in France. And I 
muft now add, that this progrefs has been effe6ted in 
the fame manner, and by the fame means 3 and that 
one of the chief means of fedu6lion has been the Lodges 
of the Free Mafons. The French, along with their 
numerous chevaleries, and ftars, and ribands, had 
brought in the cuftom of haranguing in the Lodges, 
and as human nature has a confiderable uniformity 
every where, the fame topics became favourite fub- 
jedls of declamation that had tickled the ear in France; 
there were the fame corruptions of fentiments and man- 
ners among the luxurious or profligate, and the fame 
incitements to the utterance of thefe fentiments, 
wherever it could be done with fafety ; and I may fay, 
that the zealots in all thefe trails of freethinking were 
more ferious, more grave, and fanatical. Thefe are 
not alTertions a priori, I can produce proofs. There 
was a Baron Knigge refiding at that time in the neigh- 
bourhood of Frankfort, of whom I fliall afterwards 
have occafion frequently to fpeak. This man was an 
enthufiafl in Mafonry from his youth, and had run 
through every pofTible degree of it. He was diffatisfled 
with them all, and particularly with the frivolity of the 
French chivalry; but he fail believed that Mafonry 
contained invaluable fecrets. He imagined that he faw 
agiimfe of them in the cofmo-political and fceptical dif- 
courfes in their Lodges 3 he fat down to meditate on 
thefe, and foon colledled his thoughts, and found that 
thofe French orators were right without knowing it ; 
and that Mafonry was pure natural religion and univer- 
fal citizenfliip, and that this was alfc> true Chriftianicy. 
In this faith he immediately began his career of Bro- 
therly love, and publifhcd three volumes of fermons ; 

the 



CHAP. I. fREE MASONRY. 7J 

the firfl: and third publifned at Frankfort, and the fe- 
cond at Heidelberg, but without his name. He pub- 
liihed alio a popular fyftern of religion. In all thefe 
publications, of which there are extradls in the Religions 
Begebenheiten^ Chriftianity is confidered as a mere alle- 
gory, or a Mafonic type of natural religion j the moral 
duties are fpun into the common-place declam.ations of 
univerfal benevolence; and the attention is continually 
diredted to the abfurdities and horrors of fuperPcition, 
the fuffcrings of the poor, the tyranny and opprefiion 
of the great, the tricks of the priefts, and the indolent 
fimplicity and patience of the laity and of the common 
people. The happinefs of the patriarchal life, and 
fweets of univerfal equality and freedom, are the bur- 
den of every paragraph ; and the general tenor of the 
whole is to make men difcontented with their condi- 
tion of civil iubordinanon, and the repLraints of reveal- 
ed religion. 

All the proceedings of Knigge in the Mafonic fchifms 
Ihow that he was a zealous apoftle of cofmo-politifm, 
and that he was continually dealing wich people in the 
Lodges who were affoclated with him in propagating 
thofe notions among the Brethren; fo that we are cer- 
tain that fuch converfations were common in the Ger- 
man Lodges. 

When the reader confiders all thefe circumilances, 
he will abate of that fiirprife which naturally afFedls a 
Briton, when he reads accounts of conventions for dif- 
cuffing and fixing the dogmatic tenets of Free Ma- 
fonry. The perfe6l freedom, civil and religious, 
which we enjoy in this happy country, being familiar 
to every man, we indulo;e it v/ith calrnnefs and mode- 
ration, and fecret aikmblics hardly diiler from the 
common meetings of (i iends and neighbours. We do 
not forget the expediency of civil fubordination, and 
of thofe diftinflions Vv'hich arife from fccure poileilion 

FC of 



74 THE schism:; in chap. r. 

of our rights, and the gradual accumulation of the 
comforts of life in the famili-^s of the fober and in- 
dudrious. Thefc have, by prudence and a refpedla- ^ 
ble ceconomy, preferved the acquifitions of their an- ^ 
cellors. Every man feels in his own bread the firong 
call of nature to procure for himfelf and his chil- 
dren, by every honeft and commendable exertion, 
the means of public confideration and refpedl. No 
man is fo totally without fpirit, as not to think the 
better of his condition when he is come of credit- 
able parents, and has creditable connedions ; and 
without thinking that he is in any refpe6l generous, he 
prefumes that others have the fame fentiments, and 
therefore aliov^s the moderate expreffion of them, 
without thinking it infolence or haughtinefs. All 
thefe things are familiar, are not thought of, and we 
enjoy them as we enjoy ordinary health, without per- 
ceiving it. But in the fame manner as a young man 
Vv'ho has been long confined by ficknefs, exults in re- 
turning health, and is apt to riot in the enjoyment of 
what he fo diftinctly feels ; fo thofe who are under 
continual check in open fociety, feel this emancipa- 
tion in thofe hidden affemblies, and indulge with ea- 
gernefs in the expreffion of fentiments which in public 
they muil fmother within their own breaft. Such 
meetings, therefore, have a zeft that is very alluring, 
and they are frequented with avidity. There is no 
country in Europe wiicrc this kind of enjoyment is fo 
poig-nant as in Germany. Very infignificant principa- 
lities have the fame rank in the General Federation 
with very excenfive dominions. The internal confti- 
tucion of each petty (late being modelled in nearly the 
lame manner, the official honours of their little courts 
become ludicrous and even farcical. The Geheim 
I-Iofrath, the liofmarefchal, and all the Kammerhers 
tof a Prince, whofe dominions do not equal the eftates 

of 



CHAP. 1. FREE MASOl^RY. 75 

of many Engliili Squires, caufe the whole to appear 
like the play of children, and muft give frequent oc- 
cafion for difcontent and ridicule, Mafon Lodges even 
keep this alive. The fraternal equality profefTed in 
them is very flattering to thofe who have not fucceed- 
ed in the fcramble for civil diftindlions. Such perfons 
become the mofb zealous Maions, and generally ob- 
tain the adlive offices in the' Lodges, and have an op- 
portunity of treating w^ith authority perfons whom in 
public fociety they muft look up to with fome refped:. 

Thefe confiderations account, in fome meafure, for 
the importance which Free Mafonry has acquired in 
Germany. For a long while the hopes of learning 
fome wonderful fecret made a German Baron think no- 
thing of long and expendve journies in queft of fome 
new degree. Of late, the cofmo-political dodlrines 
encouraged and propagated in the Lodges, and fome 
hopes of producing a Revolution in fociety, by which 
men of talents lliould obtain the management of public 
affairs, feem to be the caufe of all the zeal with which 
the order is ftill cheriflied and promoted. In a perio- 
dical work, publifhed at Neuwied, called Algemein 
Zeitung der Freymaurerey ^\wt have the lift of the Lodges 
in 1782, with the names of the Office-bearers. Four- 
fifths of thefe are clergymen, profeiTors, perfons hav- 
ing offices in the common law-courts, men of letters 
by trade, fuch as reviewers and journalifts, and other 
pamphleteers ; a clafs of m.en, who generally think 
that they have not attained that rank in fociety to 
which their talents entitle them, and imagine that they 
could difcharge the imiportant offixes of the ftate witli 
reputation to themfclves and advantage to the public. 

The miferable uncertainty and inftability of the Ma- 
fonic faith, which 1 defcribed above, was not altoge- 
ther the elfeft of mere chance, but had been greatly 
accelerated bv the machinations of Baron Kni^o-e, and 

fome 



76 THE SCHISMS IN CHAP. I. 

fome other cofmo-political Brethren whom he had 
called to his affiRance. Knicro-e had now formed a 
fcheme for uniting the whole Fraternity, for the pur- 
pofe of promoting his Utopian plan of univerfal bene- 
volence in a ftate of liberty and equality. He hoped 
to do this more readily by completing their embarrafT- 
ment, and (howing each fyitem hovv^ infirm its foundation 
was, and how little chance it had of obtaining a general 
adherence. The Striken Obfervanz had now completely 
loft its credit, by which it had hoped to get the better 
of all the rell. Knigge therefore propofed a plan to the 
Lodges of Frankfort and Wetzlar, by which all the fyf- 
tems might, in fome meafufe, be united, or at lead be 
brought to a ftate of mutual forbearance and inter- 
courfe. He propofed that the Englifh fyftem fhould 
be taken for the ground -work, and to receive all and 
only thofe who had taken the three fymbolical degrees, 
as they were now generally called. After thus guard- 
ing this general point of faith, he propofed to allow 
the validity of every degree or rank which lliould be 
received in any Lodge, or be made the charadler of 
any particular fyftem. Thefe Lodges having fecured 
the adherence of feveral others, brought about a ge- 
neral convention at Willcmlbad in Hainault, where 
every different fyftem fhould communicate its peculiar 
tenets. It was then hoped, that after an examination 
of them all, a conftitution might be formed, which 
fhould comprehend every thing that was moft worthy 
of feledion, and therefore be far better than the ac- 
commodating fyftem already defcribed. By this he 
hoped to get his favourite fcheme introduced into the 
whole Order, and Free Mafons made zealous Citizens 
of the World. I believe he was fincerc in thefe in- 
tentions, and did not vvifh to diilurb the public peace. 
The convention was accordingly held, and iafted a 

long 



GHAP. I. FREE MASONRY. 77 

long while, the deputies confulting about the frivoli- 
ties of Mafonry, with all the ferioufnefs of ftate am- 
bafladors. But there was great iliynefs in their com- 
munications i and Knigge was making but fmall pro- 
grefs in his plan, when he met with another Mafon, 
the Marquis of Conftanza, who in an infbant convert- 
ed him, and changed all his meafures, by fliowing him 
that he (Knigge) V7as only doing by halves what was 
already accompliilied by another Society, which had 
carried it to its full extent. They immediately fee 
about undoing what he had been occupied with, and 
heightened as much as they could the dilfentions al- 
ready fufficiently great, and, in the mean time, got 
the Lodges of Frankfort and Wetzlar, and feveral 
others, to unite, and pick out the bed of the things 
they had obtained by the communications from the 
other fyftems, and they formed a plan of what they 
called, the Edecfic or i>y?! critic Mafonry of the United 
Ledges o( GtrrViZny. They compofed a coniiitution, 
ritual, and catechifm, which has merit, and is indeed 
the completed body of Free Mafonry that wc have. 

Such was the flate of this celebrated and myfterious 
Fraternity in Germ.any in 1776. The fpiric of inno- 
vation had fcrized ail the Brethren. No man could 
give a tolerable account of the origin, hidory, or ob- 
jedl of the Order, and it appeared to all as a led or 
forgotten mydery. The fymbols feemed to be equal- 
ly fufccptible of every interpretation, and none of thefe 
feemed entitled to any decided preference. 



CHAP. 



[ 78 J 



G H A P. II. 



The lUuminati, 



1 HAVE now arrived at what I fhould call the great 
epoch of Cofmo-politifm, the fcheme communicated 
to Baron Knigge by the Marcheje di Conftanza. This 
obliges me to mention a rcm.arkablc Lodge of the 
Eclectic Mafonry, ered^d at Munich in Bavaria in 
1775, under the woriliipful Mafter, ProfeiTor Baader. 
It was called The Lodge Theodore of Good Ccunjel. It 
had its conftitutional patent from the Royal York at 
Berlin, but had formed a particular fyftem of its own, 
by in{lru6lions from the Loge des Chevaliers Bienfaijants 
at Lyons, vv^ith which it kept up a correfpondence. 
This refpedt to the Lodge at Lyons had arifen from 
the preponderance acquired in general by the French 
party in the convention at Willemfbad. The depu- 
ties of the Rofaic Lodges, as well as the remains of 
the Templars, and Stril^en Ohjervanz^ all looking up 
to this as the mother Lodge of what they called the 
Grand Orient de la France J confiding in (in 1782) of 
iG(y improved Lodges united under the D. de Chartres, 
Accordingly the Lodge at Lyons fent Mr. Wiier- 
mooz as deputy to this convention at Wiiiemfoad. 
Refining gradually on the fmiple Britifh Mafonry, the 
Lodge had formed a fyflem of pra6l"ical moralicy, 
which it alicrted to be the aim of genuine Mafonry, 

faying, 



CHAF. II. THE ILLUMINATI. 79 

faying, that a true mafon, and a man of upright heart 
and a6live virtue, are fynonimous chara6lers, and that 
the great aim of Free Mafonry is to promote the hap- 
pincfs of mankind by every mean in our power, in 
purfuance of thefe principles, the Lodge Theodore 
profefledly occupied itfelf with oeconomical, flatifli- 
cal, and political matters, and not only publifhed 
from time to time difcourfes on fuch fubjecfts by the 
Brother Orator, bun the Members confidered them- 
felves as in duty bound to propagate and inculcate the 
fame doftrines out of doors. 

Of the zealous members of the Lodge Theodore 
the moil confpicuous was Dr. Adam Weifhaupt, Pro- 
feifor of Canon Lav/ in the Univerfuy of Ingolftadt. 
This pcrfon had been educated among the Jefuits ; 
but the abolition of their order made him change his 
views, and from being their pupil, he became their 
moft bitter enemy. He had acquired a high reputa- 
tion in his profefTion, and was attended not only by 
thofe intended for the practice in the law-courts, but 
aifo by young gentlemen at large in their courfe of ge- 
neral education ] and he brought numbers from 
the neighbouring Hates to this univerfity, and gave a 
ten to the ftudies of the place. He embraced v;ith 
great keennefs this opportunity of fpreading the favo- 
rite do6lrines of the Lodge, and his auditory became 
the fcminary of Cofmo-politifm. The engaging pic- 
tures of the pofTible felicity of a fociety where every 
o£Bce is held by a man of talents and virtue, and where 
every talent is fet in a place fitted for its exertion, for- 
cibly catches the generous and unfufpe(51:ing minds of 
youth, and in a Roman Catholic (late, far advanced 
in the habits of grofs fuperilition (a character given to 
Bavaria by its neighbours) and abounding in monks 
and idle dignitaries, the opportunities muft be frequent 
for obferving the inconfiderate dominion of the clergy, 

and 



So THE ILLUMINaTI. CHAP.. II. 

and the abje6i: and indolent fubmifTion of the laity. 
Accordingly ProfeiTor Weiiliaupt lays, in his Apo- 
logy for liJLiminatifm, that Dciim, Infidelity, and 
Atheifm are more prevalent in Bavaria than in any 
country he was acquainted with. Difcourfes, there- 
fore, in which the abfurdity and horrors of fuperfli- 
tion and fpiritual tyranny were flrongly painted, could 
not fail of making a deep impreffion. And during 
this Rate of the minds of the auditory the tranfition to 
general infidelity and irreligion is fo eafy, and fo invit- 
ing to fanguine youth, prompted perhaps by a latent 
v^iih that the reflraints Vv'hich religion impofes on the 
expectants of a future flate might be found, on enquii-y, 
to be nothing but groundlefs terrors, that I imagine it 
requires the mofb anxious care of the public teacher 
to keep the minds of his audience imprefTed with the 
reality and importance of the great truths of religion, 
while he frees them from the ihackles of blind and ab- 
furd fuperftition. I fear that this celebrated inftruclor 
had none of this anxiety, but was fatisfied with his 
great fuccefs in the lafl part of this tafli:, the emancipa- 
tion of his young hearers from the terrors of fuperftition, 
I fuppofe alfo that this was the more agreeable to him, 
as it procured him the triumph over the Jefuits, with 
whom he had long ftruggled for the direction of the 
univerfity. 

This v/as in 1777. Vv'eifhaiipt had long been 
fcheming the eftabliiflbmcnt of an Aifociation or Order, 
which, in time, fliould govern the v/orld. In his firfl; 
fervour and high expectations, he hinted to ftveral 
Ex- Jefuits the probability cf their recovering, under 
anew name, the iniluence which they formerly pof- 
fefiTed, and of being again of great fervice to fociety, 
by directing the education of youth of diftin^lion, now 
emancipated from all civil and religious prejudices. 
He prevailed on fome to join him^ but they all retrac- 
ted 



CHAP. 11. THE ILLUMINATI, 8l 

ted but two. After this dlfappointment WelfhaupC 
became the implacable enemy of the Jcfuits -, and his 
fanguine temper made him frequently lay himfelf open 
to their piercing eye, and drew on him their keeneft 
refentment, and ac lail made him the vidlim of their 
enmity. 

The Lodge Theodore was the place where the 
above-mentioned doctrines were moft zealouOy propa- 
gated. But Weiiliaupt's emiifarics had already pro- 
cured the adherence of many other Lodges ^ and the 
Eclectic Mafonry had been brought into vogue chiefly 
by their exertions at the Willemibad convention. The 
Lodge Theodore was perhaps lefs guarded in its pro- 
ceedings, for it became remarkable for the very bold 
fentiments in politics and religion vyhich were fre- 
cjuently uttered in their harangues ^ and its members 
were noted for their zeal in making profelytes. Many 
bitter pafquinades, fatires, and other oflenfive pam- 
phlets were in ferret circulation, and even Larger works 
of very dangerous tendency, and feveral of them v/ere 
traced to that Lodge. The Eledor often exprefTcd 
his difapprobation of fuch proceedings, and fent them 
kind mclfaoes, defirinp: them to be careful not to dif- 
turb the peace of the country, and particularly to re- 
collect the folemn declaratiox*i made to every entrant 
into the Fraternity of Free Mafons, ^^ That no fubject 
" of religion or policies iliall ever be touched on in 
'/ the Lodge ;" a declaration which alone could have 
procured his permiifnon of any fccret aflembly what- 
ever, and on the fmcerity and honour of which he had 
reckoned when he gave his fanclion to their eitablifn- 
m^ent. But repeated accounts of the iame kind in- 
creafcd the alarms, and the Eleclor ordered a judicial 
enquiry into the procecdinp;s of the Lodge Theodore. 

Ic Vv^as then difcovered that this and feveral afiociated 
Lod.ies were the nurlVry or preiiaration fchool for an- 

L other 



S2 THEILLUMINATI. CHAP. If. 

Other Order of Mafons, who called thcmfelves the 
Illuminated, and that the cxprefs aim of this Order 
was to abolifh Chriflianity, and overturn all civil go- 
vernment. But the refuk of the enquiry was very im- 
perfe6t and unfatisfadlory. No illuminati were to be 
found. They were unknown in the Lodge. Some 
of the members occafionally heard of certain candi- 
dates for illumination called Minep.vals, who were 
fometimes feen among them. But whether thefe had 
been admitted, or who received them, was known 
only to themfelves. Some of thefe were examined in 
private by the Eledlor himfelf. They faid that they 
%vere bound by honour to fecrecy : But they allured 
the EIe61:or, on their honour, that the aim of the Or- 
der was in the higheft degree praife-worthy, and ufe- 
ful both to church and ftate. But this could not allay 
the anxiety of the profane public j and it was repeat- 
edly ftated to the Eledlor, that members of the Lodge 
Theodore had unguardedly fpoken of this Order as 
one that in time mufb rule the world. He therefore 
iffued an order forbidding, during his pleafure, all fe- 
cret aflemblies, and fhucting up the Mafon Lodges. 
It v/as not meant to be rigoroufiy enforced, but was 
intended as a trial of the deference of thefe Aflbciations 
for civil authority. The Lodge Theodore diflin- 
guifned itfeif by pointed oppoficion, continuing its 
meetings; and the members, out of doors, openly re- 
probated the prohibition as an abfurd and unjuftifiable 
tyranny. 

In the beginning of 17 83, four profeiTors of the 
Marianen Academy, founded by the widow^ of the late 
Ele6lor, viz. Utfchneider, ColTandey, Renner, and 
Grunberger, with two others, were fummoned before 
the Court of Enquiry, and quedioned, on their alle- 
giance, refpedting the Order of the Illuminati. They 
acknowledged that they belonged to it, and when 

more 



CHAP. II. THE ILLUMINATi. Sg 

more clofely examined, they related fcveral circum- 
ilances of its conlticution and principles. Their de- 
clarations were immediately publiihed, and were very 
iinfav^ourable. The Order was faid to abjure Chrifri- 
anity, and to refuie admilTion into the higher degrees 
to all who adheied to any o( the three confefiions. 
Seniual pleafures were reftored to the rank they held 
in the Epicurean philofophy. Self-murder was jufti- 
fied on Stoical principles. In the Lodges death was 
declared an eternal fleep j patriorifm and loyalty were 
called narrow-minded prejudices, and incompatible 
with univerfal benevolence ; continual declamations 
were made on liberty and equality as the unalienable 
rights of man. The baneful infi'jence of accumulated 
property was declared an infurmountable obftacle to 
the happinefs of any nation whofe chief laws were 
framed for its protection and increafe. Nothing was 
fo frequently difcourfed of as the propriety of employ- 
ing, for a good purpofe, the means which the wicked 
employed for evil purpofes ; and it was taught, that 
the preponderancy of good in the ultimate refult con- 
fecrated every mean employed; and that vvifdom and 
virtue confided in properly determining this balance. 
This appeared big with danger, becaufe it feemed 
evident that nothing would be fcrupled at, if it could 
be made appear that the Order would derive advantage 
from it, becaufe the great objed of the Order was held 
as fuperior to every confidcration. They concluded 
by faying that the method of education made them all 
fpies on each other and on all around them. But all 
this was denied by the Iliuminati. Some of thefe te- 
nets were faid to be abfolutely falfe ; and the reft were 
faid to be miftakes. The apoftate profefibrs had ac- 
knov.'lcdged their ignorance of many things. Two of 
them were only Minervals, another was an Illuminatus 
of the loweft clafs, and the fourth was but one ften 

fiirr^er 



§4 THE ILLUMINATI. CHAP. II. 

farther advanced. Pamphlets appeared on both fides, 
with very little eftedl. The Elc(flor called before him 
one of the fuperiors, a yoiing nobleman, Vv'ho denied 
thofe injurious charges, and laid that they were ready- 
to lay before his Highncfs their whole archives and all 
conftitutional papers. 

Notwitliflanding all this, the government had re- 
ceived fuch an imprellion of the dangerous tendency 
of the Order, that the Elector iffued another edift, 
forbidding all hidden affemblies ; and a third, exprefsly 
aboliHiing the Order of liluminati. It was followed 
by a fearch after their papers. The Lodge Theodore 
was immediately fearched, but none were to be found. 
They faid now that they burnt them ail, as of no ufe, 
fince that Order was at an end. 

It was now difcovered, that Weifliaupt was the head 
and founder of the Order. He was deprived of his 
ProfefTor's chair, and baniihed from the Bavarian 
States ; but with a penfion of 800 florins, which he 
refufed. He went to Regenfburgh, on the confines 
of Switzerland. Two Italians, the Marquis Conflanza 
and Marquis Savioli, were alfo banifhed, with equal 
penfions, (about L. 40,) which they accepted. Oi.e 
Zwack, a counfelior, holding fome law-office, was 
alfo baniflied. Others were imprifoned for Ibme time. 
Weifhaupt went afterwards into the fervice of the D. 
of Saxe Gotha, a perfon of a romantic turn of mind, 
and whom we lliall ap-ain meet with. Zwack went 
into the fervice of the Pr. dc Salms, who foon after 
had fo orreat a hand in the difturfbances in Holland. 

By deftroying the papers, all opportunity was loft 
for authenticating the innocence and ufefulnefs of the 
Order. After much altercation and paper war, Weif- 
haupt, now fafe in Regenfburg, publifiied an account 
of the Order, namely, the account which was given 
t® every Novice in a difcourfe read at his reception. 

To 



CHAP. II. THE ILLUMINATI. 85 

To this were added the fcatutes and the rules of pro- 
ceeding, as flir as the degree o^ Illuminaliis Minor, in- 
cluded. This account he affirmed to be conformable 
to the real pra6lice of the Order. But this publication 
did by no means fatisfy the public mind. It differed 
exceedingly from the accounts given by the four pro- 
fefibrs. It made no mention of the higher degrees, 
which had been moft blamed by them. Befides, it 
was alleged, that it was all a fi6lion, written in order 
to lull the fufpicions which had been raifed (and this 
was found to be the cafe, except in refped: of the very 
lowefl degree).- The real conllitution was brought to 
light by degrees, and fliali be laid before the reader, 
in the order in which it was gradually difcovered, that 
we may the better judge of things not fully known by 
the condu6lofthe leaders during the dete'd:ion. The 
firft account given by Wcifhaupc is corredl, as far as I 
ihall make ufe of it, and fliows clearly the methods 
that were taken to recommend the Order to ftran- 



gers. 



The Order of Illuminati appears as an acceflbry 
to Free Mafonry. Ic is in the Lodges of Free Mafons 
that the Minervals are lound, and there they are pre- 
pared for Illumination. They m.uil have previoufiy ob- 
tained the three Engliili degrees. The founderfays more. 
He fays that his do6trines are the only true Free Mafonry. 
He was the chief promoter of the EcleElic Syftem. This h(^ 
urged as the bell method for 9;ettino- information of all 

*w/ *— ' viz? 

the explanations which have been given of the Mafonic 
Myfteries. He was alfo a Stri5f Obfervanz, and an 
adept Rofycrucian. The refult of all his knowledge is 
worthy of particular remark, and fnali therefore be 
ffiven at large. 

^^ I declare," fays he, " and I challenge all man- 
*' kind to contradict my declaration, that no man can 



'^ give 



86 



THE ILLUMINATI. 



CHAP. n. 



yivc any account of the Order of Free Mafonry, of 
ics origin, of its hi (lory, of its obje6l, nor any ex- 
planation of its myderies and fymbols, which does 
not leave the mind in total uncertainty on all thtfc 
points. Every man is entitled, therefore, to give 
any expUnation of the fymbols, and any fvileni of 
the dodlrlnes, that he can render palatable. Hence 
have iprung up chat variety of fyftems which for 
twenty years have divided the Order. The fim- 
pie tale of the Englilli, and the fifty degrees of 
the French, and the Knights of Baron Hunde, are 
equally authentic, and have equally had the fupporc 
of intelligent and zealous Brethren. Thefe fyllems 
are in facl but one. They have all fprung from the 
Blue Lodg-e of Three decrees j take thefe for their 
ftandard, and found on thefe all the improvements 
by which each iyftem is afterwards fuited to the par- 
ticular obje6t which it keeps in view. There is no 
man, nor fyflem, in thev/orld, which can fnovv by 
undounred fucceirion that it fiiould (land at the head 
of the Order. Our ignorance in this particular frets 
me. Do but coafider our fnort hiilory of 1 20 years. 
—Who will fnow me the Mother Lodge ? Thofe 
of London we have difcovered to be feif-ere6i:ed in 
17 1 6. Afls: for their archives. They tell you they 
were burnt. They have nothing but the wretched 
fophiilications of the Englifliman Anderfon, and 
the Frenchman Defaguilliers. Vv^here is the Lodge 
of York, which pretends to the priority, with their 
King Bouden, and the archives that he brought from 
the Eaft ? Thefe too are all burnt. What is the 
Chapter of Old Aberdeen, and its Holy Clericatc ? 
t)id we not find it unknown, and the Mafon Lodges 
there the moil ignorant of all the ignorant, gaping 
for inftrudtion from our deputies ? Did we not find 
the fame; thing at London I and have not their 

" millionarie^ 



CHAP. II. 



THE TLLUMIXATI. 8? 



(C 






'^ mifTionaries been among ns, prying into our myftc- 
'' rics, and eager to learn from us what is true Free 
*' Mafonry ? It is in vain, therefore, to appeal to 
judges; they are no where to be found; all claim 
for thcmfelves the fceptre of the Order i all indeed 
are on an equal footing. They obtained followers, 
'^ not from their authenticity, but from their condu- 
*^ civencfs to the end which they propofcd, and from 
'' the importance of that end. It is by this fcale that 
'' we mufc mcafure the mad and wicked explanations 
*^ of the Rofycrucians, the Exorcifts, and Cabalifts. 
^^ Thefe are reje6led by all good Mafons, becaufe in- 
" compatible with ibcial happinefs. Only fuch fy fee ms 
" as promote this are retained. But alas, they are all 
fadly deficient, becaufe they leave us under the do- 
minion of political and religious prejudices ; and 
they are as inefficient as the^deepy dofc of an ordi- 
*^ nary fermon, 

'* But I have contrived an explanation which has 
every advantage -, is inviting to Chriilians of every 
communion -, gradually frees them from all religious 
prejudices ; cultivates the focial virtues ; and ani^ 
mates them by a great, ateailble, andy^^.f^y profpec^ 
of univerfal happinefs, in a ilate of liberty and mo- 
ral equality, freed from the obflacles which fubordi- 
nation, rank, and riches, continually throw in our 
way. My explanation is accurate, and complete, . 
'^ my means are cife61:ual5 and irrefifrible. Our iccret 
" i^iTociation works in a way that nothing can with- 
fcand, (ind man JIj all Jo en he free and haffy, 
'^ This is i?he great obiedt held out by this AITocia- 
tion, and the ineans of attaining it is Illumination, 
enlightening the undcriianding by the fun of reafon, 
which v^^ill difpel the clouds of fuperftition and ofpre- 
judice. The proficients in this Order are therefore 
juPtiy named the Illuminated, And of all Illumina- 

*' tion 



f c 



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8S <^^HE ILLUMIN ATI. CHAP. 11. 

tion which human reafon can give, none is compara- 
ble to the difcovery of what we arc, our nature, our 
obligations, what happinefs we are capable of, and 
what are the means of" attaining it. In comparifon 
with this, the moil brilliant fciences are but amufe- 
ments for the idle and luxurious. To fit man by 
Illumination for a6tive virtue, to engage him to it 
by the ilrongefl: motives, to render the attainment 
of it eafy and certain, by finding employment for 
every talent, and by placing every talent in its pro- 
per fphere of adlion, lb that all, without feeling any 
extraordinary effort, and in conjundlion with and 
completion of ordinary bufinefs, (hail urge forward, 
with united powers, the general tafk. This indeed 
will be an employment, fuited to noble naturcs> 
grand in its views, and delightful in its exercife. 
*' And v/hatis this general obie6L ? the happiness 
OF THE HUMAN RACE. Is it uot ditlrcffing to a 
generous mind, afcer comtemplating what human 
nature is capable of, to fee how little we enjoy ? 
When we look at tliis goodly v/orld, and fee that 
every man 'may be happy, but that the happinefs of 
one depends on the conduct of another \ when we 
fee the wicked fo pov/erful and the good {o v/eak ; 
and that it is in vain x.o drive fin,o;]y and alone, ao-ainft 
the general current of vice and opprelTion : the wilh 
naturally ariles in the mind, thai" it werepoffible to 
form a durable combinati(5n of the moil worthv 
perfons, who lliould work together in removing the 
obllacies to human happinefs, beccine terrible to 
the wicked, and give their aid to all the good with- 
out diftindlion, and fliould, by tlie moil pov^'crful 
means, firil fetter, and by fettering, leffen vice \ 
means which at the fam.e time ihouki promote virtue, 
by rendering the inclination to redtitude hitherto lb 

feeble, 



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CHAP. II. THE ILLUMINATI. 8^ 

" feeble, more powerful and engaging. Would not 
*^ fuch an alTociation be a bleffing to the world ? 

" But where are the proper perfons, the good, the 
^^ generous, and the accomplifned, to be found -, and 
*^ how, and by what flrong motives, are they to be 
«^ induced to engage in a tafk fo vaft, fo inceffant, fo 
^^ difficult, and fo laborious ? This AiTociation muft 
*^ be gradual. There are fome fuch perfons to be 
*^ found in every fociety. Such noble minds will be 
^^ engaged by the heart-warming obje6t. The firfl taflc 
*^ of the AiTociation mull therefore be to form the 
young members. As thefe mxultiply and advance, 
they become the apoflks of beneficence, and the 
work is now on foot, and advances with a fpecd en- 
crealing every day. The flighteft obfervation fhows 
^' that nothing will fo much contribute to increafe the 
'^ zeal cf the members as fecret union. We fee with 
*^ what keennefs and zeal the frivolous bufinefs cf 
*' Free Mafonry is condudled, by perfons knit toge- 
*' ther by the fecrecy of their union. It is needlefs to 
** enquire into the caufes of this zeal which fecrecy 
" produces. It is an univerfal (dd:, confirm.ed by the 
" hiftory of every age. Let this circumftance of our 
^^ conftitution therefore be dire6Led to this noble pur- 
pofe, and then all the objedions urged againft it by 
jealous tyranny and affrighted fupcrftition wilivanifn. 
The order will thus work filently, and fecurely ^ 
and though the generous benefaclors of the human 
race are thus deprived of the applaufe of the world, 
they have the noble pleafurc of feeing their work 
profperin their hands." 
Such is the aim, and fuch are the hopes of the Or- 
der of the Illuminated. Let us now fee howthefe were 
to be accomplifhed. We cannot judge with perfeft 
certainty of this, becaufe the account given of the con- 
ftitution of the Order by its founder includes only the 

M iowcH 



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90 THE ILLUMINATI. CHAP. II. 

loweit degree, and even this is liable to great fufpicion. 
The accounts given by the four ProfcfTors, even of 
this part of the Order, make a very different imprefTion 
on the mindj although they differ only in a few parti- 
culars. 

The only oRenfiblc members of the Order were the 
Minervais. They v/ere to be found only in the Lodges 
of Free Mafons. A candidate for admiffion muff make 
his wifn known to fome Minerval -, he reports it to a 
Superior, v/ho, by a channel to be explained prefently, 
intimates it to the Council. No notice is farther taken 
of it for fome time. The candidate is carefully ob- 
ferved in filence, and if thought unfit for the Order, 
no notice is taken of his folicitation. But ifotherv>^ife, 
the candidate receives privately an invitation to a con- 
ference. Here he meets with a perfon unknown to 
him, and, previous to all further conference, he is re- 
quired to perufe and to fign the following oath : 

'* I, N. N. hereby bind myfelf, by mine honour 
'* and good name, forfwearing all mental refervation, 
never to reveal, by hint, Vv'ord, writing, or in any 
manner v^hatever, even to my moft trufted friend, 
any thing that fhall now be faid or done to me re- 
fpe6ling my wifhed-for reception, and this whether 
my reception fliall follow or not, I being previoufly 
" aiTured that it lliail contain nothing contrary to reli- 
gion, the irate, nor good manners. I promife, that 
I ihail make no intelligible extract from any papers 
" which fhall be Iliewn me nov/ or during my novi- 
^•^ ciate. All this I fwear, as I am, and as I hope to 
^'^ continue, a Man of Honour." 

The urbanity of this protedation mud agreeably 
imprefs the mind of a perfon who recolle(5cs the dread- 
ful imprecations which he made at his reception into 
the different ranks of Free Mafonry. The candidate 
is then introduced to an Illummatus DirigenSy whom 

perhaps 



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(C 

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CHAP. II. THE ILLUMINATI. 9I 

perhaps he knows, and is told that this ptribn is to be 
his future inlLru61:or. There is now prefented to the 
candidate, what they call a table, in which he writes 
his name, place of birth, age, rank, place ofrefidence, 
profeflion, and favourite iludies. He is then made 
to read feveral articles of this table. It contains, ijly 
a very concife account of the Order, its connec^tion 
with Free Mafonry, and its great obje6l, the promo- 
ting the happinefs of m.ankind by means of inflruclion 
and confirmation in virtuous principles. 2^/, Several 
queftions relative to the Order. Among thefe are, 
*^ What advantages he hopes to derive from being a 
" memiber ? What he moft particularly wnlhes to 
*^ learn ? What delicate quefbions relative to the life, 
'^ the profpe6ts, the duties of man, as an individual, 
^^ and as a citizen, he wifhes to have particularly dif- 
** cuffed to him ? In what refpefts he thinks he can 
" be of ufe to the Order? Who are his ancellors, re- 
'^ lations, friends, correipondents, or enemies ? Whom 
'^ he thinks proper perfons to be received into the 
" Order, or whom lie thinks unfit for it, and the rea- 
*^ fons for both opinions ?" To each of thefe queftions 
he muft Q^ive fome anrvvcr in writing;. 

The Novice an^-l his Mentor are known only to each 
other; perhaps nothing more follov/s upon this; if 
otherv/ife, the Mentor appoints another conference, 
and begins his inftrudions, by giving him in detail 
certain portions of the conilitution, and of the funda- 
mental rules of the Order, Of thefe the Novice muil 
give a weekly account in writing. He muft alfo read, 
in the Mentor's houfe, a book containing more of the 
inftru(5tions of the Order; but he muft make no ex- 
tracts. Yet from this reading he muft derive all his 
knowledge ; and he muft give an account in writing 
of his progrefs. All writings received from his Supe- 
riors muft be returned with a ftated puncbualiry. — 

Thefe 



§2 THE ILLUMINATI. CHAP. II. 

Thefe writings confift chiefly of important and delicate 
queftions, fuited, either to the particular inclination, 
or to the peculiar tafle which the candidate had difco- 
vered in his fubfcriptions of the articles of the table, 
and in his former refcripts/ or to the dire6tion which 
the Mentor wilhes to eive to his thouo-hts. 

Enlightening the underftanding, and the rooting out 
of prejudices^ are pointed out to him as the principal 
taflis of his noviciate. The knowledge of himfelf is 
confidered as preparatory to all other knowledge. To 
difclofe to him, by means of the calm and unbiafTed 
obfervation of his inilruclor, what is his own charadter, 
his mod vulnerable fide, cither in refpedt of temper, 
paflions, or prepoiTefrions, is therefore the mod efTen- 
tial fervice that can be done him. For this purpofe 
there is required of him fome account of his own con- 
du6l on occafions where he doubted of its propriety; 
fome account of his friendfhips, of his differences of 
opinion, and of his condufl on fuch occafions. From 
fuch relations the Superior learns his manner of think- 
ing and judging, and thofe propenfities which require 
his chief attention. 

Having made the candidate acquainted with himfelf, 
he is apprifed that the Order is not a fpeculative, but 
an a6i:ive aiTociation, engaged in doing good to others. 
The knowledge of human chara6ler is therefore of all 
others the moil important. This is acquired only by 
obfervation, affiflied by the inilrudtions of his teacher. 
Chara6Lers in hiftory are propofed to him for obferva- 
tion, and his opinion is required. After this he is di- 
rected to look around him, and to notice the conduct 
of other nr.en ; and part of his weekly refcripts mufl 
confift of accounts of all interefting occurrences in his 
neighbourhood, whether of a public or private nature. 
Cofiandey, one of the four ProfelTars, gives a parti- 
cular account of the indrufliions relating to this kind 

■ of 



€HAP. II. THE ILLUMINATI. pj 

of fcience. " The Novice muil be attentive to tri- 
5^ fles : For in frivolous occurrences a man is indolent, 
'^ and makes no effort to act a part, fo that his real 
^^ character is then ading alone. Nothing will have 
*^ fuch influence with the Superiors in promoting the 
^^ advancement of a candidate as very copious narra- 
^' tions of this kind, becaufc the candidate, if pri>mo- 
^' tedj is to be employed in an adlive ftation, and it 
^' is from this kind of information only that the Supe- 
^^ riors can judge of his fitnefs. Thele charafterillic 
^^ anecdotes are not for the inftru6lion of the Superi- 
" ors, who are men of long experience, and familiar 
*^ with fuch occupation. But they inform the Order 
^' concerning the talents and proficiency of the young 
'^ member. Scientific inflru6lion, being conneded 
'^ by fyftem, is foon communicated, and may in ge- 
'^ neral be very completely obtained from the books 
^^ which are recommended to the Novice, and acqui- 
^^ red in the public fcminaries of in(lru(5lion. But 
^^ knowledge of chara6ter is more multifarious and 
'^ more delicate. For this there is no college, and it 
*^ muft therefore require longer time for its attainment. 
'^ Befides, this affiduous and long continued ftudy of 
'^ men, enables the poffeflbr of fuch knowledge to a61: 
*^ with men, and by his knowledge of their character, 
*^ to influence their condud. For fuch reafons this 
*^ fliudy is continued, ^nd thefe refcripts are required, 
^^ during the whole progrefs through the Order, and 
" attention to them is recomm.ended as the only meaa 
^^ of advancement. Remarks on Phyfiognomy in 
^^ thefe narrations are accounted of confiderable va- 
'' lue." So far Mr. Coffandey. 

During all this trial, which may lafl: one, two, or 
three years, the Novice knows no perfon of the Order 
but his own inftruclor, with whom he has frequent 
meetings, along with other Minervals. In thefe con- 

verfations 



94 I^HE ILLUMINATI. CHAP. II, 

verfatlons he learns the importance of tiiQ Order, and 
the opportunities he v»?ill afterwards have of acquiring 
much hidden fcience. The employment of his un- 
known Superiors naturally caufes him to entertain very 
high notions of their abilities and worth. He is coun- 
fellcd to aim at a refemblance to them by getting rid 
by degrees of all thofe prejudices or prepolTefiions 
which checked his own former progrefs , and he is af- 
fifted in this endeavour by an invitation to a correfpon- 
dence with them. He may addrefs his Provincial 
Superior, by dire6ling his letter Soli, or the General 
by PrimOj or the Superiors in general by ^ibus licet. 
In thefe letters he may mention whatever he thinks 
conducive to the advancement of the Order; he may 
Inform the Superiors how his indrudor behaves to 
him ; if alTiduous or rem/ifs, indulgent or fevere. The 
Superiors are enjoined by the ftrongefl m>otives to con- 
vey thefe letters wherever addrelTed. None but the 
General and Council know the refuk of all this; and 
all are enjoined to keep themfelves and their proceed- 
ings unknown to all the world. 

If three years of this Noviciate have elapfed with- 
out further notice, the Minerval mull: look for no fur- 
ther advancement; he is found unfit, and remains a 
Free Mafon of the higheil clafs. This is called a Sta 
bene. 

But fhould his Superiors judge more favourably of 
him, he is drawn out of the general mafs of Free 
M^fons, and becomics Illuminatu^ Minor. When call- 
ed to a conference for this purpofe, he is told in iV.t 
mod ferious manner, that '' it is vain for him to hope 
'^ to acquire wifdom by mere fyPiemutic infl:ru6lion j 
^^ for fuch in{lru6]:ion the Superiors have no leifure. 
" Their duty is not to form fpeculators, but a6live 
^' men, whom they muft immediately employ in the 
'^ fervice of the Order. He mud therefore, grow v>^ife 

. '' and 






«HAP. II. THE ILLUMINATI. 95 

*^ and able entirely by the unfolding and exertion of 
*' his own talents. His Superiors have already difco- 
^^ vered what thefe are, and know what fervice he may 
^^ be capable of rendering the Order, provided he 
" now heartily acquiefces in being thus honourably 
" employed. They vvili affiil him in bringing his ta- 
'' lents into aftion, and will place him in the fitua- 
^^ tions moft favourable for their exertion, fo that he 
*^ may be affured of fuccefs. Hitherto he has been a 
^^ mere fcholar, but his firft ilep farther carries him 
'^ into a6lion \ he muft therefore now confider himfelf 
^^ as an inftrument in the hands of his Superiors, to 
" be ufed for the noblefl purpofes." The aim of the 
order is now more fully told him. It is, in one fen- 
tence, " to make of the human race, without any 
diilinftion of nation, condition, or profcflion, one 
good and happy family." To this aim, demonftra- 
bly attainable, every fmaller confideration mult give 
way. This may fometimes require facrifices which no 
man {landing alone has fortitude to make ; but which 
become light, and a fource of the pured enjoyment, 
when fupported and encouraged by the countenance 
and co-operation of the united wife and and good, 
fuch as are the Superiors of the Order. If the candi> 
date, warmed by the alluring pidure of the pollibie 
happinefs of a virtuous Society, fays that he is fenfi- 
ble of the propriety of this procedure, and fiill wifhes 
to be of the Order, he is required to fign the following 
obligation. 

" I, N. N. proted before you, the v/orthy Pleni- 
*^ potentiary of the venerable Order into which I wifh 
" to be admitted, that 1 acknowledge my natural 
«' weaknefs and inability, and that I, with all my pof- 
'^ feillons, rank, honours, and titles V\/hich I hold in 
'^ political fociety, am, at bottom., only a man \ I 
*^ can enioy thefc chines only through mv fellow-men, 

'' and 



^$ THE ILLUMINATI. CHAP. li" 

*^' and through them alfo I may lofe them. The ap- 
*' probation and confideration of my fellow-men are 
«^' indifpenfably neceffary, and I mult try to maintain 
*^ them by all my talents. Thefe I will never ufe to 
" the prejudice of univerfal good, but will oppofe, 
" with ail my might, the enemies of the human race, 
*^ and of political fociety. I will embrace every op- 
'^ portuniuy of faving mankind, by improving my un- 
" derflanding and my affedions, and by imparting all 
^^ important knowledge, as the good and ftatutes of 
«*^ this Order require of me. I bind myfelf to perpe- 
'^ tual fiience and unihaken loyalty and fubmilTion to 
*' the Order, in the perfons of my Superiors ^ here 
'^ making a faithful and complete furrender of mypri- 
'^ vate judgment, my own will, and every narrow- 
" minded employment of my power and influence. I 
" pledse mvfelf to account the good of the Order as 
" my ow.n, and am ready to fcrve it with my fortune, 
" my honour, and my blood. Should I, through 
«' omifnon, negk6l, palTion, or wicknednefs, behave 
«^ contrary to this good of the Order, I 'fubjedt my- 
<^ fclf to what reproof or punifhment my Superiors 
*' ihall enjoin. The friends and enemies of the Order 
^' fhall be my friends and enemies ; and with refpedl 
" to both I will condu6l myfelf as directed by the Or- 
*' dtr, and am ready, in every lawful way, to devote 
*f myfelf to its incrcafe and promotion, and thereinto 
*^ employ all my ability. All this I promife, and pro- 
*' tcil, without fscret refervation, according to the 
«^ intention of the Society which require from m.e this 
*' engagement. This I do as I am, and as I hope to 
*' continue, a Man of Honour." 

A drawn fword is then pointed at his breaft, and he 
is aflced. Will you be obedient to the commands of 
your Superiors ? He is threatened v/ith unavoidable 
ven2:eap.ce, from which no potentate can defend him, 

if 



CHAP. 11. THE ILLUMINATI. 97 

if he fhould ever betray the Order. He Is then a9.<,e:d, 
I. What aim does he willi the Order to have ? 2. What 
means he would choofe to advance this aim ? 3. Whom 
he vvifhcs to keep out of the Order r 4. What lubjects 
he wifhes not to be difcufTed in it ? 

Our candidate is now Illuminatus Minor. It is 
needlefs to narrate the mummery of reception, and it 
is enough to fay, that it nearly refembles that of the 
Mafonic Chevalier du Soleil, known to every one much 
converfant in Mafonry. Weifhaupt's preparatory dif- 
courfe of reception is a piece of good compofuion, 
v/hether confidered as argumentative, (from topics in- 
deed, that are very gratuitous and fanciful,) or as a 
fpecimen of that declamation which was fo much prac- 
tifed by Libanius and the other Sophiils, and it gives 
a diftindt and captivating account of the profcfled aim 
of the Order. 

The Illuminatus Miner Iczrns a good deal more of the 
Order, but by very fparing morfels, under the fam.e 
inn:ru6bor. The tafk has now become more delicate 
and difficult. The chief part of it is the rooting out 
of prejudices in politics and religion ; and Wciihaupc 
has fliovvn much addrefs in the method which he has 
employed. Not the moft hurtful, but the moll eafily 
refuted were the firft fubjecls of difcuffion, fo that the 
pupil gets into the habits of vidtory -, and his reverence 
for the fyflems of either kind is diminifhed Vv'hen they 
are found to have harboured fuch untenable opinions. 
The proceedings in the Ecle6tic Lodges of Mafonry, 
and the harangues of the Brother Orators, teemrd 
with the boldefl: fentiments both in politics and reli- 
gion. Enlightening, and the triumph of rcafon, had 
been the ton of the country for fome time pad, and 
every inftitution, civil and religious, had been the fub- 
je6t of the moil free criticifm. Above all, the Cofmo- 
politifm, imported from France, where it had been 

N the 



C,S THE ILLUMINATI. CHAP. ll. 

the favourite topic of the cnthufiaftical crconomifls, 
was now become a general theme of difcuflion in all fo- 
cieties that had any pretenfions to cultivation. It was 
a fubje6t of ealy and agreeable declamation; and the 
Literati found in it a fubjedl admirably fitted for fhew- 
ing their talents, and ingratiating themfelves with the 
young men of fortune, whole minds, unfufpicious as 
yet and generous, were lired with the fair profpedls fet 
before them of univerfal and attainable happinefs. And 
the pupils of the lUuminati were fliili more warmed by 
the thought that they vv^erc to be the happy inftruments 
of accomplifliing all this. And though the dodlrines 
of univerfal liberty and equality, as imprefcriptible 
rights of man, might fometimes ftartle thofe v/ho pof- 
fefied the advantage of fortune, there were thoufands 
of younger fons, and of m.en of talents without for- 
tune, to whom thefe were agreeable founds. And 
v/e mufl: particularly obferve, that thofe who were 
now the pupils were a fet of picked fubje6ls, whofe 
characters and peculiar biafes were well known by 
their conduct during their noviciate as Minervals. 
They were therefore fuch as, in all probability, would 
not boggle at very free fenciments. We might rather 
expecfl a partiality to doctrines which removed fome 
restraints which formerly checked them in the indul- 
gence of youthful paffions. Their infcrudlors, who 
have thus relieved their minds from feveral anxious 
thoughts, mud appear men of fuperior minds. This 
was a notion mofh carefully inculcated ; and they 
could fee nothing to contradidl it ; for, except their 
own Mentor, they knew none ; they heard of Supe- 
riors of different ranks, but never faw them; and the 
fame mode of inftrudiion that was praclifed during 
their noviciate was Hill retained. More particulars of 
the Order were flowly unfolded to them, and they were 
taught that their Superiors were men of diftinguiflied 

talents, 



CHAP. II. THE ILLUMINATI. ^^ 

talents, and were Superiors for this reafon alone. They 
were taught, that the g;eac opportunities which the 
Superiors had for oblervacion, and their habits of con- 
tinually occupying their thoughts wich the great ob~ 
jecls of this Order, had enlarged their views, even 
far beyond the narrow limits of nations and kingdoms, 
which they hoped would one day coale fee into one 
great Society, where confideracion would attach to ta- 
lents and worth alone, and that pre-eminence in thefe 
would be invariably attended wirh all the enjoyments 
of influence and pov/er. And they were told that 
they would gradually become acquainted vvith theih 
great and venerable Chara6lers, as ihey advanced in 
the Order. In earneft of this, they were made ac- 
quainted with one or two Superiors, and with fe- 
veral Illuminati of their own rank. Alio, to whet 
their zeal, they are now made infcrudtors of one or 
two Minervals, and report their progrefs to their Su- 
periors. They are given to underiland that nothing 
can fo much recommend them as the fuccefs with 
which they perform this tafk. It is declared to be 
the beft evidence of their ufefulnefs in the great de- 
figns of the Ordrr. 

The baleful effects of general fuperdicion, and even 
of any peculiar religious prepoifellion, are now ftrong- 
ly inculcated, and the difcernrnttnt of the pupils in 
thefe matters is learned by queilions which are given 
them from time to time to difcufs. Theic are mana- 
ged with delicacy and circumfpcclion, that the cim.id 
may not be alarmed. In like manner, the political 
doctrines of the Order are inculcated with the utmod 
caution. After the mind of the pupil has been warm- 
ed by the pictures of univerfai happinefs, and convin- 
ced that it is a polTible thing to unite all the inhabi- 
tants of the earth in one great focirty ; and ni'zcr it 
has been made out, in fome meafure to the iatii, faction 

of 



lOO THE ILLUMINATI. C'HAP. II. 

of the pupil, that a great addition of happinefs would 
be trained by the abolition of national diftindiions and 
animofitics ; it may frequently be no hard tafl^ to make 
him think that patriotifm is a narrow-minded monopo- 
iifing fentiment, and even incompatible with the more 
enlarged views of the Order j namely, the uniting the 
vvhole human race into one great and happy fociety. 
Princes are a chief feature of national diftindlion. 
Princes, therefore, may now be fafely reprefented as 
iinnecefiTary. If fo, loyalty to Princes lofes much of 
its facred chara6ler ; and the fo frequent enforcing of 
it in our comm.on political difcuffions m.ay now be ea- 
fjiy made to appear a felfifn maxim of rulers, by which 
they may more eafily enflave the people ^ and thus, it 
may at laft appear, that religion, the love of our par- 
ticular country, and loyalty to our Prince, fhould be 
refilled, if, by thefc partial or narrow viev^s, we pre- 
vent the accomplif]:iment of that Cofmo-political hap- 
pinefs v;hich is continually held forth as the great ob- 
ject of the Order. It is in this point of view that the 
terms of devotion to the Order, which are inferted in 
the oath of adrniilion, are now explained. The au- 
thority of the ruling powers is therefore reprefented as 
of inferior moral Vv^eight to that of the Order. '^ Thefe 
powers are defpots, when they do not conduft them- 
lelves by its principles ; and it is therefore our duty 
" to furround them with its members, fo that the 
profane may have no accefs to them. Thus we are 
able mofl: powerfully to promote its interefts. If 
*^ any perfon is more difpofed to liflen to Princes 
" than to the Order, he is not fit for it, and muft rife 
*^ no higher. We muft do our utmofl to procure the 
" advancement of liluminati into all important civil 
'' offices." 

Accordingly the Order laboured in this with great 
zeal ^nd fuccefs. A correfpondence was difcovered, 

in 



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CHAP. II. THE ILLUMINATI. lOI 

in which it is plain, that by their influence, one of the 
greateft ecclefiaftical dignities was filled up in oppofi- 
tion to the right and authority of the Archbiilaop of 
Spire, who is there reprefented as a tyrannical and bi- 
goted pried. They contrived to place their Members 
as tutors to the youth of diftijidlion. One of them. 
Baron Leuchtfenring, took the charge of a young 
prince without any lalary. They infinuated themfclves 
into all public offices, and particularly into courts of 
juftice. In like manner, the chairs in the Univerfity 
of Ino-olftadt were (with only two exceptions) occupied 
by Illuminati. *^ Rulers who are members mufl be 
" promoted through the ranks of the Order only in 
proportion as they acknowledge the goodnefs of its 
e;reat object, and manner of procedure. Its objedt 
may be faid to be the checking the tyranny of 
princes, nobles, and pritfts, and eftabiiiliing an 
*^ univerfal equality of condition and of religion." 
The pupil is now informed, ** that fuch a religion is 
'^ contained in the Order, is the perfection of Chrif- 
" tianity, and v/ili be imparted to him in due time." 

Thefe and other principles and maxims of the Or- 
der are partly comm.unicated by the verbal inilrudion 
of the Mentor, partly by writings, which mull be 
punctually returned, and partly read by the pupil at 
the Mentor's houfe, (but without taking extradts,) 
in fuch portions as he fhall direCt. The refcripts by 
the pupil mult contain difcuffions on thefe fubjecis, 
and anecdotes and defcriptions of living charadlers; 
and thefe muft be zealoufiy continued, as the chief 
mean of advancement. All this while the pupil knows 
only his Mentor, the Minervals, and a few others of 
his own rank. All mention of degrees, or other bu- 
finefs of the Order, mud be carefully avoided, even 
in the meetings with other members: '' For the Or- 
*^ der wifhes to be fecret, and to work in filence ; for 

" thus 



102 THE ILLUMINATI. CHAP. U. 

" thus it is better fccured from the opprelTion of the 
*^ ruling powers, and becaufc this fccrecy gives a 
'' greater zed to the whole." 

This fhort account of the Noviciate, and of the 
lowed clafs of illuminati, is all we can get from the 
authority of Mr. Weifhaupt. The higher degrees 
were not pubiillied by him. Many circumftances ap- 
pear fufpicious, are certainly fufceptible of different 
turns, and may eafily be pufhed to very dangerous 
extremes. The accounts given by the four prorcffors 
^ confirm thefe lufpicions. They declare upon oath, 
that they make all thefe accufations in confequence of 
what they heard in the meetings, and of what they 
knew of the Higher Orders. 

But fmce the time of the fuppreflion by the Eledlor, 
difcoveries have been made which throw great light 
on the fubje(5l. A coile6lion of original papers and 
correfpondence was found by learching the houfe of 
one Zwack (a Member) in 1786. The following 
year a much larger colle6tion v/as found at the houfe 
of Baron BaiRis ; and fmce that time Baron Knigge, 
the mod active Member next to Weifliaupt, pubiillied 
an account of fome of the higher degrees, which had 
been formed by himfelf A long while ader this were 
publifhed, Neuefte Arheitung des Spcirtacus und Philo in 
der Illuminaten Orderly and Hchere Grciden das Ilium. Or- 
dens. Thefe two works give an account of the whole 
fccret conditution of the Order, its various degrees, 
the manner of conferring them., the indrudtions to the 
intrants, and an explanation of the connc6i:ion of the 
Order with Free Mafonry, and a critical hidory. We 
fhall give fome extracts from fuch of thefe as have 
been publidied. 

Weifhaupt was the founder in 1776. In 1778 the 
number of Members was confiderably increafed, and 
the O.'-der was fully edablifhed. The Members took 

antique 



CHAP. II. THE ILLUMINATI. lOJ 

antique names. Thus Weidiaupt took the name of 
Spartacus, the man Vv^ho headed the infurredlion of 
flaves, which in Pompey's time kept Rome in terror 
and uproar for three years. Zvvack was called Cato. 
Knio-cxe was Philo. Baifus was Hannibal. Hertel 

DO 

was Marius. Marquis Conftanza was Diomedes. — 
Nicolai, an eminent and learned bookfellcr in Berlin, 
and author of feveral works of reputation, took the 
name of Lucian, the great icoffer at all religion. An- 
other was Mahomet, &c. It is remarkable, that ex- 
cept Cato and Socrates, we have not a name of any- 
ancient who was eminent as a teacher and pra6cifer of 
virtue. On the contrary, they feem to have afreclcd 
the charafters of the free-thinkers and turbulent fpirits 
of antiquity. In the fame manner they gave ancient 
names to the cities and countries of Europe. Munich 
was Athens, Vienna was Rome, &c. 



Sparta CMS to CatOy Feb, 6, 1778. 

*^ Men hut eft defaire valoir la raijon. As a fubor- 
*^ dinate obje6t I fhall endeavour to gain fecurity to 
" ourfclves, a backing in cafe of misfortunes, and af- 
*' fiitance from v^ithout. I fhall therefore prefs the 
*^ cultivation of fcience, efpecially fuch fciences as 
*^ may have an influence on our reception in the world, 
<^ and may ferve to remove obftacles out of the way. 
*^ We have to flruggle with pedantry, with intole- 
'^ ranee, with divines and ftatefmen, and above all, 
'^ princes and prieits are in our way. Men are unfit 
** as they are, and mufl be form.ed ; each clafs muft 
^^ be the fchool of trial for the next. This will be te- 
" dious, becaufe it is hazardous. In the lad claffes I 
'^ propofe academ/ks under the dire6lion of the Order. 
^* This will fecure us the adherence of the Literati. 

'^ Science 



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104 TME ILLUMINATI. CHAP. II. 

" Science iLall here be the lure. Only thofe v,^ho are 
aliliredly proper fubjeiSls fliall be picked out from 
among the inferior claffes for the higher mylleries, 
which contain the firfl principles and means of pro- 
moting a happy life. No religionift muft^ on any 
*^ account, be admitted into thefe : For here we work 
*^ at the difcovery and extirpation of fuperllition and 
'' prejudices. The inftrudlions fliall be fo conduced 
'' that each fiiail difclofe what he thinks he conceals 
*^ within his own bread, what are his ruling propenli- 
'^ ties and paflions, and how far he has advanced in 
'^ the command of himfeif This will anfwer all the 
^' purpofes of auricular confefTion. And, in particu- 
lar, every perfon fliall be made a fpy on another 
and on all around him. Nothing can efcape our 
fight J by thefe means we fliall readily difcover who 
are contented, and receive with relifli the peculiar 
*' flate-doClrines and religious opinions that are laid 
*' before them ; and, at laft, the trud-worthy alone 
will be admitted to a participation of the whole 
maxims and political conflitution of the Order. In 
a council compofed of fuch mxcmbers we fliall labour 
at the contrivance of means to drive by degrees the 
enemies of reafon and of humanity out of the world, 
and to efliablifli a peculiar morality and religion fit- 
ted for the great Society of Mankind. 
*' But this is a tickiifla projcifi:, and requires the ut- 
moft circumfpeftion. The fqueam.ifli will fl:art at 
the fight of religious or political novelties ; and 
they mufl: be prepared for them. We mufl; be par- 
ticularly careful about the books which we recom- 
*^ mendi I fhall confme them at firll to moralifl:s and 
*^ reafoning hiflrorians. This will prepare for a patient 
*^ reception, in the higher clafles, of works of a bolder 
'' flight, fuch as Robinet's Syfterne do la Nature — Fdu 
" tique Naliirelle — Fhilofophie de la Nature — Syfteme So- 

'^ cial—-^ 



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CHAP. lU THE ILLUMINATI. IO5 

'^ cial — The writings of Mirabaiid, &c. Helvetius 
'^ is fie only for the ilrongeft llomachs. If any one 
*^ has a copy already, neicher praife nor iind fault with 
*^ him. Say nothing on fuch fubje£ts to intrants, for 
*' we don't know how they will be received — -tolks are 
not yet prepared. IViarius, an excellent man, mud 
be dealt with. His fbomach, which cannot yet di- 
gefl fuch firong food, mull acquire a better tone. 
The allegory on which I am to found the myfteries 
'^ of the Higher Orders is the fire -wor/Jjlp of the Magi. 
'^ We mufi: have fome worfnip, and none is lb appofite. 
'' Let there be light, and tpiere shall be 
'^ LIGHT. This is m.y motto, and is my fundamental 
'^ principle. The degrees will be Fener Orderly Parfen 
*' Orden* ; all very practicable. In the courfc through 
" thefe there will be no sta bene (this is t\-\t anfwer 
" given to one v/ho folicits preferment, and is refufed). 
'^ For I eno;ap;e that none fhall enter this clafs who has 
*^ not laid afide his prejudices. No man is fit for our 
" Order who is not a Erutus or a Catiline, and is noc- 
" readv to go every length. — Tell me how you like 
'' thisV^ 



Spartacus to Cato^ March 1778. 

" To colle6t unpublifned works, and information 
'^ from the archives of States, will be a mod uieful fcr- 
*' vice. We lliall be able to iliow in a verv ridiculous 
light the claimiS of our defpots. Marius (keeper of 
the archives of the Eledtorate) has ferreted out a no- 
ble document, which we have got. He makes it, 
forfooth, a cafe of confcience — how fiiiy that — fmce 



(C 



* This Is evidently the Myjiere da Mithrus mentioned by Barruel, 
in his Hillory of Jacobiniim, and had been cairied into France by 
Bede and Bufche. 

O '' only 






<( 



106 THE ILLUMINATI. CHAP. 11. 

*' only that x^fin which is ultimately produ6live of mif- 
chief. In this cafe, where the advantap-e far exceeds 
the hurt> it is meritorious virtue. It v/ill do more 
'' good in our hands than by remaining for icoo years 
'' on the dufty fhelf." 

There was found in the hand- writing of Zwack a 
prujed: for a Sifterhood, in fubferviency to the defigns 
of the likjminati. In it are the following pailages : 

'' It will be of great fervice, and procure us both 
*' much information and mo.xey^ and will fuit charm- 
" ingly the tafte of many of our trueft members, who 
*5 arc lovers of the fex. It fhould confift of two clalfes, 
the virtuous and the freer hearted (i. e. thofe who 
fly out of the common track of prudifn manners) ; 
they raufi; not know of each other, and mull be iin- 
" der the dirediion of men, but without knowing ir. 
'•'' Proper books mufl: be put into their hands, and fuch 
" (but fecretly) as are flattering to their pafilons.'* 

There are, in the fame hand-writing, Defcription of 
a flrong box, which, if forced open, Ihall blow up and 
deilroy its contents — Several receipts for procuring 
abortion — A compofition which blinds or kills when 
fpurted in the face — A fliect, containing a receipt for 
fympathetic ink — Tea for procuring abortion — Herb^ 
quae haheyit qualitate?n deleieream — A method for filling 
a bed-chamber withpeftilential vapours — How to take 
cfr impreilions of feals, fo as to ufe them afterwards as 
feals — -A collection of fome hundreds of luch imprel- 
fions, with a lift of their owners, princes, nobles, 
clergymen, merchants, &c. — K receipt ad excitandum 
fiircr'eryi uterinum^ — Amanufcript intitled, '' Better than 
Horus." It was afterwards printed and diftributed at 
Leipzig fair, and is an attack and bitter fatire on all re- 
ligion. This is in the hand-writing of Ajax. As alfo a 
difiertation onfuicicie. — N. B. His filter-in-law threw her- 
felffrom the top of a tower. There was alfo a fc t of 

portraits. 



GHAP. II. THE ILLUMINATI. IC7 

portraits, or chara6lers of eighty-five ladles in Munich ; 
with recommendations of fome of them for members 
of a Lodge of Sifter Iliuminatss ; alfo injunclions to all 
the Superiors to learn to Vv^rite with both hands ; and 
that they (hould ufe more than one cypher. 

Immediately after the publication of thefe writings, 
many defences appeared. It was faid that the dread- 
ful medical apparatus were with propriety in the hands 
of Counfellor Zwack, who was a judge of a criminal 
court, and whofe duty it was therefore to know fuch 
things. The fame cxcufe was offered for the collec- 
tion of feals ; but how came thele things to be put up . 
with papers of the liluminati, and to be in the hand- 
v/ritingof one of that Order? Weilhaupt fays, *' Thefe 
'' things were not carried into efFe<51: — only fpoken of, 
^^ and are juflifiable when taken in proper connec- 
*^ tion/' This however he has not pointed outi but 
he appeals to the account of the Order, which he had 
publifhed at Regenfourg, and in which neither thefe 
things are to be found, nor any poiTibility of a con- 
nexion by which they may be juftified. *' All men," 
fays he, '^ are fubjecb to errors, and the be ft man is he 
" v/ho beft conceals them. I have never been guilty 
'^ of any fuch vices or follies : for proof, I appeal to 
" the whole tenor of my life, which my reputation, 
*' and my ftruggles with hoftile cab^ils, had brought 
" completely into public viev/long before the inftitu- 
*' tion of this Order, wirhout abating any thing ofthat 
'^ flattering regard which wa<s paid to me by the firft 
" perfons of my country and its neighbourhood; a re- 
'' gard v/ell evinced by .their confidence in me as the 
'^ beft inftru6lor of their children." In fome of his 
private letters, we learn the means which he employed 
to acquire this influence among the youth, and they 
are fuch as could not fail. But v/e muft not anticipate. 
*' It is v/cll known that I have made the chair which I 

•^^ occupied 



lOS THE ILLUMINATI. CHAP. II. 

^ occupied in the iiniverfity of Ingoldadt, the reforr 
^ of the firft clafs of the German youths whereas for- 
' merly it had only brought round it the low-born 
^ pradiitioners in the courts ot law. I have gone 
^ throuphthe whole circle of human enquiry. I have 
^ exorcifcd fpirits — raifed ghofts — difcovered trea- 
^ fures — -interrogated the Cabala — batte Lcto gejpielt — I 
' have never tranfmuted metals." — (A very pretty 
and refpedlable circle indeed, and what , vulgar fpirits 
would fcarcely have included within the pale of their 
curiofity.) — "^ The Tenor of my life has been the op- 
' pofitc of every thing that is vile; and no man can 
^ lay any fuch thing to my charge. I have reafon to 
^ rejoice that thefe writings have appeared ; they are a 
' vindication of the Order and of iPiy conduct. lean 
^ and muil declare to God, and I do it now in the 
^ mofl folemn manner, that in my whole life I never 
^ faw or heard of the fo much condemned fecrtt wri- 
' tings; and in particular, reipecling thefe abomina- 
^ ble means, fuch as poiloning, abortion, &c. was it 
*" ever known to me in any cafe, that any of my friends 
^ or acquaintances ever even thought of them, advif- 
^ ed them, or made any ufe of them. I was indeed 
^ always a fchemer and projector, but never could en- 
' gage much in detail. My general plan is good, 
^ though in the ttetail there may be faults. I had mv- 
^ felf to form. In another fituation, and in an a6"tive 
*^ fbation in life, I lliouid liave been keenly occupied, 
^ and the founding an Order would never have com.e 

- into my head. But I would have executed much 

- greater things, had not government ahvays oppofed 
*'' my exertion^, and placed others in the fituations 
*♦ whic)i fuited my talents. It was the full convi6lion 
*^' of tins and of what could be done, if every mian v/ere 
'-' placed in ih(^ ofrice for wr.ich he was fitted by nature 
^^ and a proper education, v^hich iiril fuggcfted to me. 

'' the 



/ 

CHAP. II. THE ILLUMINATI. IO9 

'^ the plan of Illnmination." Surely Mr. Welfnaupt 
had a very ferious charge, the education of youth ; and 
his encouragement in that charge was the mod flatter- 
ing that an liluminatus could wifn for 3 becaufc he had 
brought round him the youth whofe influence in fo- 
ciety was the greatefc, and who v/ould moflrof all con- 
tribute to the difl^ufmg good principles, and exciting to 
sood conduft through the whole ftate. " I did not," 
fays he, " bring deifm into Bavaria more than into 
*' Rome. I found it here, in great vigour, more a- 
" bounding than in any of the neighbouring Protefl:ant 
*^ ftates. I am proud to be known to the world as 
*^ the founder of the Order of Illuminatii and I repeat 
'^ my v^ifh to have for my epitaph. 



cc 



Hicfitus eft Ph.€thcn, currus auriga-paterm^ 
*' !^iiem fi ncn tennit, wagriis tamen excidit aiifisy 

The fccond difcovery of fecret correfpondence at 
Sanderfdorit, the feat of Baron Batz, (Hannibal,) con- 
tains Hill more intereflins; fad:s. 



Spartacus to Cato. 

^^ What fliall I do ? I am deprived of all help. So- 
crates, who would infift on being a man of confe- 
*^ quence among us, and is really a man of talents, 
'• and of a right zvay cf thinkings is eternally befatted. 
*^ Aup-ufius is in the worll eiliination imaorinable. Al- 
'^ cibiades fits the day long widi the vintner's pretty 
" wife, and there he fghs and pines. A few days 
" ago, at Corinrh, Tioerius attempted to ravilh the 
'^ wire or Dcmocides, and her hulhand came in upon 
" therh. Good heavens ! vvhat Areopagit^ I have got. 
^^ When the worthy man Marcus Aurelius comes to 
^' Athens, (Munich/) what will he think ? What a 



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no THE ILLUMINATI. CHAP. II. 

*' meeting of diiTolutej immoral wretches, whoremaf- 
*^ ters, iiars, bankrupts, braggarts, and vain fools ! 
^' When he fees all this, what will he think ? He will 
*' be alliamed to enter into an Afibciation," (obferve 
Reader, that Spartacus writes this in Augufl 1783, in 
the very time that he would have murdered Cato's iif- 
ter, as we fliall fee,) '^ where the chiefs raife the 
*' highefi expectations, and exhibit fuch wretched ex- 
'^ amples ; and all this from felf-will, from fenfuality. 
*' Am I not in the right — that this man — that any 
fuch worthy man — whofe name alone would give us 
the feledion of all Gerrnany, will declare that the 
whole province of Grecia, (Bavaria,) innocent and 
guilty, mud be excluded. I tell you, we may ftu- 
^^ dy, and write, and toil till death. We may facri- 
*^ hce to the Order, our health, our fortune, and our 
" reputation, (alas, the lofs !) and thefe Lords, fol- 
'^ lowing their own pleafures, will vv^hore, cheat, fteal, 
'^ and drive on like fhamelefs ralcals j and yet muft 
<^ be Arecfagit^e, and interfere in every thing. In- 
''^ deed, my dearefc friend, we have only enflaved 
" ourfclves." 

Jn another part of this fine correfpondence, Dio- 
medes has had the good fortune to intercept a Q^L. 
(^ibus Licet,) in which it is laid, and fupported by 
proofs, that Cato had received 250 florins as a bribe 
for his fentence in his capacity of a judge in a criminal 
court (the end had furely fandified the micans.) In 
another, a Minerval complains of his Mentor for hav- 
ing by lies occafioned the difmifTion of a phyfician 
from a family, by which the Mentor obtained, in the 
iame capacity, the cuftom of the houfe and free accefs, 
which favour he repaid by debauching the wifci and 
he prays to be informed whether he may not get ano- 
ther Mentor, faying that although that man had always 
given him the mod excellent inftrudcions, and he 

doubted 



CHAP. II. THE ILLUMINATI. Hi 

doubted not would continue them, yet he fek a difguft 
at the hypocnfyy which would certainly diminifh the 
imprclTion of the mod faiutary truths, (Is it not dii- 
treffing to think, that this promifing youth will by and 
by laugh at his former fimplicity, and follow the 
fleps and not the inftru6lions of his phyfician.) la 
another place, Spartacus vvrites to Marius, (in confi- 
dence,) that another v/orthy Brother, an Jrecpcigiti^.^ 
had ilolen a gold and a filvcr watch, and a ring, 
from Brutus, (SavioliyJ and begs Marius, in anuthcr 
letter, to try, while it was yet poffibie, to get the 
things reftored, becaufe the culprit was a mofl excellent 
rnan^ (Vortreffiich^) and of vail ufe to the Order, hav- 
inoc the direction of an eminent feminary of youno ?en- 
tlemen-, and becaufe SavioH was much in good compa- 
ny, and did not much care for the Order, except in 
fo far as it gave him an opportunity of knowing and 
leading fome of them, and of fceering his v/ay at 
court. 

I cannot help inferting here, though not the mod 
proper place, a part of a provincial report from Knigo-e, 
the man of the whole Aeropagit^ who lliows any rhino- 
like urbanity or gentlenefs ot mind. 

*' Of my whole colony, (Wefcphalia,) the moft bril- 
" liant isClaudiopolis (Iseuwled), There they work, 
" and direct, and do wonders." 

If there ever was a fpot upon earth where men may 
be happy in a frate of cultivated fociety, it was the lit- 
tle principality of Ncuwied. I faw it in* 1770. The 
town was neat, and the palace handfome and in pood 
tafte. But the country was beyond conception delight- 
ful j not a cottage that was out of repair, not a hedge 
out of order j it had been the hobby (pardon me the 
word) of the Prince, who made it his ^W/)'emipioymenc 
to go through his principality regularly, and aiTiit eve- 
ry houfholder, of whatever condition, with his advice, 

and 



112 THE ILLUMINATl. CHAP. II. 

and with his purfe j and, when a freeholder could not 
of himfelf put things into a thriving condition, the 
Prince fent his workmen and did it for him. He en- 
dowed fchools for the comimon people, and two acade- 
mies for the gentry and the people of bufinefs. He 
gave little portions to the daughters, and prizes to the 
well-behaving fons of t!ie labouring people. His own 
houfhold was a pattern of elegance and economy 3 his 
fons were fent to Paris to learn elegance, and to En- 
gland to learn fcience and agriculture. In fhort, the 
whole was like a romance (and was indeed romantic). 
I heard it fpoken of with a fmiie at the table of the 
Biihop of Treves, at Ehrenbretilein, and was induced 
to fee it next day as a curiofity : And yet even here, 
the fanaticifm of Knigge would diilribure his poifon, 
and tell the blinded people, that tlicy were in a ftate 
of fm and mifery, that their Prince was a defpot, and 
that they v/ould never be hapov till he was miade to 
fjy, and till they were all made equal. 

They got their wiili ; the fwarm of French locufis 
fat down on Neuwied's beautiful Melds in 1793, and 
entrenched themfelvcs ; and in three months, Prince 
and farmers houfes, and cottages, and fchools, and 
academies — all had vanillied 3 and all the fubje6ls were 
made equal. But when they complained co the French 
General (Rene le Grand) of being plundered by his 
folditrs, he anfwercd, with a contemptuous and cut- 
ting; Ij.ug-h, '* All is ours — we have left vou your eves 
" to cryc" — {Report to the Convention^ vi^thjune 17 95. J 

Difcite juftitiam mcniti^ et ncn temnere divos ! 



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CHAP. II. THE ILLUMINATI. Ilj 

To proceed : 

Spartccus to Cato. 

'* By this plan we fnali dired all mankind. \x\ this 
*' manner, and by the fimpkfl: means, we fhall {tt all 
*' in motion and in flames. The occupations mufi: be 
'^ fo allotted and contrived, that v/c may, in fecretj 
" influence all political tranfadions." N. B. This al- 
ludes to a part that is with-held from the public, be- 
caufc it contained the allotment of the mofl: rebellious 
and profligate occupations to feveral perfons whofe 
common names couid not be traced. " I have confi* 
dered," lays Spartacus, '' evci-y thing, and fo pre- 
pared it, that if the Order lliould this day go to ruin, 
' I fliall in a year re-eftablifh it more brilliant than 
ever." Accordingly it got up again in about tfiis 
fpace of time, under the name of the German Union, 
appearing in the form of Reading Societies. One 
of rhefe was fet up in Zwack's houfe j and this raifing 
a fufpicion, a vifltation was m.ade at Landfl-iut, and the 
firft fct of the private papers were found. The fcheme 
was, however, zealoufly profecuted in other parts of 
Germany, as we fliall fee by and by. " Nor," con- 
tinues Spartacus, " will it flgnify though all fliould be 
*^ betrayed and printed. I am fo certain of fuccefs, in 
*' fpite of all obftacles, (for the fprings are in every 
*' heart,) that I am indifl^erent, though it fhould in- 
volve my life and my liberty. What ! have thoufands 
throvv'n away their lives about ho?ncios and hcmoioufics 
*' and (liail not this caufe warm even the heart of a 
'' coward ? But I have the art to draw advantage even 
^- from misfortune -, and when you v/ould think me 
funk to the bottom, I fliall rife with new vigour. 
' Who v/ould have thought, that a profcfTor at Ingol- 

> '' iladc 









114 rH£ ILLUMINATI, CHAP. 11. 

*' ftadt was to become the teacher of the profefibrs of 
*' Gottingen, and of the greatefl men in Germany?" 



Spartacus to Catc, 

'^ Send me back my degree of Illuminatus Miner ; 
" it is the wonder of all men here (I may perhaps find 
*' time to give a trandation of the difcourfe of rccep- 
" tion, which contains all that can be faid of this Af- 
" fociation to the public) ; as alfo the two lad flieets 
*' of my degree, which is in the keeping of Marius, 
*' and Celfus, under loo locks, which contains my 
^^ hiftory of the lives of the Patriarchs." N. B. No- 
thing very particular has been difcovered of thefe lives 
of the Patriarchs. He fays, that there were above 
fixty flieets of it. To judge by the care taken of it, 
it muft be a favourite work, very hazardous, and very 
catching. 

In another letter to Cato, we have fome hints of the 
higher degrees, and concerning a peculiar morality, 
and a popular religion, which the Order was one day 
to give the world. He fiys, ^' There muft (a la Je- 
*^ Jiiite) not a fmgle purpofe ever come in fight that is 
^^ ambiguous, and that m.ay betray our aims againfl 
^^ religion and the ftate. One miUil fpeak fbmctimes 
" one way and fometimes another, but fo as never to 
" contradi6l ourfelves, and {o that, with refped to 
*' our true way of thinking, we may be impenetrable. 
" When our firongeil thino-s chance to o-ive offence, 
" they mufb be explained as attempts to draw anfwers 
^* which difcover to us the fentiments of the perfon 
" we converfe with." N. B. This did not always fuc- 
ceed with him. 

Spartacus fays, fpeakingof the priefls degree, ^^ One 
'' would almoft imagine, that this degree, as I have ma- 



*^ nageo 



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CHAP. If. THE ILLUMINATI. II5 

" nacred ir, is genuine Chriftianity, and that its end 
*' was to free the Jews from flavery. I fay, that Free 
Mafonry is concealed Chrifiianity. My explanation 
of the hieroglyphics, at leafc, proceeds on this fup- 
pofition ; and as I explain things, no man need be 
^^ afhamed of being a Chriftian. Indeed 1 afterwards 
" throw away this name, and fubftitute Reafon. But 
" I alTure you this is no fmali affair; a new religion, 
" and a new (late-government, which fo happily ex- 
" plain one and all of thefe fymbols, and combine 
them in one degree. You may think that this is 
my chief work ; but I have three other degrees, 
^^ all different, for my clafs of higher myderies, in 
" comparifon with which this is but child's play; bur 
'^ thefe I keep for myielf as General, to be bellowed 
'- by me only on the BenemeritlJJimiy' (furely fuch as 
Cato, his deareft friend, and the poffeffor of fuch pret- 
ty fecrets, as abortives, poifons, pcdilcnrial vapours> 
&c.). " The promoted may be Areopagices or not, 
" Were you here I fliould give you this degree with- 
'' out hefitation. But it is too important to be intruf- 
ted to paper, or to be bellowed otherwife than from 
my own hand. It is the key to hiftory, to religion, 
and to every ftate-government in the world."* 
" Spartacus proceeds, " There fhall be but three 
*' copies for all Germany. You can't imagine what 
I *^ refpedt and curiofity my priefi- degree has raifed ; 
" and, which is wonderful, a famous Proteflant di- 
'^ vine, who is now of the Order, is perfuaded that 

'' the 

* I obferve, in other parts of his correfpondence where he fpeaks 
of this, feveral fmgular phrafes, which are to be found in two 
books ; Anliquete clevoilee par fes Ufages, and Origine du Defpotifme 
Oriental. Thefe contain indeed much of the maxims inculcated in 
the reception difcourfe of the degree llhananitus Minor. Indeed 1 
have found, that Weifhaupt is much lefs an inventor than he is ge- 
nerally thought. 



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Il6 •» THE ILLUMINATI. CHi^P. II. 

'' the religion contained in it is the true fenfe of Chrif- 
'' tianity. O man, man ! to what may'st thou 
'^ NOT BE PERSUADED. Who woiild imagine thai; I 
" was to be the founder of a new religion ?'' 

In this fcheme of Mafonic Chriftianity, SparCacus 
and Philo laboured ferioufly together. Spartacus fent 
him the materials, and Philo worked them up. Ic 
will therefore illuftrate this capital point of the confti- 
tution of the Order, if we take Philo's account of it. 



Philo to Cato, 

^^ We muil: confider the ruling propenfities of every 
^f age of the world. At prefent the cheats and tricks 
" of the priefts have roufed all men againlt them, and 
^' againft Chriftianity. But, at the fame time, fuper- 
*-^ ftition and fanaticifm rule with unlimited dom.inion, 
^^ and the underftanding of man really feems to be 
*^ going backwards. Our taflc, therefore, is doubled. 
«f We muft give fuch an account of things, that fana- 
*' tics fhouid not be alarmed, and that fhall, notwith- 
^^ (landing, excite a fpirit of free enquiry. We mufl 
" not throw avv'ay the good with the bad, the child 
^^ with the dirty water; but we mud make the fecret 
*^ do6lrines of Chriftianity be received as the fecrcts 
^^ of genuine Free Mafonry. But farther, we have to 
^^ deal with the defpotifm of Princes. This increafes 
^^ every day. But then, the fpirit of freedom breathes 
<^ and ftghs in every corner; and, by the alllftance of 
*' hidden fchools of wifdom, Liberty and Equality, 
^^ the natural and imprefcriptible rights of man, warm 
*^ and glow in every breaft. We muft therefore unite 
•^ thefe extremes. We proceed in this manner. 

*' Jefus Chrift eft"ablift:ied no new Religion; he 
^^ would only fet Religion and Reafon in their ancient 

" riahts. 

o 



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CHAP. II. THE ILLUMINATI. II7. 

*^ rif^hts. For this piirpofe he would uniLe men in a 
" common bond. He would fie them for this by 
«f fpreading a juft morality, by enlightening the un- 
<^^ deiTranding, and by affifting the mind to iliake off 
^^ all prejudices. He would teach all men, in tiie firfb 
place, to govern themfelves. Rulers would then 
be needlefs, and equality and liberty would take 
place without any revolution, by the naturval and 
" gentle operation of reafon and expediency. This 
^^ threat Teacher allows himfelf to explain every part 
*^ of the Bible in conformity to thefe purpofes ; and 
^' he forbids all wrangling among his fcholars, becaufe 
every man m>ay there find a reafonable application 
to his peculiar do6lrines. Let this be true or fldfe, it 
" does not fignify. This was a fimple Religion, and 
*^ it w^as fo fcW infpired ; but the minds of his hearers 
'' were not fitted for receiving thefe doctrines. 1 told 
^' you, fays he, but you could not bear it. Many 
'^ therefore Vv'ere called, but few were chofen. To 
^^ this eie6l were entruRed the mofl important fecrets; 
" and even among them there were degrees of infbr- 
" mation. There v.'as a feventy, and a twelve. All 
'^ this was in the natural order of things, and acccrd- 
'^ ino: to the habits of the Tews, and indeed of all an- 
tiquicy. The Jewifh Theofophy was a myftery; 
like the Eleufinian, or the Pythagorean, unfit for 
^ the vulgar. And thus the doctrines of Chrifbianity 
were committed to the Adept i, in a BijcipUna Arcani, 
By thefe they were maintained like the Veflal Fire. — 
They were kept up only in hidden focieties, v^ho 
handed them dovv/n to pofterity ; and they are nov/ 
pofil-jred by the genuine Free Maioris." 
N. B. This explains the origin of many anonymous 
pamphlets which appeared about this time in Germa- 
ny,- fliov/ing that Free Mafonry was Chridianity. — 
Thev have doubtlefs been the works of Spartacus and 

his 



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Il8 THE ILLUMINATI. CHAP. II. 

his partifans among the Ecledic Mafons. Nicholaj, 
the great apodle of" infidelity, had given very favour- 
able reviews of thefe performances, and having always 
ll:ievvn himfelf an advocate of fuch writers as depreci- 
ated Chrittianity, it was natural for him to take this 
opportunity of bringing it flill lov>^er in the opinion of 
the people. Spartacus therefore conceived a high opi- 
nion of the importance of gaining Nicholai to the Or- 
der. He had before this gained Leuchtfenring, a hot- 
headed fanatic, who had fpied Jefuits in every corner, 
and fet Nicholai on his journey through Germany, to 
hunt them out. This m^an finding them equally hated 
by the Iliuminati, was eafily gained, and was moil 
zealous in their caufe. He engaged Nicholai, and 
Spartacus exults exceedingly in the acquifition, faying, 
'' that he was an unwearied champion, et quidem conten- 
tijfimusy Of this man Philo fays, -^ that he had 
fpread this Chriftianity into every corner of Ger- 
many. I have put meaning," fays Philo, " to all 
thefe dark i'ymbols, and have prepared b0th de- 
*' grecs, introducing beautiful ceremonies, which I 
*' have felc6led from among thofe of the ancient com- 
'^ m.unions, combined with thofe of the Rofaic Ma- 
*' fonry; and now," fays he, " it will appear that we 
^' are the only true Chriftians. We fliail now be in a 
'^ condition to fay a few words to Priefls and Princes. 
^' I have fo contrived things, that I would admit even 
*^ Popes and Kings, after the trials which I have pre- 
'' fixed , and they would be glad to be of the Order." 
But how is all this to be reconciled with the plan of 
Illumination, which is to banifh Chriflianity altoge- 
ther ? Philo himfeif in many places fays, *^ that it is 
'' only a cloak, to prevent fqueamiili people from 
'^ ftarting back." This is done pretty much in the 
fame way that was prad:ifcd in the French Mafonry. 
In one of their Rituals the Mafler's degree is made 

typical 



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CHAP. II. 



THE ILLUMINATK 



119 



typical of the death of Jefiis Chrift, the preacher of 
Brotherly love. But, in the next ttep, the Chevalier 
du SoleiL it is Reafon that has been dellroved and en- 
tombed, and the Mafter in this deo-ree, the Sublime 
Philcfcphe^ occafions the difcovery of the place where 
the body is hid -, Reafon rifes again, and fupcrftition 
and tyranny difappear, and all becomes clear y man be- 
comes free and happy. 

Let us hear Spartacus again. 



SpartacuSy in miother place, 

" We muft, i/?, gradually explain away all our pre- 
" paratory pious frauds. And when perfons of difcern- 
*^ ment find fault, we muft defire them to confidcr the 
'^ end of all our labour. This fandHfies our means, 
'^ v/hich at any rate are harmleA, and have been ufc- 
'' fuJ, even in this cafe, becauie they procured us a 
*^ patient hearing, when otherwife men would have 
" turned away from us like petted children. 1 his 
'* will convince them of our fcntiments in all the in- 
tervening points i and our ambiguous exprelTions 
will then be interpreted into an endeavour to draw 
anfwers of any kind, which may Inow us the mincis 
of our pupils, idj We muft unfold, from hiftory 
and other writingrs, the orio-in and fabrication of all 
religious lies whatever; and then, yl, We give a 
critical hiflory of the Order. But I cannot bcit 
laugh, when i think of the ready reception which 
" all this has met with from the e;rave and learned di-» 
'^ vines of Germany and of England ; and I wonder 
'^ how their William failed w^hen he attempted to elta- 
biifh a Deiftical Worfhip in London, (what can this 
mean ?) for, I am certain, that it muft have been 
moil; acceptable to that learned and free people. But 

<c they 



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I20 THE ILLUMINATI. CKAP. II. 

*' they had not the enlightening of our days." I may 
here remark, that Weilhaupt is prefuming too much 
on the jofnorance of his friend, for there was a orreat 
deal of this enlightening in England at the time he 
fpeaks of, and if 1 am not miftaken, even this cele- 
brated Profellor of Irreligion has borrowed mod of his 
fchtme from this kingdom. This to be fure is nothing 
in our praife. But the Pantheisticon of Toland 
refembles Weifliaupt's Illumination in every thing but 
its rebellion and its villainy. Toland's Socratic Lodge 
is an elegant pattern for Weifliaupt, and his Triumph 
of Reafon, his Philofophic Happinefs, his God, or 
Anhna Mundi^ are all lb like the harili fydem of Spar- 
tacus, that I am convinced that he has copied them, 
{lamping them vvith the roughnefs of his own charac- 
ter. But to go on j Spartacus fays of the Englifli : 
'' Their poet Pope made his ElTay on Man a fyftem 
'^ of pure naturalifm, without knowino- it, as Brother 
" Chryfippus did with my PrieiVs Degree, and was 
equally aftonidied when this was pointed out to him. 
Cliryfippus is religious, but not fupcrftitious. Bro- 
ther Lucian (Nicolai, of whom I have already faid 
*' fo much) fays, that the grave Zolikofer now allows 
'' that it v/ould be a very proper thing to eflabliili a 
*' Deiflical Worfhip at Berlin. I am nor afraid but 
'' things will go on very well. But Philo, who was 
*• entrufccd with framing tlie Prieft's Degree, has de- 
^' fcroyed it witliout any necelTity j it would, forfooth, 
*' ftartie thofe who have a hankering for Religion. But 
*' I always told you that Philo is fanatical and prudifli. 
'' I gave him fine materials, and he has fcufFed it full 
*^ of ceremonies and child's play, and as Minos fays, 
**^ c'cft jciier la religion. But all th.is may be corrc6led 
^' in the revifion by the Areopagita:.'" 

N. B. I have already mentioned Baron Knigge's 
Gonverfion to Illuminatifm by the M. de Co ifcanza, 

whof: 



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CHAP. II. THE ILLUMINATI. 121 

whofe name in the Order was Diomedes. Knigge 
(henceforth Philo) was, next to Spartacus, the moil: 
ferviceable man in the Order, and procured the great- 
eft number of members. It was chiefly by his exer- 
tions among the Mafons in the Proteilant countries, 
that the EcleElic Syfteni was introduced, and afterwards 
brought under the dircd^tion of the Iliuminati. This 
conqueft was owing entirely to his very extenfive con- 
nections among the Mafons. He travelled like a phi- 
lofopher from city to city, from Lodge to Lodge, and 
even from houfe to houfe, before his Illumination, try- 
ing to unite the Mafons, and he now went over the 
fame ground to extend the Ecle5lic Syftem^ and to get 
the Lodges put under the direction of the Iliuminati, 
by their choice of the Mafter and Wardens. By this 
the Order had an opportunity of noticing the conduct 
of individuals 3 and when they had found cut their ' 
manner of thinking, and that they Vv^ere fit for their 
purpofe, they never quitted them till they had gained 
them over to their party. We have feen, that he was 
by no means void of religious imprefiions, and we of- 
ten find him offended wnth the acheiiln of Spartacus. 
Knigge was at the fame time a man of the world, and 
had kept good company. Weifhaupt had paiTcd his 
life in the habits of a college : therefore he knew 
Knigge's value, and communicated to him all his pro- 
jeds, to be dreffed up by him for the tafte of Ibciety. 
Philo was of a much more affedionatc difpofition, 
with fomething of a devotional turn, and v/as fhocked 
at the hard indifference of Spartacus. After labour- 
ing four years with great zeal, he v^as provoked with 
the difingenuous tricks of Spartacus, and he broke off 
all connexion v/ith the Society in 1784, and fome rime, 
after publifhed a declaration of all that he had done in 
it. This is a moft excellent account of the plan and 
principles of the Order, (at leaft as he conceived it, 

Q^ > for 



122 THE ILLUMINATI. CHAP. H. 

for Spartacus liaci much deeper views,) and fhows that 
the aim of ic was to abolilh Chriftianity, and ail the 
fiatc-governmerus in Europe, and to eftablifh a great 
repubiic. Bur it is full of romantic notions and cnthu- 
fiafiic declamation, on the hackneyed topics of uni- 
verfal citizenlliip, and liberty and equah'ty. Spartacus 
p,ave him line, and allowed him to work on, knowing 
that he could difcard him when he chofe. I fnall after 
tliis give fome exiracls from Philo's letters, from w^hich 
the reader vj'xW fee the vile behaviour of Spartacus, and 
the nature of his ultimate views. In the mean time 
we may proceed with the account of the princiules of 
the fyitem. 



Spm'taais to Cato, 

^' Nothing would be more profitable to us than a 
rigi)t hiilory of mankind. Defpoiifm has robbed 
them of their liberty. How can the weak obtain 
proteciion ? Only by union; but this is rare. No- 
'' thing can bring this about but hidden focieties. 
*' Hidden fchools of wifdom are the means which will 
'* one day free men from their bonds. Thefe have in 
all ages been the archives of nature, and of the 
rights of men ; and by them fhall human nature be 
" raifed from her fallen fiate. Princes and nations 
'' lliali vanifb from the earth. The human race will 
'' then become one famil y, and the world will be che 
'^ dwelling of rational men. 

*' Morality alone can do this. The Flead of every 
family Vvili be what Abraham was, the patriarch, the 
priefc, and the unlettered lord of his family, and 
'' Reafon will be the code of lavv^s to all mankind. 
" This," fays Spartacus, *' is our great secret. 
True, there may be fome diiuirbance , but by and 

'' by 



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CHAP. II. THE ILLUMIXATI. 



I2J 



^^ by the Aineqiial will become equal ; and after z\e 
'^ ftorm all wlil be calm. Can the unhappy confe- 
^* quenccs remain w'len the grounds of dilicnfion are 
*^ removed ? Roufe yourfelves therefore, O men ! af- 
'^ fert your rights, and then will Reafon rule with un- 
" perceived fway j and all shall be happy.* 

" Morality will perform all this; and morality is 
^^ the fruit of lilumiiiation ; duties and rights are rcci- 
" procal. V/here Odavius has no right, Caco owes 
^^ him no duty. lilumdnadon fhews us our rights, and 
" Morality follows ; that Morality which teaches us 
'^ to be cfdge, to be out of vmrdrnfrnf^ loh^ full grown ^ 
*' and to walk without the leading ftrhigs of pr lefts and 
'^ princes.'' 

'' Jcfus of Nazareth, the Grand Mafter of our Or- 
«^ der, appeared at a time when the world was in the 
'^ utmofc diforder, and among a people who f^or ages 
'^ had groaned under the yoke of bondage. He taught 
^^ them the lefjbns of Reafon. To be n^ore eitective, 
«^ he took in the aid of Religion — of opinions which 
'^ were current — -and, in a very clever mannerist com- 
<^ bined his fecrct doclrines with the popular religion, 
<^ and with the ciillonis which lay co his haiid. la 
^^ thefe he wrapped up his lelibn!. — -he taught by para- 
*^ bles. Never did any prophet lead men fo eafily and 
«' fo fccurely along the road of liberty. He concealed 
<' the precious meaning and confequences of hisdoc- 
^' trines; but fully difciofed them t® a chofen fev/. Pie 
*' fpeaks of a kingdom of the upright and faithful j his 
^^ Father's kingdom, whofe children we alfo are. Let 
" us only take Liberty and Equality as the great aim 

" of 

* Happy France ! Cradle of Illumination, where the morning 
of Reafon has dawned, difpelling the clouds of Monarchy and 
Chriftianity, where the babe has fucked the blood of the uneniight- 
ened, and Murder ! Fire ! Help ! has been the lullaby to fmg it to 
lleep. 



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124 THE ILLUMINATI. CHAP. II. 

" of his dodlrines^ and Morality as the way to attain it, 
" and everv thino; in the New Teftament will be com- 
'^ prehenfible ; and Jefus will appear as the Redeemer 
'^ offlaves. Man is fallen from the condition of Li- 
berty and Equality, the state of pure nature. 
He is under fubordination and civil bondage, arifing 
from the vices of man. This is the fall, and 

" ORIGINAL SIN. The KINGDOM OF GRACE is that 

reftoration which may be brought about by Illumi- 
nation and a juft Morality. This is the new birth. 
When man lives under government, he is fallen, his 
worth is gone, and his nature tarniflied. By (libdu- 
ing our paffions, or limiting their cravings, we may 
recover a great deal of our original worth, and live 
** in a ftate of grace. This is the redemption of men 
'^ — this is accomplillied by Morality ; and when this 
'■^ is fpread over the world, we have the kingdom 

'^ CF THE JUST. 

^' But, alas ! t\At tafk of felf- formation was too hard 
for the fubjedls of the Roman empire, corrupted by 
every fpecies of profligacy. A chofcn few received 
the doctrines in fecret, and they have been handed 
down to us (but frequently almofi; buried under rub- 
bifh of man's invention) by the Free Mafons. Thefe 
three conditions of human fociety are exprelTed by 
the rough, the fplit, and the polifhed ftone. The 
rough lione, and the one that is fplit, exprefs our 
condition under civil government \ rough by twtxy 
fretting inequality of condition ; and fplit, fince we 

*^ are no longer one family ; and are farther divided 
by differences of government, rank property, and 
religion ; but when reunited in one family, we are 
reprefented by the polifhed flone. G. is Grace -, 

^' the Flaming Star is the Torch of Reafon. Thofe 

'^ who pofTefs this knowledge are indeed illuminati. 

'* Hiram is our ficliticus Grand Mailer, flain for the 

*' redemf- 



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CHAP. II. thI: illuminati. 125 

^' PvEDEMPTiON OF SLAVES ; the Nine Mafcers are 
" the Founders of the Order. Free Mafonry is a 
'^ Royal Arc, inafmuch as it teaches us to walk with- 
'^ out trammels, and to govern ouriclves." 

Reader, are you not curious to karn fomethingof 
this all-powerful morality, fo operative on the heart of 
the truly illuminated — 0^ i\\\s> dijciplina ^rc^;/?", entrufted 
only to the chofen few, and handed down to Profeffor 
Weifhaupt, to Spartacus, and his aflbciates, who have 
cleared it of the rubbifh heaped on it by the dim-fight- 
ed Mafons, and now beaming- in its native luPtre on 
the minds of the /Ireopagit^ ? The teacliers of ordinary 
Chriftianity have been labouring for almcft 2000 years, 
with the New Teftament in their hands ; many of 
them with great addrefs, and many, I believe, with 
honeft zeal. But alas ! they cannot produce fuch won- 
^ derful and certain effedls, (for obferve, that Weifliaupt 
repeatedly aiTures us that his means are certain,) pro- 
bably for want of ih'is difdplma m^canij of whofe efficacy 
fo much is faid. Moil fortunately, Spartacus has 
given us a brilliant fpecimen of the ethics which illu- 
minated himfelf on a trying occafion, v/here an ordi- 
nary Chriftian would have been much perplexed, or 
would have taken a road widely dilrerent from that of 
this illuftrious apoltle of light. And feeing that fc^veral 
of the Areopagitae CO -o^)tx2iitd in the tranfadlion, and 
that it was carefully concealed from the profane and 
dim-fighted world, we can have no doubt but that it 
was conduced according to the difciplina arcani of Il- 
lumination. I fnall give it in his own words. 



Spartacus to Marias^ September 1783. 

" I am now in the mofr embarraOlne: ficuation ; it 
'*' robs me of all red, and makes nie unfit for every 



120 THE ILLUMINATI. CHAP. II. 

" thing. I am in danger of lofing at once my honour 
'* and my reputation, by which I Iiave long had fuch 
'' influence. What think you r — my fiiltr- in-law is 
*^ wich child. I have fent her to Euriphon, and am 
*' endeavouring to procure a marriage-licence from 
" Rome. How much depends on this uncertainty — 
'^ and there is not a moment to lofe. Should I fail, 
*' what is to be done ? Vv^hat a return do I make by 
*^ this to a perfon to whom 1 am fo mjjch obliged!'* 
(We fnall fee the probable m.eaning of this exclama- 
tion by and by). '^ We have tried eveiy method in 
*' our power to deflroy the child ; and I hope (he is 
" determiined on every thing — even d — ," (Can this 
mean death ?) **^ But aias ! Euriphon is, I fear, too ti- 
*' mid," (alas ! poor woman, thou art now under 
the difci^lina arcaniy) '^ and I fee no other expedient, 
" Couki I be but allured of the filence of Celfus, (a 
** phyfician at Ingoiltadt,) he can relieve me, and he 
" promt fed me as much three years ago. Do fpeak to 
*^ him, if you tiiink he will be fiaunch. I would not Jet 
*' Cuto" (his dearell friend, and his chief or only con- 
fident in the fcheme of Illum.ination) '^ know it yet, 
becaufe the affair in otherrcfpeds requires his whole 
friendihip." (Cato had all the pretty receipts.) 
Could you but help me our of this diftrefs, you 
would give me life, honour, and peace, and ftrength 
to work again in the great cauje. It you cannot, be 
affured I will venture on the moil defperate llroke,'* 
(poor filler !) '^ for it is fixed. — I will not lofc my ho- 
*^ nor.r. I cannot conceive what devil has made me go 
" aft ray — nie who have always been Jg careful on fuch oc- 
'^ caficns. As yet all is quiet, and none know of it but 
" you and Euriphon. WVre it but time to undertake 
" any thing — but alas ! it is the fourth month. Thofe 
*' damned pritfts too — for the adlion is fo criminally 
" accounted bv them, and fcandaiifes the blood. This 

*^ makes 



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CHAP. II. THE ILLUMINATI. 1 2^ 

*^' makes the utmofl efforts and the inoR" defperatc 
'' nieafures abfoluteiy neceflai-y/' 

It will throw {bme light on this tranfadtion if we read 
a letter from Spartacus to Cato about this time. 

" One thing more, my deareft friend — \¥ould it be 
«' agreeable to you to have me for a l>rother-in-law ? 
" If this fhould be ao:reeabie, and if it can be brouofhc 
^« about without prejudice to my honour, as I hope it 
^^ may, I am not without hopes that the connection 
" may take place. But in the mean time keep it a 
'* fecret, and only give me permiflion to enter into 
'^ correfpondence on the fubjed vv^ith the good lady, 
*^ to whom I beg you will offer my refpedlful compli- 
^^ ments, and I will explain myfeif more fully to you 
" by word of mouth, and tell you my whole (ituation. 
'^ But I repeat it — the thing mud be gone about with 
'' addrefs and caution. 1 would not for all the world 
'^ deceive a perfon who certainly has not deferved fo 
<' of me." 

What interpretation can be put on this ? Cato feems 
to be brother to the poor woman — he was unwittingly 
to furnifh the drugs, and he v/as to be dealt with about 
confentini}: to a marriasfe, which could not be alto^e- 
ther agreeable to him, fince it required a difpeniation, 
fhe being already the fiRer- in-law of Weifiiaupt, either 
the filter of his former v/ife, or the widow of a deceafed 
brother. Or perhaps Spartacus really wifnes to marrv 
Cato's fiRcr, a different perfon from the poor v/oman 
in the draw ; and he conceals this adventure from his 
trufty friend Cato, till he f:^es what becomes of it. 
The child may perhaps be got rid of, and then Spar- 
tacus is a free man. There is a letter to Cato, thank- 
ino; him for his friendfhip in the affair of the child— 
but it gives no light. I mert v/ith another PiCcount, 
that the fifter of Zvvack threw herfelf from the top of 
a tower, and^beat out her brains. But it is not faid 

that 



128 THE ILLUMINATI. CHAP. II. 

that it was an only fider; if it was, the probability is, 
that Spartacus had paid his addrelTes to her, and llic- 
ceedcd, and that the fcbfequent affair of his marriage 
with his fifier-in-law, or fomething worfe, broke her 
heart. This feenis the bell account of the matter. 
For Hertel (Marius) writes to Zwack in November 
1782 : ^^ Spartacus is this day gone home, but has left 
*' his fifter-in-law pregnant behind (this is from BaiTus 
*^ HofF). About the new year he hopes to be made 
^^ merry by a — — , who will be before all kings and 
" princes~a young Spartacus. The Pope alfo will 
'^ refpe6l him, and legitimate him before the time.'* 

Now, vulgar Chriitian, compare this with the for- 
mer declaration of Weifhaupt, where he appeals 
to the tenor of his former life, which had been 
ib feverely fcrucinifcd, without dimiiniihing his high 
reputation and great influence, and his i^^^norance and 
abhorrence of all thofe things found in Cato's repofito- 
ries. You fee this was a furprife — he had formerly 
proceeded cautioufiy — ^^ He is the brft man," fays 
Spartacus, *^ who befh conceals his fault?." — He was 
difappointed by Celfus, who had p'om'ifed him his ajjij- 
tance en Juch occaftcns three years ago, during all which 
time he had been buf)/ in '^ forming himfelf." How 
far he has advanced, the reader may judge. 

One is curious to know what became of the poor 
woman : fhe was afterwards taken to the houfe of Ba- 
ron Baifus 3 but here the foolifn v/oman, for want of 
that courage which Illumination and the bright prof- 
pe6t of eternal fleep fiiould have produced, took fright 
at the dijciplini arcani, left the houfe, and in the hidden 
fociety of a midwife and nurfe brought forth a young 
Spartacus, who now lives to thank his father for his 
endeavours to mjjrder him. A '^ damned pr left y'' the 
good Bifhop of Freyfingen, knowing the cogent rea- 
fons, procured the difpenfation, and Spartacus was 

obliged, 



GMAP. II. THE ILLUMINATI. I29 

obliged, like another dim-fighted mortal, to marry 
her.*^ The fcandal was hufhed, and would not have 
been difcovered had it not been for thefe private wri- 
tings. 

But Spartacus fays " that when you think 
" him funk to the bottom, he will fpring up with 
" double vigour." In a fubfequent work, call- 
ed Short Amendment of my Plan, he fays, '^ If men were 
" not habituated to wicked manners, his letters would 
" be their own juftification/' He does not fay that 
he is without fault; '' but they are faults of the under- 
'' (landing — not of the heart. He had, firftof all, to 
*' form himfelf; and this is a work of time.'' In the 
affair of his fifter-in-law he admits the fads, and the 
attempts to deftroy the child; " but this is far from 
^^ proving any depravity of heart. In his condition, 
" his honour at flake, what elfe was left him to do ? 
*^ His greateft enemies, the Jefuits, have taught that 
*^ in fuch a cafe it is lawful to miake away with the 
*^ child," and he quotes authorities from their books.* 
" In the introdu6lory fault he has the example of the 
*^ bed of men. The fecond was its natural confe- 
'' quence, it was altogether involuntary, and, in the 
" eye of a philofophical judge" (I prefumeofthe Gal- 
lic School) " who does not fquarc himfelf by the harfh 
*' letters of ^ blood-thirfty lawgiver,, he has but a very 
trifling account to fettle. He had become a public 
teacher, and was greatly followed ; this example 
might have ruined many young ?nen. The eyes of the 
'^ Order alfo were fixed on him. The edifice refted 
" on his credit ; had he fallen, hs could no longer have 

R ^^ been 

* This is flatly contradi6led in a pamphlet by F. Stattler, a Ca- 
tholic clergyman of moft rerpe6lable charai^ler, who here expofes, 
in the moft incontrovertible manner, the impious plots of Weiihaupt, 
his total difregard to truth, his counterfeit antiques, and all his 
lies againll the Jefuits. 



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130 THE ILLUMINATl. CHAP. U. 



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i'^^;^ in a cGndition to treat the matters cf virtue Jo as to 
make a liiliing imprej/icn. It was chiefly his anxiety 
to Ibpport the credit of the Order v;hich determined 
him to take this ftep. It makes /^/r him, but by no 
means againft him ; and the per ions who are moft 
in fault are the llavilh inquifitors, who hav^e pub- 
iifhed the tranfa^tion, in order to make his charac- 
^* ter more remarkable, and to hurt the Order through 
his perfon; and they have not fcrupled, for rhis hel- 
lidi purpofe, to ftir up a chiki againft his father ! 1 !" 
I make no reflections on this very remarkable, and 
highly ufeful ftory, but content myfelf with faying, 
that this juftification by Weifhaupt (which I have been 
careful to give in his own words) is the greateft inftance 
of eff^rontery and infult on the fentimenrs of mankind 
that I have ever met with. We are all fuppofcd as 
completely corrupted as if we had lived under the full 
blaze of Illumination. 

In other places of this curious correfpondence we 
learn that Minos, and others of the /Ireopagit^r^ v/anted 
to introduce Atheifm at once, and not go hedging in 
the manner they did ; affirming it was eafier to iliew 
at once that Atheifm was friendly to fociety, than to 
explain all their Mafonic Chriftianity, which they were 
afterwards to fliew to be a bundle of lies. Indeed this 
purpofe, of not only abolilhing Chriftianity, but ail 
pofitivc religion whatever, was Weiftiaupt's favourite 
icheme from the beginning. Before he canvailed for 
his Order, in 1774, he publiftied a fi6litious antique, 
which he called Sidonii ApcLlinarus Fragmenta^ to pre- 
pare (as he exprefsly fays in another place) mens minds 
for the dodtrines of Reafon, which contains ail the de- 
teftable dodlrines of Robinet's book Dela Nature. The 
publication of the fecond part was ftopped. Weifhaupt 
lays in his Apology for the Illuminati, that be- 
fore 1780 he had rcti acted his opinions about Materi- 
al ifm. 



CHAP. 11. THE JLLUMINATI. I3I 

alifm, and about the inexpediency of Princes. But 
this is falfe : Philo fays exprefslyj that every thing re- 
mained on its original footing in the whole pradicc 
and dogmas of the Order when he quitted it in July 
1784. Ail this was concealed, and even the abomi- 
nable Mafonry, in the account of the Order which 
Weifliaupt pubiiihed at Regenfburg ; and it required 
the conftant efforts of Philo to prevent bare or flat 
Atheifm from being uniformly taught in their degrees. 
He had told the council that Zeno w^ould not be under 
a roof with a man who denied the immortality of the 
foul. He complains of Minus's cramming irreligion 
down their throats in every meeting, and fays, that he 
frightened many from entering the Order. '^ Truth," 
fays Philo, " is a clever, but a modeft girl, who muft 
'' be led by the hand like a gentlewoman, but not 
" kicked about like a whore.'* Spartacus complain^ 
much of the fqueamifhnefs of Philo 3 yet Philo is not 
a great deal behind him in irreligion. When defcrib- 
ing to Cato the Chriftianity of the Priefli-degree, as 
he had manufa(5lured it, he fays, '' It is all one whc- 
" ther it be true or falfe, we mud have it, that we 
" may tickle thole who have a hankering for religion/* 
All the odds fecms to be, that he was of a gentler dif- 
pofition, and had more deference even for the abfurd 
prejudices of others. In one of his angry letters to 
Cato he fays : '^ The vanity and felf- conceit of Spar- 
*' tacus would have got the better of all prudence, had 
I not checked him, and prevailed on the Areopagitte 
but to defer the developement of the bold principles 
till we had firmly fccured the man. I even wilhed 
to entice the candidate the more by giving him back 
*^ ail his former bonds of fecrecv, and leaving him at 
*^ liberty to walk out without fear; and I am certain 
" that they were, by this time, fo engaged that we 
" lliould not have loft one man. Br.t Spartacus had 
*' compofed an exhibition of his laft principles, for a 

*^ difcourfe 






IJi THE ILLUMINATI. CHAP. 11. 



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difcourfe of reception, in which he painted his three 
favourite myfterious degrees, which were to be con- 
ferred by him alone, in colours which had fafcina- 
ted his own fancy. But they were the colours of 
hell, and would have feared the moft intrepid ; and 
*^ becaufe I reprefented the danger of this, and by 
force obtained the omifTion of this picture, he be- 
came my implacable enemy. I abhor treachery 
and profligacy, and leave him to blow himfelfand 
" his Order into the air.'* 

Accordingly this happened. It was this which ter- 
rified one of the four profefTors, and made him impart 
his doubts to the reft. Yet Spartacus feems to have 
profited by the apprehenfions of Philo -, for in the laft 
reception, he, for\the firft time, exa6ls a bond from 
the intrant, engaging himfelf for ever to the Order, 
and fwearing that he will never draw back. Thus ad- 
mitted, he becomes a fure card. The courfe of his 
life is in the hands of the Order, and his thoughts on 
a thoufand dangerous points ; his reports concerning 
his neighbours and friends ; in fhort, his honour and 
his neck. The Deift, thus led on, has not far to go 
before he becomes a Naturalift or Atheift ; and then 
the eternal Deep of death crowns all his humble hopes. 
Before giving an account of the higher degrees, J 
{hall juft extraS: from one letter more on a fmgular 
fubjedl. 

Minos to Sehajlian^ 1782. 

^' The propofal of Hercules to eftablilh a Minerval 
*' fchool for girls is excellent, but requires much cir- 
" cumfpedlion. Philo and I have long converfed on 
^' this fubjedl. We cannot improve the world vvith- 
" out improving women, who have fuch a mighty in- 
^^ fluence on the men. But how fhall we get hold of 

'' them ? 






CHAP. II. THE ILLUMINATI, IJJ 

" them ? How will their rciationsj particulariy their 
'' mothers, immerfed in prejudices, confcnc that others 
*' lliall influence their education ? ¥/e muil begin with 
*^ grown girls. Hercules propofes the wife of Ptoie- 
*^ my Magus. I have no ohjedion ; and I have four 
*' ftep-daughters, fine girls. The oldeft in particular 
'^ is excellent. She is twenty-four, has read much, is 
above all prejudices, and in religion fhe thinks asldo. 
They have much acquaintance among the young la- 
" dies their relations. (N. B. We don't know the rank 
**^ of Minos, but as he does not iifc the word Damen, 
^' but Frauenzlmmerj it is probable that it is not high.) 
'^ It may immediately be a very pretty Society, under 
*^ the managemicnt of Ptolemy's wife, but really un- 
'^ der bis management. You muft contrive pretty de- 
" grees, and drefles, and ornaments, and elegant and 
" decent rituals. No man mud be admitted. This 
'^ Vv'ill make them become more keen, and they will 
'^ go much farther than if we were prefcnt, or than if 
*^ they thought that we knew of their proceedings. 
*^ Leave them to the fcope of their ov/n fancies, and 
'^ they Vv'ill foon invent myfteries which will put us to 
" the blufh, and create an enthufiafm which we can 
never equal. They will be our great apoftles. Re- 
fle6l on the refpect, nay the awe and terror infpired 
by the female miydics of antiquity. (Think of the 
'^ Daniads — ^think of the Thcban Bacchantes.^ Ptole- 
'^ my's wife mutt diredl: them, and fhe will be inilrudb- 
'^ ed by Ptomlemy, and mjy dep daughters will con- 
*' fult with me. We muft aiv/ays be at hand to pre- 
*' vent the introdudtion of any improper quedion. Vv'c 
" mud prepare themes for their difcufTion — thus we 
'^ fhall confefs them, and infpire them with our ftnti- 
^^ ments. No m^an however mud come near them. 
" This will fire their roving fancies, and we may ex- 
" pe(5t: rare myderies. But I am doubtful whether 

" this 



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134 "^^'^ ILLUMiNATI. CHAP. II. 

*^ this AiTociatlr.n will be durable. Yv'omen are fickle 
<^ and impatient. No:hing vviil pleafe them but hiir- 
'' iVing from degree to degree, through a heap of in- 
'-^ lio-niricant ceremonies, which will foon lofe their 
^' novelty and iniluence. To red fcrioufly in one 
'^ rank, and to be lliii and filent when they have found 
'* out that the whole is a cheat, (hear the words of an 
'^ experienced Mafon,) is a tafk of which they are in- 
^^ capable. They have not our motives to perfevere 
*' for years, allowing themfelvcs to be led about, and 
*' even then to hold their tongues when they find that 
" they have been deceived. Nay there is a rifk that 
** they may take it into their heads to give things an 
*' oppofite turn, and then, by voluptuous allurements, 
" heightened by alTeded modcfty and decency, which 
*' give them an irrcfiltible empire over the beft men, 
" they may turn our Order upfide down, and in their 
'^ turn will lead the new one." 

Such is the information which may be got from the 
private correfpondence. It is needlefs to make more 
extrads of every kind of vice and trick. I have taken 
fuch as fhew a little of the plan of the Order, as far 
as the degree of Illummatus Mincr^ and the vile pur- 
pofes which are concealed under all their fpecious de- 
clamation. A very minute account is given of the 
plan, the ritual, ceremonies, &c. and even the inftruc- 
tions and difcourfes, in a book called the Achte Ilhi- 
minaty publilhcd at Edcjfa (Frankfurt) in 1787. Philo 
fays, *' that this is cpiite accurate, but that he does 
*' not know the author." I proceed to give an ac- 
count of their higher degrees, as they are to be fccn 
n the book called Ihuefie Arbeitung des Sfartacus mid 
Philo. And the authenticity of the accounts is atteil- 
ed by Grollman, a private gentleman of independent 
fortune, who read them, figned and fealed by Sparta- 
cus and the Areopagit^e, 

The 



1 



CHAP. II. THE ILLUMINATI. I35 

The feries of ranks and progrcfs of the pupil were 
arranged as follows : 

Prcparacion, 

NovicCj 

_^_ iviiijcrvdi, 

„__ I Hum in. Minor. 

fSym- C Apprentice, 

I iclic < Fciiow Crafty 

Masonry,-^ C- Maftcr, 

\ n , 7 ^ Ilhim, Mr jar, Scotch Novice 

L (^ iUum. cttngenSj bcoccnKnighr. 

C Leffcr SP;^%^^-r Pricfr, 
Mysteries, < > ,^ o ^ 

i Greater ^ - '^ 
V. (_ Kex. 

The reader mufi: be almofl fick of fo much villany, 
and would be difgufted with the minute detail, in which 
the cane of the Order is ringing continually in his ears. 
I fhall therefore only give I'uch a fnorc extraiSb as may 
fix our notions of the obje6i: of the Order, and the m.o- 
rality of the means employed for attaining it. We 
need not go back to the lower degrees, and ihall begin 
with the Illuminatus dir lgens, or Scotc?i 
Knight. 

After a fhort introduc^cion, teaching: us how the holy 
ferret Chapter of Scotch Knights is alTembled, we have, 
J. Fuller accounts and inlirucfiions relating to ihc Vv'i.ole. 
II. Infcruclions for the lower cianes of Mafonry. III. 
Inftrudlions relating to Mafjn Lodo:es in c^eneral. IV. 
Account of a reception into this de?:>ree, wiih the bond 
wlncli each fubfcribes before he caii be admitted. V. 
Concernincr die Solemn Chai^ter for reception. VI. 
Openinp; of tiie Chapter. Vlh R ieual ot Reception, 

and the Oath. VIII. Shutting of the Chapter. IX. 

/ -' 



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136 THE ILLUMINATE CHAP. II. 

AgapCy or Love-Feaft. X. Ceremonies of the confe- 
cratioQ of the Chapter. Appendix A, Explanation of 
the Symbols of Free Mafonry. B, Catechifm for the 
Scotch Knight. C, Secret Cypher. 

In N^ I. it is faid that the '^ chief ftudy of the 
'* Scotch Knight is to work on all men in fuch a way 
as is moil infinuating. II. He mull endeavour to 
acquire the pofTeffion of confiderable property. III. 
In all Mafon Lodges we mud try fecretly to get the 
upper hand. The Mafons do not know what Free- 
Mafonry is, their high objefts, nor their hiofhed 
Superiors, and fhould be direfted by thofe who will 
lead them along the right road. In preparing a can- 
" dldace for the degree of Scotch Knighthood, we 
*^ iiiull bring him into dilemmas by enfnaring queftiens. 
— We mud endeavour to get the difpofal of the mo- 
ney of the Lodges of the Free Mafons, or at lead 
take care that it be applied to purpofes favourable 
to our Order — but this mud be done in a way that 
" fnall not be remarked. Above all, we mud pufh 
" forward v/ith all our fi;iil, the plan ofEclei5tic Ma- 
'^ fonry, and for this purpofe follow up the circular 
" letter already fent to all the Lodges v;ith every 
*' tiling that can increafe their prcftntembarraffment." 
In :hc bond of N"" IV. the candidate binds himftlf to 
*^ confider and treat the liluminaii as the Superiors of 
" Free Mafonry, and endeavour in all iht Mafon 
" Lodges which he frequents, to have the Mafonry of 
*' the illuminated, and particularly the Scotch Novi- 
'^ tiare, introduced into the Lodge." (This is not 
very different from the Mafonry of the Chevalier de 
VAigle of the Rofaic Mafonry, making the Mader's 
ciegrce a fort of commemxoration of the paffion, but 
v/ithout giving that character to Chridianity which is 
peculiar to liJuminatifm.) Jefus Chriil is reprefented 
as the enemy of fuperftitious obfervances, and the af- 

fertcr 



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CHAP. II. THE ILLUMINATI. i JJ 

fertor of xhe Empire of Reafon and of Brotherly love, 
and his death and memory as dear to mankind. This 
evidently paves the way for Weifhaupt's Chriftianity. 
The Scotch Knight ^ilfo engages ^^ to confider the 
" Superiors of the Order as the unknown Superiors of 
^^ Free Mafonry, and to contribute all he can to their 
'' gradual union." In the Oath, N"^ Vll. the candi- 
date fays, ^^ I will never more bea flatterer of the greac^ 
I will never be a lowly fcrvant of princes ; but I v/ill 
drive with fpirit, and Vv^ith addrels, for virtue, wif- 
dom, and liberty. I will powerfully oppofe fuper- 
ftition, {lander, and defpotifm ; fo that, like a true 
fon of the Order^ I may ferve the world, 1 'will 
never facrifice the general good, and the happincfs 
of the world, to my private intereft. I will boldly 
^' defend my brother againfl fiander, will follow ouc 
'^ the traces of the pure and true Religion pointed out 
*^ to me in my inPcructions, and in the do6i:rines of 
'' Mafonry ; and will faithfully report to my Su- 
^^ periors the progrefs I make therein." 

When he gets the ftroke which dubs him a Knight, 
the Prefcs fays to him, *^ Now prove thyfclf, by thy 
*^ ability, equal to Kings, and never from this time 
*' forward bow thy knee to one who is, like thyfelf buc 
'^ a man." 

N^ IX. is an account of the Love-Feafl:. 
jft, There is a Table Lodge, opened as ufual, but 
in virtue of the ancient Mafter-word. Then it is faid, 
^"' Let moderation, fortitude, morality, and genuine 
*' love of the Brethren, with the overflowing of inno- 
'^ cent and carelefs mirth reign here." (This is almofl: 
verbatim from Toland.) 

od^ In the middle of a bye -table is a chalice, a pot 
of wine, an empty plate, and a plate of unleavened 
bread — All is covered with a green cloth. 

S 2^> When 



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IjS THE ILLUMlNATIv GHAP. H. 

3^, When the Table Lodgre is ended, and the Prc^ 
fed fees no obitacle, he ftrikes on this bye-table the 
flrokc of Scotch Mafier, and his fignal is repT^ated by 
the Senior Warden. All are frill and filent. The 
Prefed lifts off the cloth. 

4/Z?, The Prefcd alks, whether the Knights are in 
the difpofition to partake of the Love-Feaft in earneft, 
peace, and contentment. If none hefitates or offers to 
retire, he takes the plate with the bread and fays, 

J. of N. our Grand-Mafter, in the night in which 
he was betrayed by his friends, perfccuted for his 
love for truth, imprifoncd, and condemned to die, 
afTembled his trufty Brethren, to celebrate his lall: 
Love-Feaft — which is fignified to us in many ways. 
He took bread (taking it) and broke it (breaking 
it) and bleifed it, and gave it to his difciples, &c. 
— This ihall be the mark of our Holy Union, &c. 
Let each of you examine his heart, whether love 
*' reigns in it, and whether he, in full imitation of our 
*^ Grand-Mafter, is ready to lay down his life for his 
*' Brethren. 

Thanks be to our Grand-Mafter, who has ap- 
pointed this feaft as a memorial of his kindnefs, for 
the uniting of the hearts of thofe who love him. — 
Go in peace, and blefled be this new Aftbciation 
which we have formed. — Blefted be ye who remain 
loyal and ft rive for the good caufe." 
^thy The Prefed immediately clofes the Chapter 
-with the ufual ceremonies of the Lege de Table. 

6th, It is to be obferved, that no prieft of the Order 
muft be prefent at this Love-Feaft, and that even the 
Brother Servitor quits the Lodge. 

I muft obferve here, that Philo, the manufadlurer 
of this ritual, has done it very injudicioufly ; it has no 
refemblance whatever to the Love-Feaft of the primi- 
tive Chriftians, and is merely a copy of a fmiilar thing 

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?;IIAP. II. THE ILLTJMINATI. I39 

in one of the fleps of French Miifoniy, Philo's read- 
ing in church-hiftory was probably very fcanty, or he 
trulled that the candidates would not be very nice in 
their examination of it, and he imagined chat it would 
do well enoughj and '' tickle fuch as had a religious 
" hankering." Spartacus dilliked it exceedingly — it 
did not accord with his ferious conceptions, and he 
juilly call.'^. it J oner la Religion, 

The difcourfe of reception is to be found alfo in the 
fecret correfpondence ( NachtraglL Abtheilung, p. 44.)- 
But it is needlefs to infcrt it here. I have given the 
fubfbance of this and of all the Cofmo-political decla- 
mations already in the panegeric introdudlion to the 
account of the procefs of education- And in Sparta- 
cus's letter, and in Philo's, I have given an abftraft of 
the introdudion to the explanation given in this degree 
of the fymbols of Free Mafonry. With refped to the 
explanation itfelf, it is as flovenly and wretched as can 
be imagined, and Ihews that Spartacus trufted to much 
more operative principles in the human heart for the 
reception of his nonfenfe than the didtates of unbialTed 
reafon. None but promifing fubjccls were admitted 
thus fat' — fuch as would not boggle ; and their princi- 
ples were already fufficicntly apparent to afTure him 
that they would be contented with any thing that made 
o^ame of religion, and w^ould be diverted by the feri- 
oufnefs which a chance devotee might exhibit during 
thefe filly caricatures of Chriftianity and Free Mafonry. 
But there is confidcrable addrefs in the way that Spar- 
tacus prepares his pupils for having all this mummery 
fhewn in its true colours, and oveicur ned. 

'* Examine, read, think on thtfe fymbols. There 
" are many things which one cannot find out without 
** a oruide, nor even learn without infl;ru(Stion. They 
'* require ftudy and zeal. Should you in any future 
•*' period think that you have conceived a clearer no- 

'^ tion 



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140 THE ILLUMINATI. CHAP. 11. 

^' tion of them, that you have found a paved road, 
** declare your difcoveries to your Superiors -, it is 
*^ thus that you improve your mind ; they expert this 
of you ; they know the true path — but will not point 
it out — enough if thty affift you in every approach 
to it, and warn you Vv'hen you recede from it. They 
have even put things in your way to try your powers 
of leading yourfelf through the difficult track of dif- 
covery. In this proccfs the weak head finds only 
child's play— the initiated finds objects of thought 
*^ which language cannot exprefs, and the thinking 
'^ mind finds food for his faculties." By fuch fore- 
v/arnings as thefe Weifhaupt leaves room for any de- 
viation, for any fentiment or opinion of the individual 
that he m.ay afterwards choofe to encourage, and '^ to 
*' whifper in their ear (as he expreffes it) many things 
^•^ which he did not find it prudent to infert in a print- 
'^ ed compend." 

But all the principles and aim of Spartacus and of 
his Order are mod diilindlly feen in the third or Myf- 
tery Clafs. I proceed therefore to give Ibme account 
of it. By the Table it appears to have two degrees, 
the Leffer and the Greater Mylleries, each of which 
have two departments, one relating chiefly to Religion 
and the other to Politics. 

The Frieft's degree contains, i. an Introdu6tion. 

2. Further Accounts of the Reception into this degree. 

3. What is called Inilrudtion in the Third Chamber, 
v^'hich the candidate muft read over. 4. The Ritual 
of Reception. 5. Initruftion for the Firft Degree of 
the Pr left's Clafs, called InftrMtllo in Scientijuis. 6. 
Account of the Confccration of a Dean, the Superior 
of this Tower Oider of Priefts. 

The Regent degree contains, 1. Dire6tions to the 
Provincial concernin;^ the difpenfation of this degree. 
2. Ritual of Reception. 3. Syilem of Diredion h;r 

the 



CHAP. 11. 'THE ILLUMINATI. I4I 

the whole Order. 4. InRru6lion for the whole Regent 
degree. 5. In(tru6tion for the Prefedls or Local Su- 
periors. 6. InilrucStion for the Provincials. 

The moll remarkable thing in the Priell's degree 
is the I:iftru(Stion in the Third Chamber. It is to be 
found in the private correfpondence (Nachtrage Origi- 
nal Schrif ten 1787, 20. Abtheilnngy page 44.,). There 
it has the title Bijcotirje to the Illiiminati DirigenteSy or 
Scotch Knights. In the critical hiftory, which is an- 
nexed to the Neuejie Arbeitimg, there is an account 
mvtn of the reafon for this denomination; and notice 
is taken of fomc differences between the inftrudlions 
here contained and that difcourfe. 

This inftrui5lion begins with fore complaints of the 
low condition ol the human race ; and the caufes are 
deduced from religion and ftate-government. '^ Men 
"'^ originally led a patriarchal life, in which every fa- 
^' thcr of a family was the fole lord of his houfe and 
his property, while he himfelf poUeiTed general free- 
dom and equality. But they fuitered themfeives to 
be opprelfed — gave themfeives up to civil foeieties, 
and formed ilaccs. Kven by this they fell; and this 
'^ is the fall of man, by which they were thruft into 
^'^ unfpea'kable mifery. To get out of this Hate, to 
*' be freed and born again, there is no other mean 
than the ufe of pure Reafon, by v/hich a general 
morality may be eitablifiied, which will put man in 
^^ a condition to ofovern himfelf, reo:ain his orig-inal 
*' worth, and difpcnfe with ail political fupports, and 
^^ and particularly Vv^ith rulers. This can be done in 
** no 'Other Vv'ay but by fecret affbciations, which will 
^' by degrees, and in filence, poiTrfs themifelves of the 
t' government of the States, and make ufe of thofe 
means for this purpoitr^which the wicked ufe for at- 
attaining their bafe cnd?>. Princes and Priefts are 
'* in particular, an i kiT exochen the wicked, whofe 

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142 THE ILLUMINATI. CHAP. JI. 



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hands we mud tie up by means of thefc aiTociacions, 
if wc cannot root them out altogether. 

Kings are parents. The paternal power ceales 
with the incapacity of the child ^ and the father in- 
jures his child, if he pretends to retain his right be- 
yond this period. When a nation comes of ao-e, 
^^ their flate of wardlliip is at an end.^' 

Here follows a long declamation againfl: patriotifm, 
as a narrow-minded principle when compared with 
true Cofrao-polirifm. Nobles are reprefcnted as '^ a 
race of men that ferve not the nation but the Prince, 
v/hom a hint from the Sovereign ilirs up againft the 
'^ nation, who are retained fcrvants and minifters of 
defpotifm, and the mean for opprefTmg national li- 
berty. Kings are accufed of a tacit convention, 
under the flattering appellation of the balance of 
pov/er, to keep nations in fubjedion. 
'^ The means to regain Reafon her rights- — to raife 
^^ liberty from its adies— to reftore to man his original 
** rights — to produce the previous revolution in the 
*^ mind of man — to obtain an eternal victory over op- 
preflbrs — and to work the redemption of mankind, 
are fccret fchools of vv'ifdom. When the worthy 
have ilrengthcned their affociation by numbers, they 
are fccure, and ^hen they begin to become power- 
ful, and terrible to the wicked, of whom many will, 
for fafety, amend themfelves — many will come over 
to our party, and we fhall bind the hands of the red, 
and finally conquer them. Whoever fprcads gene^ 
ral Illumination, augments mutual fecurity^ Illu- 
mination and fecurity make princes unneceffary; 
Illuminatian performs this by creating an eftedcive 
'^ Morahty, and Morality makes a nation of full age 
^' fit to govern itfclf; and fince it is not impofTible to 
*^ produce a jull Morality, ip is pofTible to regain free-r 
>^ dom for the world. *' 

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©HAP. II. THE ILLUMINATl. J4^ 

" VVc mufl therefore flrengtben our band, and efba- 
*' blifh a legion, which Ihall reftore the rights of man, 
*^ original liberty and independence. 

*' Jcfus Chrift'^— but I am fick of all this. The fol- 
lowing quedions are put to the candidate : 

I. " Arc our civil conditions in the world the defti- 
" nations that feem to be the end of our nature, or the 
*^ purpofes for which man was placed on this earth, 
*^ or are they not ? Do ftates, civil obligations, popu- 
'^ lar religion, fulfil the intentions of men who eflablifh- 
ed them ? Do fecret afTociations promote inflruc- 
tion and true human happinefs, or are they the 
children of neceffity, of the multifarious wants, of 
unnatural conditions, or the inventions of vain and 
*^ cunnincT men r" 

1. ^' What civil alTociation, what fcience do you 
think to the purpofe, and what are not V 

3. " Has there ever been any other in the world, is 
there no other more fimple condition, and what do 
you think of it ?" 

4. " Does it appear poffible, after having gone 
" through all the nonentities of our civil confticutions, 
^' to recover for once our firft fimplicity, and get 
^ back to this honourable uniformity ?*' 

5. '' Hov/ can one begin this noble attempt 3 by 
means of open fupport, by forcible revolution, or 
by what other way ?" 

6. "Does Chriftianity give us any hint to this pur- 
*' pofe ? Does it notrecos^nife fuch a blcffed condition 
** as once the lot of m^an, and as ftill recoverable ?*' 

7. *' But is this holy religion the religion that is 
'' now proftiTcd by any feet on earth, or is it a bet- 
*' ter ?" 



8. " Can we learn this religion — -can the world, as 
it is, bear the hght ? Do you chink that it would be 
of fervice, before numerous obflaclts are removed, 

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144 "^^E ILLUMINATI. CHAP. II; 



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if we taught men this purified religiorij lublime phi- 

lofophy, and the art of governing themfelves ? Or 

would not this hurt, by roufing the interefted pafTi-^ 

ons of men habituated to prejudices, who would op- 

pofe this as wicked r" 

cf, *^ May it not be more ad vi fable to do away thefe 

" corruptions by little and little, in filence, and for 

*' this purpofe to propagate thefe falutary and heart- 

'^ confoling do6lrines in fecret ?'' 

lo. " Do we not perceive traces of fuch a fecret 
^' doctrine in the ancient fchools of philofophy, in the 
*^ do6lrines and inflrudlions of the Bible, which Chrift, 
" the Redeemer and Deliverer of the human race, 
*' gave to his trully difciples ? — Do you not obfcrve 
" an education, proceeding by fteps of this kind, hand- 
" ed down to us from his time till the prefent ?" 

In the ceremonial of Reception, crowns and fceptres 
are reprefented as tokens of human degradation. "The 
^^ plan of operation, by which our higher degrees adl-, 
" mufl v/ork powerfully on the world, and mufl: give 
'^ another turn to all our prcfen: conftitutions." 

Many other queftions are put to the pupil during his 
preparation, and his anfwers are given in writing. 
Some of thefe refcripts are to be found in the lecret 
correfpondence. Thus, '^ How far is the poficion true, 
*' that all thofe means may be ufed for a good purpofe 
'^ which the wicked have employed for a bad ?" And 
along with this qucflion there is an injundion to take 
counfel from the opinions and conduct oi the learned and 
worthy out of the fociety. In one of the anfvvtrs, the ex- 
ample of a great philofophcr and Cofmopoiite is adduced, 
who betrayed a private correfpondence entruiled to 
him, for the fervice of ntredom : the cafe was Do6lor 
Franklin's. In another, the power of the Order was 
extended to the putting the individual to death ; and 
the reafon given v/as, that " this power wa5 allowed 



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CHAP. II. THE ILLUMINATI. 1 45 

*^ to all Sovereignties, for the good of the S:ate, an J 
^* therefore belonged to the Order, which w.is.to go- 

" vern the world." '^ N. B. Vv'e muj^ acquire thf* 

*^ direction of education — of church-nianaf?emerrt — of 
the profeflorial chair, and of the rnilpit. We mud 
bring our opinions into falhion by every art— -fpread 
them among the people by the help of youn^i; wri- 
ters. We muft preach the warmcfl concern for hu- 
^' rnanityj and make people indi^erent to all other relations, 
" We mud take care that our writers be well puffed, 
*^ and that the Reviewers do not depreciate them • 
*^ therefore we mud endeavour by every mean to gain 
*^ over the Reviewers and Journalids ; and we mud 
*' aifo try to gain the bookfcllers, who in time will fee 
^' that it is their intered to fide wirh us." 

I conclude this account of the degree of Prefbyter 
with remarking, that there were two copies of it Cin- 
ployed occafionally. In one of them all the mod of- 
fenlive things in refpe61; of church and dare were left 
out. The fame thing was done in the degree of Che- 
valier du Soleil of the French Mafonry. ■ I have feea 
three different forms. 

In the Regent degree, the proceedings and indruc- 
tions arc conducted in the fame manner. Here, it is 
faid, '^ We mud as much as podible fele6t for this de- 
'^ gree perfons who are free, independent of all princes; 
*^ particularly fuch as have frequently declared them- 
^^ felves difcontented with the ufual inditucions, and 
*' their widies to fee a better government eilablifiied." 
Catching quedions are put to the candidace for this 
degree ; fuch as, 

I. " Would the fociety be objectionable which 
" fhould (till the greater revolution of nature diould 
'^ be ripe) put monarchs and rulers out of the condi- 
" tion to do harm ; which ihould in hlence j^revent 
" the abufe of power, by furrounding the great with 

T *"' its 



14^ THE ILLUMINATI. CHAP. II , 

*' its members, and thus not only prevent their doing 
" milchiefj but even make them do good ?" 

1. '^ Is not the objection unjuft. That fuch a Soci- 
^^ ciety may abufe its power ? Do not our rulers fre- 
^^ quently abufe their power, though we are filent ? 
" This power is not fo fecurc as in the hands of our 
*^ Members, whom we train up with fo much care, 
*' and place about princes after mature deliberation 
" and choice. If any government can be harmlefs 
'' which is erecSted by man, furely it mufl be ours^ 
'' which is founded on morality, forefight, talents, li- 
^^ berty, and virtue," &c. 

The candidate is prefented for reception in the cha- 
ra6ter of a fiave ; and it is demanded of him what has 
brought him into this mofl: milerable of all conditions. 
He anhvers — Society — the State- — Submifiivenefs — 
Falfe Religion. A fkeleton is pointed out to him, at 
the feet of which are laid a Crov/n and a Sword. He 
is afked, whether that is the fl<:eleton of a King, a No- 
bleman, or a Beggar? As he cannot decide, the Pre- 
fident of the meeiing fays to him, '^ the character of 
*^ being a Man is the only one that is of importance." 
In a long declamation on the hackneyed topics, we 
have here and there fome thoughts which have not yet 
come before us. 

'' We mufl allow the underlings to imagine, (but 
^^ without telling them the truth,) thsc v/e dirc6c ail 
*' the Free Maibn Lodges, and even ail other Orders, 
*^ and that the greateft monarchs are under our guid- 
'^ ance, which indeed is here and there the cafe. 

There is no way of influencing men fo powerful- 
ly as by m.eans of the women. Thefe fhould there- 
'' fore be our chief ftudy ; we fhould infinuate our- 
'^ felves into their good opinion, give them hints of 
" emancipation from the tyranny of public opinion, 
" and of itanding up for thcmfelvesi it will be an im- 

'^ mcnfe 






CHAP. II. THE ILLUMINATI. 14? 

*^ mcnfe relief to their enflaved minds to be freed from 
^^ any one bond of reftraint, and it will fire them the 
" more, and caufe them to work for us with zeal> 
*^ without knowing that they do fo ; for they will only 
*^ be indulging their own defire of perfonal admira- 



" tion. 



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*^ We mud win the common people in every cor- 
^^ ner. This will be obtained chiefly by means of the 
" fchools, and by open, hearty behaviour, mow, con- 
'* defcenfion, popularity, and toleration of their pre- 
judices, which we fhall at leifure root out and difpel. 
If a writer publiflies any thing that attracts notice,\ 
" and is in itfelf juft, but does not accord with our 
" plan, we mufl endeavour to win him over, or decry 
<^ him. 

'* Achicf objedt of our care muft be to keep down 
*' that {laviili veneration C&r princes which lo much 
*' difgraces all nations. Even in i\\eJoi-difa?it free En- 
'^ gland, the filly Monarch fays. We are gracioufiy 
pleafed, and the more fimple people fay, Amen. Thefe 
men, commonly very weak heads, are only th£ far- 
" ther corrupted by this fervile flattery. But let us ac 
" once give an example of ourfpirit by our behaviour 
" with Princes ; we mufl; avoid all familiarity — never 
" entrufl: ourfelves to them — behave with precifion, 
" but with civility, as to other men — fpeak of them 
" on an equal footing — this will in time teach them 
^^ that they are by nature men, if they have fenfe and 
" fpirit, and that only by convention they are Lords, 
^^ We muil afliduoufly coUe^l anecdotes, and the ho- 
'^ nourable and mean a6^ions, both of the leafl: and 
" the greatefij and w^hen their names occur in any re- 
" cords which are read in our meetings, let them 
^^ ever be accompanied by thefe marks of their real 
" worth. 

'' The 



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I4B THE ILLUMINATI. CHAP. Il, 

'' The great flrength of our Order lies in its conceal- 
ment j let it never appear in anyplace in its own 



** name, but always covered by another name, and 

cc .u^. ^.„ .:::^-^-^— ■ -- - - - - 



another occupationv At;;<? is fitter than the three lower 

dcgi^ecs cf Free Majlnry ; the fuhlic is accuftomed to it ; 
'^ exfe^s little f rem it, and therefore take^ little notice of it, 
'* Next to this the form of a learned or literary fociety 
*' is bell fuited to our purpofe, and had FrecMafonry 
^' not exifced^ this cover would have been employed i 
*' and it may be much more than a cover, it may be a 
" powerful engine in our hands. By efiahlifding reading 
'' Jbcieties, and Jidfcrlpticn libraries:, and taking theje under 
" cur direrticn, andfupplying them through our labours, wt 
<"^ may turn the public mind which way we will, 

" h\ like manner we mud try to obtain an influence 
'' in the military academies, (this may be of mighty 
** confequence,) theprinting-houfesjbookfellers fnops, 
** chapters, and in Ihort in all offices which have any 
'^ eife6l, either in forming, or in managing, or even 
*' in direding the mind of man: painting and cngrav- 
'^ ing are highly worth our care*." 

'' Could our Prefed" (obfervc it is to the Illuminati 
Regcntes he is fpeaking, whofe officers are Prefect) 
'' fill the judicatories of a flate with our worthy mem- 
" bcrs, he does all that man can do for the Order. It 

is better than to gain the Prince himfelf. Princes 

iliouki never get beyond the Scotch knighthood. 

They either never profecute any thing, or they twift 
*^ every thing to their ov/n advantage. 

'' A Literary Society is the moll proper form for 
«' the introdudion of our Order into any (late where 
" vv^e arc yet firangers.'* (Mark this !) 

'' The 

* (Thev were ilrongly fufpe-aed of having publifhed fome fcan- 
daious caricatures, snd i'ome very immoral prints.) They fcrup- 
led at no mean, however bafc, for corruj;.ting the nation. Mira- 
beaa had dore the fame tning at Berlin. £y political caricatures 
and fJthy print?, ihcy vorru::'t even fuch as cnnaot read. 



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CHAP. 11. THE ILLUMINATI. J^g 

" The power of the Order muft furely be turned to 
" the advantage of its Members. All muft be affifted. 
" They mud be preferred to all perfons otherwife of 
^^' equal merit. Money, fervices, nonour, goods, and 
^' blood, mud be expended for the fully proved Bre- 
*^ thren, and the unfortunate muft be relieved by the 
" funds of the Society." 

As evidence that this was not only their inftrudlionSg 
but ahb their affiduous pra6lice, take the following re- 
port from the overfeer of Greece (Bavaria), 



In Cato's hand-writing, 

^* The number (about 600) of Members relates to 

^f Bavaria alone. 

" In Munich there is a well-conftituted meeting of 

" Illuminati MajoreSj a meeting of excellent /////;;2//?^/i 
Minores, a refpe6table Grand Lodge, and two Mi- 
nerval AlTemblies. There is a Minerval AiTembly 
at Frcyfling, at Landfberg, at Burghaufen, at Straf- 
burg, at Ingollladt, and at laft at Regenfburg*. 
*^ At Munich we have bought a houfe, and by cle- 
ver meafures have brought things fo far, that the 
citizens take no notice of it, and even fpeak of us 
with eilcem. We can openly go to the houfe every 
day, and carry on the bufmels of the Lodge. This 
is a great deal for this city. In the houfe is a good 
mufeum of natural hiftory, and apparatus for ex- 
periments : alfoa library which daily inereafes. The 
garden is well occupied by botanic fpecimens, and 
the Vv'hole has the appearance of a focicty of zealous 
*^ naturalifts. 

" We get all the literary journals. We take care, 
" by well-timed pieces, to make the citizens and the 

Princes 

* In this fmall turhulejit city there were eleven fccret fucieties of 
Mafons, Kofvcrucians^ Clair- vovants, &c. 



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I^O tHE ILLUMINATI. CHAP. II. 

.*^ Princes a little more noticed for certain little flips. 
" We oppofe the monks with all our might, and with 
*' great iliccefs. 

" The Lodge is conftituted entirely according to our 
*^ fyftem, and has broken oft entirely from Berlin, and 
*^ we have nearly finifhed our tranfadions with the 
*^ Lodges of Poland, and fliali have them under our* 
" direction. 

*f By the adtivity of our Brethren, the Jefuits have 
*^ been kept out of all the profeiTorial chairs at Ingol- 
*^ ftadt, and our friends prevail.'* 

" The widow Duchefs has fet up her academy en- 
** tirely according to our plan, and we have all the 
'^ ProfclTors in the Order. Five of them are excellent, 
" and the pupils will be prepared for us. 

" We have got Pylades put at the head of the Fife, 
«* and he has the church-money at his difpofal. By 
«' properly ufing this money, we have been enabled 

" to put our brother 's houfehold in good order ; 

" which he had deftroyed by going to the Jews. We 
" have fupported more Brethren under fimilar misfor- 
*^ tunes. 

*' Our Ghoflly Brethren have been very fortunate 
«^ this lail year, for we have procured for them feveral 
" good benefices, parifhes, tutorlhips, &c. 

" Through our means Arminius and Cortes have 
" gotten Profeflbrfhips, and many of our younger 
<' Brethren have obtained Burfaries by our help. 

" We have been very fuccefsful againft the Jefuits, 
" and brought things to fuch a bearing, that their re- 
" venues, fuch as the MifTion, the Golden Alms, the 
" Exercifes, and the Converfion Box, are now under 
*' themanagementofourfricnds. So arc alfo their con- 
*f cernsin theuniverfityand the German fchool founda- 
** tions. The application of all will be determined 
" prefently, and we have fix members and faur friends 

" in 



cc 

cc 



CHAP. II. THE ILLUMINATI. ' I^t 

'^ in the Court. This has coft our fenate fome nights 
want of Deep. m 

'^ Two of our befl youths have got journies from the 
Courts and they will go to Vienna, where they will 
do us great fervice. 
" All the German Schools, and the Benevolent So- 
^^ ciety, are at laft under our direction. 

'' We have e:ot feveral zealous members in the courts 
" of juftice, and we arc able to afford them pay, and 
'■^ other good additions. 

'^ Lately, we have got pofTefTionof the Bartholomew 
" Inftitution for young clergymen, having fecured ali 
*^ its fupporters. Through this we fh ail be able to 
" fupply Bavaria with fit priefts. 

" By a letter from Phiio we learn, that one of the 
*^ highefl dignities in the church was obtained for a 
" zealous lUuminatus, m oppofition even to the au- 
" thority and right of the Bilhop of Spire, who is re- 
^' prefented as a bigoted and tyrannical prieft." 

Such were the leffer myileries of the Iliuminati. But 
there remain the higher myileries. The fyfrem of thefe 
has not been printed, and the degrees were conferred 
only by Spartacus himfelf, from papers which he never 
entrufted to any peribn. They were only read to the 
candidate, but no copy was taken. The publiflier of 
the Neuefte Arheltung fays that he has read them (lb fays 
Grollman). He fays, *' that in the firil degree of 
*^ Magus or Philosophus, the doctrines are the 
fam.e with thofe of Spinoza, where all is material, 
God and the world are the fame thing, and all re- 
ligion whatever is v/ithout foundation, and, the con- 
*'■ trivance of ambitious micn." The fecond degree/ 
or Rex, teaches, '^ that every peafant, citizen, and 
*^ houfeholder is a fovereign, as in the Patriarchal 
^^ Hate, and that nations muii be brought back to that 
*^ ftate, by v/hatever means are conducible — peace- 
ably. 



cc 



152 



TH£ ILLUMINATT. 



CHAP. JI. 



€6 






ably, if It can be done; but, if not, then by force 
" — for all fubordination mult vanilh from the face of 
" the earth." 

The author fays further, that the German Union 
was, to his certain knowledge, the work of the iUu- 
minati. 

The private correfpondence that has been publifhed 
is by no means the whole of what was difcovered at 
Landfhut and BafTus HofF, and government got a great 
deal of ufeful information, which was concealed, both 
out of regard to the families of the perfons concerned, 
and alfo that the reft miojht not know the utmoft ex- 
tent of the difcovery, and be lefs on their guard. A 
third collc6lion was found under the foundation of the 
houfe in which the Lodge Tbeodor vom guteyi Rath had 
been held. But none of this has appeared. Enough 
furely has been difcovered to give the public a very 
juft idea of the dcfigns of the Society and its connect 
tions. 

Lodges were difcovered, and are mentioned in the 
private papers already publifhed, in the following 
places. 



Munich 

Ing'olftadt 

Frankfort 

Echftadt 

Hanover 

Brunfwick 

Calbe 

Magde burgh 

CaiTel 

Ofnabruck 

Weimar 

Upper Saxony (feveral) 

Auftria (14) 



Weftphalia (feveral) 

Heidelbero: 

Manheim 

Strafourgh (5) 

Spire 

Worms 

Dufleldorff 

Cologne 

Bonn (4) 

Livonia (many) 

Courland (many) 

Frankendahl 

Alface (many) 



Vienna 



CHAP. II. 



THE ILLUMINATI. 



IS3 



Vienna (4) 
HciTe (many) 
Buchenwerter 
Mompcliard 
Stutgard (3) 
Carifruhc 
Anfpach 
Neuwied (2) 
Mentz (2) 
Poland (many) 
Turin 

England (8) 
Scotland (2) 
WaiTaw (2) 
America (fcveral.) 



Deiixponts 
Coufel 
Treves (2) 
Aix-la-Chapelle (2) 
Bartfchicd 
Hah re n berg 
Switzerland (many) 
Rome 
Naples 
Ancona 
Florence 
France 

Holland (many) 
Drefden (4) 
N. B. This was before 1786. 



j|». 



I have picked up the names of the following mem- 



ben 

Spartacus^ 
Philo, 

Araelius, 
Bayard, 
Diomedes, ' 
Gato, 



U 



Weiiliaupt, Profeflbr. 
Knigge, Freyherr, i. e. 

Gentleman. 
Bode, F. H. 
Bufche, F. H. 
Conflanza, Mara. 
Zwack, Lawyer. 
Torrin^, Count. 
Khreitmaier, Prince. 
Utfchneider, ProfeiTor. 
ColTandey, ProfeiTor. 
Renner, Profeilbr. 
Grunberger, ProfefTor. 
Balderbufch, F. FI. 
Lippert, Counfelior. 
Kundl, ditto. 
Bart, ditto. 

Leiberhauer, 



^54 



THE ILLUMINATI. 



CHAP. 11^ 



Pythagoras, 



Hannibal, 

Brutus, 

Lucian, 

Zoroafler, Confucius, 
Hermes Trifmegiftus, 

Sulla, 



Pythagoras, (2cl,) 
Marius, 



Saladin, 



Leiberhauer, Prieft. 
Kundler, ProfeiTor. 
Lowling, ProfeiTor. 
Vachency, Counfellor. 
Moraufl^y, Count. 
Hoffftetter, Surveyor of 

Roads. 
Strobl, Bookfeller. 
Weflenrieder, Profefibr, 
Babo, ProfeiTor. 
Baader, ProfeiTor. 
Burzes, Prieft. 
Pfruntz, Prieft. 
BafTus, Baron. 
Savioli, Count. 
Nicholai, Bookfeller. 
Bahrdt, Clergyman. 
Baierhamer. 

Socher, School Infpe6lor. 
Dillis, Abbe. 
MeggenhofT, Paymafter. 
Danzer, Canon. 
Braun, ditto. 
Fifcher, Magiftrate. 
Frauenberger, Baron. 
Kaltner, Lieutenant. 
Drexl, Librarian. 
Hertel, Canon. 
Dachfel. 

Billing, Counfellor. 
Seefeld, Count. 
Gunflieim, ditto. 
Morgellan, ditto. 
Ecker, ditto. 
Ow, Major. 
Werner, Counfellor. 

Cornelius, 



CHAP. II. 



THE ILLUMINATI. 



J 55 



Cornelius Scipio, 



Tycho Brahe, 

Thales, 

Actila, 

Ludovicus BavarnSj 

Shafteibury, 

Coriolaniis^ 

Timon, 

Tamerlane, 

Liviiis, 

Cicero, 

Ajax, 



Berser, Coimfellor. 

Worcz, Apothecary. 

Mauvillon, Colonel, 

Mirabeau, Count. 

Orleans, Duke. 

Hochinaer. 

Gafpar, Merchant. 

Kapfinger. 

Sauer. 

Lofi. 

Steger. 

Tropponera, Zufchvvartz, 

Michel. 

Lange. 

BadorfFer. 

Pfefr. 

MafTenhaufen, Count. 



I have not been able to find who perfonatcd Minos, 
Euriphon, Celfius, Mahomet, Hercules, Socrates, 
Philippo Strozzi, Euclides, and fome others who have 
been uncommonly adive in carrying forward the great 
eaufe. 

The chief publications for giving us regular accounts 
of the whole, (befides the original writings,) are, 

1. Groffe Alyficht des Illuminaten Or dens. 

2. Nachtrages (3.) an denfelben. 

3. IVeiJhaupfs improved Syft em. 

4. Syftem des Ilium. Or dens aus dem Original-fchriften 
gezcgen. 

I may now be permitted to make a few reflections 
on the accounts already given of this Order, which has 
fo diftindly concentrated the cafual and fcattered ef- 
forts of its prompters, the Chevaliers Bienfaijants^ the 
Philalethes^ and Amis Reunis of France, and carried on 
the fyflem of enlightening and reforming the world. 

The 



,'* 



1^6 THE ILLUMINATI. CHAP. II. 

The great aim profelTed by the Order is to make men 
happy ; and the means profeiled to be employed, as 
' the only and furely effective, is making them good ; and 
this is to be brought about by enlightening the mind, and 
freeing it from the dominicn of fuperjiition and prejudices. 
This purpofe is eite61:ed by its producing ajuft andfteady 
TiiGrality. This done, and becoming univerlal, there 
can be little doubt but that the peace of fociety will be 
the confcquence, — that government, fubordination, 
and all the difagreeable coercions of civil governments 
will be unneceffary^ — and that fociety may go on 
peaceably in a ftate of perfe6l liberty and equality. 

But furely it requires no angel from heaven to tell 
us that if every man is virtuous, there will be no vice; 
and that there wifi be peace on earth, and good-v/ill 
between man and man, whatever be the differences of 
rank and fortune \ fo that Liberty and Equality feem 
not to be the neceffary confequences of this juft Mora- 
litVi nor neceffary requifites for this national happinefs. 
We may quedion, therefore, whether the Illumination 
which makes this a neceffary condition is a clear and 
a pure light. It miay be a falfe glare Hiowing the ob- 
je6b only on one fide, tinged with partial colours thrown 
on it by neighbouring objedts. We fee fo much wif- 
dom in the general plans of nature, that we are apt to 
think that there is the fame in what relates to the hu- 
man mind, and that the God of nature accompliihes 
his plans in this as well as in other inftances. We are 
even difpofed to think that human nature v^/ould fuffer 
by it. The racional nature of man is not contented 
with meat and drink, and raiment, and lliclter, but is 
alfo pleafed \\»ih exerting many powers and faculties, 
mid vvith gratifying many talles, which could hardly 
have exificnce in a fociety where all are equal. We 
fay that there can be no doubt but that the pleafure 
arifing from the contemplation of tlie works of ait — 

the 



CHAP. II. THE ILLUMINATI. ' I57 

the pleafure of intelieclual cultivation, the pleafiire of 
mere ornament^ are rational, diitinguifh man from a 
brute, and are fo general, that there is hardly a mind 
fo rude as not to feel them. Oi all thefe, and of all 
the difficult fciences, all mofl rational, and in them- 
felves miOfc innocent, and mod delightful to a culti- 
vated mind, we fiiouid be deprived in a focicty where 
all are equal. No individual could give employment 
to the talents necefTary for creating and improving thefe 
ornamental comforts of life. We are abfolutely cer- 
tain diat, even in the m.oft favourable fuuations on the 
face of the earth, the mofh untainted virtue in every 
bread could not raife man to that degree of cultivation 
that is polfeiled by citizens very low in any of the Hates 
of Europe i and in the fituation o[ moft countries we 
are acquainted v/ith, the itate of man w^ould be much 
lower: for, at our very fetting out, we muft grant 
that the liDerty and equality here fpoken of mult be 
com.plete j for there mufb not be fuch a thing as a far- 
mer and his cottager. This would be as unjufl:, as 
much the caufe of difcontcnt, as the gentleman and 
the farmer. 

This fcheme therefore fcems contrary to the deligns 
of our Creator, who has every where placed us in thofe 
fituations of inequality that are here fo much reproba- 
ted, and has given us ftrong uropenfities by which we 
reiiih thofe enjoyments. We alfo find that they may 
be enjoyed in peace and innocence. And laflly, we ima- 
gine that the villain, who, in the fcation of a profeiTor, 
would plunder a prince, would alfo plunder the farmer if 
he were his cottaoer„ The Illumination therefore that 
appears to have the bed chance of making mankind hap- 
py is that which will teach us the Morality which will re- 
fpe6l the comforts of cultivated Society, and teach us to 
protedlthe poirciforsin theinnocent enjoyment of them ; 
that will enable us to perceive and admire the tafle and 

elegance 



158 THE ILLUMINATI. CHA?. If. 

elegance of Architefbure and Gardening, without any 
wilh to fwcep the palaces, the gardens, and their owner, 
from off the earth, merely becaufe he is their owner. 

We are therefore fufpicious of this Illumination, 
and apt to afcribe this violent antipathy to Princes and 
fubordination to the very caufe that makes true Illumi- 
nation, and juft Morality proceeding from it, fo ne- 
ceffary to public happinefs, namely, the vice and in- 
juftice of thofe wh^o cannot innocently have the com- 
mand of thofe offenfive elegancies of human life. Lux^ 
urious tafte, keen defires, and unbridled pafTions, would 
prompt to all thisj and this Illumination is, as we fee, 
equivalent to them in eife^t. The aim of the Order 
is not to enlighten the mind of man, and (hew him his 
moral obligations, and by the pradice of his duties to 
make fociety peaceable^ poiTeifion fccurcj and coercion 
iinneceffary, fo that all may be at refl: and happy, even 
though all were equal; but to get rid of the coercion 
which muft be employed in the place of Morality, that 
the innocent rich may be robbed with impunity by the 
idle and profligate poor. But to do this, an unjuil ca- 
fuiftry muft' be employed inilead of a juft Morality; 
and this muft be defended or fuggefted, by mifrepre- 
fenting the true ftate of man, and of his relation to the 
univerfe, and by removing the reftridlions of religion, 
and giving a fuperlative value to all thofe conftituents 
of human enjoyment, which true Iliumioation fiiews 
us to be but very fmall concerns of a rational and vir- 
tuous mind. The more clofely we examine the prin- 
ciples and practice of the Illuminati, the more clearly 
do we perceive that this is the cafe. Their iirft and 
immediate aim is to get the pofTefTion of riches, power, 
and inPiuence, without induftry ; and to accompliPa 
this, they want to abolifn Chriftianity; and then dif- 
folute manners and univcrfal profligacy will procure 
them the adherence of ajj the wicked, and enable them 

to 



CHAP. II. THE ILLUMlNATI. i ^^ 

to overturn all the civil governments of Europe ; after 
which they will think of farther conquefts, and extend 
their operations to the other quarters of the globe, till 
they have reduced mankind to the ilatc of one undif- 
tinguifhable chaotic mafs. 

But this is too chimerical to be thought their real 
aim. Their Founder, I dare fay, never entertained 
fuch hopes, nor troubled himfelf with the fate ofdiftans 
lands. But it comes in his way when he puts on the 
mafk of humanity and benevolence: it mutl embrace 
all mankind, only becaufe it muft be llronger than pa- 
triotifm and loyalty, which (land in his way. Obferve 
that Weifhaupt took a name exprefiive of his princi- 
ples. Spartacus was a gladiator, who headed an in- 
furredlion of Roman flaves, and for three years kept 
the city in terror. Weifhaupt fays in one of his let- 
ters, " I never was fond of empty titles ; but furely 
" that man has a childifh foul who would not as rea- 
" dily chufe the name of Spartacus as that of 0(Sta- 
'* vius Au2;u{lus.'' The names which he o-ives to fe- 
veral of his gang exprefs their differences of fenti- 
ments. Philo, Lucian, and others, are very fignifi- 
cantly given to Knigge, Nicholai, &c. He was vain 
of the name Spartacus, becaufe he confidered himfelf 
as employed fomewhat in the fame way, leading flaves 
to freedom. Princes and Priefts are mentioned by him 
on all occafions in terms of abhorrence. 

Spartacus employs powerful means. The (lyle of 
the Jefuits, (as he fays,) he confiders every m.ean as 
confecrated by the end for which it is employed^ and 
he fays with great truth, 

" Fk^ireftneqiiecJuperoSy Acheronta movelo,^^ 

To fave his reputation, he fcruplcs not to murder 
his innocent child, and the woman whom he had held 
in his arms with emotions of fondnefs and affedion. 

But 



•»•<( iv 






l6o THE ILLUMlNAtl. CHAP. II. 

But left this fhould appear too feiiifli a motive, he fays, 
" Had I fallen, my precious Order would have fallen 
" with me y the Order which is to blefs mankind. I 
*' fliouldnot again have been able to fpeak of virtue fo 
" as to make any lafting imprefiion. My example 
" might have ,ruined miany young men." This he 
thinks will excufe, nay fandify any thing. '^ My 
" letters are my greateft vindication.'* He employs 
the Chriftian Religion, which he thinks a falfehood, 
and which he is afterwards to explode, as the mean for 
inviting Cnrifdians of every denomination, and gradually 
cajoling them, by clearing up their Chriftian doubts in 
fucceflion, till he lands them in Dcifm -, or if he finds 
them unfit, and too religious, he gives them a StahenCy 
and then laughs at the fears, or perhaps madnefs, in 
which he leaves them. Having got them the length 
of Deifm, they are declared to be fit, and he receives 
them into the higher rnyfteries. But left they fhould 
ftill ihrink back, dazzled by the Pandemonian glare of 
Illumination which vvill now burft upon them, he ex- 
a6ls from them, for the firft time, a bond of perfe- 
verance. But, as Phiio fays, there is little chance of 
tergiverfation. The life and honour of moft of the 
candidates are by this tim.e in his hand. They have 
been long occupied in the vile and corrupting office of 
fples on all around them, and they are found fit for 
their prefent honours, becaufe they have difcharged 
this office to his fatisfadion, by the reports which they 
have given in, containing ftcries of their neighbours, 
nay even of their own gang. They may be ruined in 
the world by difclofing thefe, either privately or pub- 
licly. A man who had once brought himfelf into this 
perilous fituation durft not p;o back. He mi^rht have 
been left indeed in any degree of Illumination ; and/ if 
Religion has not been c|uite eradicated from his mind, 
he muft be in that condition of painful anxiety and 

doubt 



€' 



CHAP. II. THE ILLtTMINATI. l6l 

doubt that makes him defperatc, fit for the full opera- 
tion of fanaticifm, and he may be engaged, in the cauje 
of God y '' to commit all kind of wickednefs and greedi- 
" nefs." In this (late of mind, a man ihuts his eyes, 
andrufhes on. Had Spartacus fuppofcd that he was 
dealing wirh good men, his conduit would have been 
the reverfe of all this. There is no occafion for this 
bond from a perfon convinced of the excellency of the 
Order. But he knew them to be unprincipled, and 
that the higher myfteries were fo daring, that even fome 
of fuch men would ftart at them. But they mud not 
blab. 

Having thus got rid of Religion, Spartacus could 
with more fafety bring into viev/the great aim of all his 
efforts — to rule the world by means of his Order. As 
the immediate mean for attainine this, he holds out 
the pro fpe6t of freedom from civil fubordination. Per- 
fed Liberty and Equality are interwoven with every 
thing ; and the flattering thought is continually kept 
up, that " by the wife contrivance of this Order, the 
'' mofl comolete knowledo-e is obtained of the real 
"^ worth of every perfon ; the Order will, for its own 
^^ Jake, and therefore certainly, place every man in 
*' that fituation in which he can be mofl effective. The 
''^ pupils are convinced that the Order will rule the 
** world. Every member therefore becomes a ruler." 
We all think ourfelves qualified to rule. The difiicult 
tafk is to obey with propriety i but we are honcftly 
generous in our profpeds of future comm^and. It is 
therefore an alluring thought, both to good and bad 
men. By this lure the Order v;illfprcad. If they are 
a6live in infmuating their members into offices, and 
in keeping out others, (which the private correfpon- 
dence fnews to have been the cafe,) they may have had 
frequent experience of their fuccefs in gaining an influ- 
ence on the world. This mud whet their 2eal. If 

X Wcilliaupc 



It2 THE ILLUMINATI. CHAP. II, 

Weirnaupc was a Hncere Cofrno-polit?, he had 
the pleaiure of Teeing " his work, prolpering in his 
hands." 

It furely needs little argument now to prove, that 
the Order of Illimiinaii had for its immediate objedl 
the aboliQiing of Chrifcianity, (at leaft this was the in- 
tention of the Founder,) with the f)le view of over- 
turning the civil government, by introducing univerfal 
dilTolutends andprofiig^^cyof mannejs, and then getting 
tlie affidance of the corrupted lubjedLS to overi'et the 
throne. The whole condu(ft in the preparation and 
inftrudlion of the Prefoyter and Regens is diredted to 
this point. Philo lays, " I have been at unwearied 
*^ pains to remove the fears of fome who imagine that 
'' our Superiors want to abolifh Chrifcianity j but by 
** and by their prejudices will wear off, and they will 
*' be more at their eafe. Were I to let them know 
'^ that our General holds all Religion to be a lie, and 
'^ ufes even Deifm, only to lead m.en by the nofe — 
«f Were I to connedl myfclf again with the Free Ma- 
*^ ions, and tell them our defigns to ruin their F'ra- 
^^ ternity by this circular letter (a letter to the Lodge 
" in Courland) — Were I but to give the leaft hint to 
" any of the Princes of Greece (Bavaria) — No, my 
^^ anger fl:all not carry me lo far. — An Order, forfooth, 
*^ which in this manner abufes human nature — which 
^^ will fubjedt men to a bondage more intolerable than 
'^ Jrfuirifm — I could put it on a refpe(5table footing, 
'^ and the world would be ours. Should I mention 
*^ our fundamental principles, (even after all the pains 
*^ I have been at to mitigate them,) lo unqueftionably 
*' dangerous to the world, who would remain ? What - 
'^ fignifies the innccf^nt ceremonies of the Prieft's de- 
gree, r-s I have compofed it, in comparifon with 
your m.5xim., that we m<3y ufe for agood end thofe 
.means winch t-ie wicked employ for a bafe purpofe ?'• 

Brutus 






CHAP. II. THE ILLUMINATI. 163 

Brutus writes, *' Numenius now acquiefces in the 
" mortality of* the foul; but, I fear wc fhall lofe Lu- 
*^ dovicus Bavarus. He told Spartacus, that he was 
*^ miftaken when he thougiu that he had fwallowcd 
** his ftupid Mafonry. No, he law the trick, and did 
*' not admire the end that required it. 1 don't know 
" what to do ; a Sta bem would make him mad, and 
^^ he will blow us all up. 

" The Order muft pollefs the power of life and 
" death in confequcnce of our Oarh ; and with pro- 
^^ priety, for the fame reafon, and by the fame right, 
*' that any government in the world poffcfTes it : for 
" the Order comes in their place, making them un- 
" necelTary. When things cannot be otherwifc, and 
^^ ruin would enfue if the x^fTjciation did not emiploy 
*^ this mean, the Order rnuft, as well as public rulers, 
'^ employ it for the good of miankind ; therefore fjr 
*^ its own prefervati.on." (N. B. Obfcrve here vcit 
cafuiftry.) " Nor will the political conftitutions fuf- 
'^ fer by this, for there are always thoufands equally 
" ready and able to fupply the place." 

We need not wcnder that Diomedes told the Pro- 
feflbrs, ^^ that death, inevitable death, from which no 
*' potentate couid prote6l them, awaited every traitor 
" of the Order;" nor that the French Convention 
propofcd to take off the German Princes and Generals 
by fword or poifon, &c. 

Spartacus might tickle the fancy of his Order with 
the notion of ruling the world ; but I imagine that his 
own imimcdiate objed v/as ruling the Order. The 
happinefs of mankind was, like Weifhaupt's Chrifli- 
anity, a mere tool, a tool which the Regentes made a 
joke of. But Sparcacus v/ould rule the Regentes ; this 
he could not fo eafily accomplifli. His defpotifm v^^as 
infupportable to moft of them, and finally broug.ht all 
to light. When he could not perfuade them by his 

own 



t64 the illuminati. chap. ii. 



own firmnefsj and indeed by his fuperior talents and 
difintereiledneis in other refpedlsj and his unwearied ac- 
tivity, he employed jcfuitical tricks, caufing them to 
fall out with each other, fetting them as fpies on each 
other, and Icparating any tv^o that he faw attached to 
each oiher, by making the one a Mafler of the other; 
and, in iliort, he left nothing undone that could fecure 
his uncontrolled command. This caufed Philo to quit 
the Order, and niade Bajfus^ Ton Torring^ Kreitmaier^ 
and feveral other gentlemen, ceale attending the meet- 
in2;s; and it was their mutual diffenfions which made 
them fpeak too freely in public, and call on them- 
feives lb much notice. At the time of the difcovery, 
the party of Weifhaupt confided chiefly of very mean 
people, devoted to him, and willing to execute his 
orders, that by being his fervants, they might have 
the pleafure of commanding others. 

The objecls, the undoubted objects of this AfToci- 
ation, are furely dangerous and deteilable ; namely, 
to overturn the prefent conllitucions of the European 
States, in order to introduce a chimera Vv^hich the 
hiftory of mankind fhevvs to be contrary to the nature 
of man. ' 

Naturayn expellas furcd, tamen ufque recurret. 

Suppofe it poilible, and done in peace, the new fyftem 
could not ftand unlefs every principle of a(2:ivity in the 
human mind be enthralled, all incitement to exertion 
and indufiry removed, and man brought into a condi- 
tion incapable of improvement; and this at the ex- 
pence of every thing that is valued by the beft of men 
. — by mifery and devaftation — by loofening all the 
bands of fociety. To talk of morality and virtue in 
coniun6lion with fuch fchemes is an infult to common 
fenfe ; dilTolutenefs of manners alone can bring men to 
think of it. 

Is 



CHAP. II. THE ILLUMINATI. 165 

Is ic not aflonillilng, therefore, to hear people in 
this country exprefs any regard for this inftitution ? Is 
it not mod mortifying to think that there are Lodges 
of Illuminated among us ? I think that nothing bids 
fairer for weaning our inconfiderate countrymen from 
having any conneflio'n with them, than the faithful ac- 
count here given. I hope that there are few, very 
few of our countrymen, and none v,/hom we call friend, 
who can think that an Order which held fuch doctrines, 
and which praftifed fuch things, can be any thing elfe 
than a ruinous AlTociacion, a gang of profligates. All 
their profelTions of the love of mankind are vain i their 
Illumination mud be a bewildering blaze, and totally 
'incfFedlual for its purpofe, for it has had no fuch influ- 
ence on the leaders of the band ; yet it feems quite 
adequate to the edecls it has produced -, for fuch arc 
the charafters of thofe who forget God. 

If we in the next place attend to their mode of edu- 
cation, and examine it by thofe rules of common fenfe 
that we apply in other cafes of conduct, we iLali find 
it equally unpromifmg. The fyftem of lliuminatifni 
is one of the explanations of Free Mafonry 3 and it has 
gained many partifans. Thefe explanations reft their 
credit and their preference on their own merits. There 
is fomething in themfelvcs, or in one of them as dif- 
tinguifhed from another, which procures it the prefer- 
ence for its own fake. Therefore, to give this Order 
any dependence on Free Mafonry is to degrade the^ 
Order. To introduce a Mafonic Ritual into a manly 
inftitution, is to degrade it to a frivolous amufcment 
for great children. Men rcail)^ exerting rhemfelves to 
reform the world, and qualified for the taflc, muft hai^e 
been difgufted with fuch occupations. They betray a 
frivolous conception of the tafl: in which they are real- 
ly engaged. To im,agine that men engaged in the 
ftruggle and rivalftiip of life, under the influence of 

feififh, 



j66 the illuminati. chap, ir, 

felfifli, or mean, or impetuous palTionSj are to be 
wheedled into candid fentiments, or a generous con- 
dud, as a froward child may fometimes be made gen- 
tle and tradable by a rattle or humming-top, betrays 
a great ignorance of human nature, and an arrogant 
Iclf-conccit in thofe who can imagine that all but 
themfelves are babies. The further we proceed, the 
more do we fee of this want of wijdom. The whole 
procedure of their inRru6tion fuppofes fuch a complete 
furrender of freedom of thought, of common fenfe, 
and of common caution, that it feems impoiTible that 
it fliould not have alarmed every fenfiblc mind. This 
indeed happened before the Order was feven years old. 
It was wife indeed to keep their AreopagitcC out of 
fight; but who can be lb filly as to believe that their 
unknown Superiors were all and always faultlefs men ? 
But had they been the men they were reprefented to 
be,— If I have any knowledge of my own heart, or any 
capacity of drawing juft inferences from the condud 
of others, I am perfuaded that the knowing his Supe- 
riors would have animated the pupil to exertion, that 
he might exhibit a pleafmg fpedacle to fuch intelligent 
and worthy judges. Did not the Stoics profefs them- 
felves to be encouraged in the fcheme of life, by the 
thought that the immortal Gods were looking on and 
pafiing their judgments on their manner of ading the 
part afTigned them ? But what abjed fpirit will be con- 
tented with working, zealouHy working, for years> 
after a plan of which he is never to learn the full mean- 
ing ? In fhort, the only knowledge that he can per- 
ceive is knowledge in its wonl form. Cunning. This 
mud appear in the contrivances by which he will foon 
find that he is kept in complete fubjedion. If he is a 
true and zealous Brother, he has put himfelf in the 
power of his Superiors by his refcripts, which they 
required of him on pretence of their learning his own 

charader, 



CHAP. II. THE ILLUMINATl. 1 67 

chara6ler, and of his learning how to know the cha- 
radlers of other men. In thele rtfcripts they have got 
his thoughts on many delicate points, and on the con- 
du(St of others. His Direflors may ruin him by be- 
traying him ; and this without being feen in it. I 
IJiould think that wife men would know that none buc 
weak or bad men would fubjedt rhemfelves to fuch a 
tafk. They exclude the good, the manly, the only 
fit perfons for affifting them in their endeavours to in- 
form and to rule the world. Indeed I may fay that 
this exclufion is almoft made already by connecting 
the Order with Free Mafonry. Lodges are not the 
reforts of fuch men. They may fometimes be found 
there for an hour's relaxation. But thefe places arc 
the haunts of the young, the thoughtlefs, the idle, the 
weak, the vain, or of defigning Literati i and accord- 
ingly this is the condition of three-fourths of the Iliu- 
minati whofe names are known to the public. I own 
that the reafons given to the pupil for prefcribing thefe 
tafks are artful, and Nvell adapted to produce their ef- 
fcd:. During the flurry of reception, and the glow of 
expectation, the danger may not be fufpedled ; but I 
hardly imagine that it will remain unperceivcd when 
the pupil firs down to write his firft lelTon. Mafon 
Lodges, however, were the mod likely places for 
finding and enliftino; members. Youno- men, warmed 
by declamations teeming with the fiimfy moral cant of 
Cofmo-poiitirm, are in the proper frame of mind for 
this Illumination. It now appears alfo, that the.dif- 
fenfions in Free Mafonry mull have had o^reat influence 
in promoting this fchemc of Weifnaupt's, which was, 
in many particulars, io unpromifing, bccaufe it pre- 
fuppofes fuch a degradation of the mind. But when 
the fchifmatics in Mafonry difputed with warmth, tri- 
fles came to acquire unfpeakable importance. The 
hardccring after wonder was not in the lead abated by 



ixk 



»! 



i68 THE ILLUMINATI. , CHAP. II. 

all the tricks which had been detefted, and the impof- 
fibility of the vvilhed-for difcovery had never been de- 
monftrated to perfons prepoflefTed in its favour. They 
iliil chcje to believe that tht fymbois contained fome 
important fecret ; and happy will be the man who 
finds it out. The more frivolous the fymbois, the 
more docs the heart cling to the myftery j and, to a 
mind in this anxious ilate, Weifhaupt's proiTer was 
enticing. He laid before them a fcheme which was 
foiPiewhat feafible, was magnificeni:, furpalTmg our 
conceptions, but at the fame time fuch as permitted 
us to expatiate on the fubjeci:, and even to amplify it 
at pleafure in our imaginations without abfurdity. Ic 
does not appear to 'me wonderful, therefore, that fo 
many were fafcinated till they became at lafl: regardiefs 
of the abfurdicy and inconfifcency of the means by 
which this fplendid objecl was to be attained. Hear 
what Spartacus himfelf fays of hidden myileries. " Of 
'^ all the means I know to lead men, the moil effec- 
*^ tuai is a concealed myftery. The hankering of the 
^' mind is irrefiftibie ; and if once a man has taken it 
*' into his head that there is a myftery in a thing, it 
**' is impofiible to get it out, either by argument or 
*' experience. And then, we can fo change notions 
" by merely changing a word. What m^ore contempti- 
" bie ih^n fanatiajm ; but call it enthnfiafm ; then add 
'^ the little word nohle^ and you may lead him over 
'' the world. Nor are we, in thefe bright days, a bit 
*^ better than our fathers, who found the pardon of 
" their fins myfterioufiy contained in a much greater 
" fin, viz. leaving their family, and going barefooted 
" to Rome.'' 

Such being the employment, and fuch the difciples, 
fiiould we expe6t the fruits to be very precious ? No. 
The do6lrines which were gradually unfolded were 
fuch as fjited thofe xvho continued in the Curjus Aca- 

demicus. 



CHAF*. ir. THE ILLUMINATi. 169 

demicus. Thofe who did not^ becaufe they did not like 
them, ^oK. a Sta bene; they were not fit for advance- 
ment. The numbers however were great i Spartacus 
boafted of 600 in Bavaria alone in 1783. We don't 
know many of them ; few of thofe we know were in 
the upper ranks of life ; and I can fee that it required 
much wheedling, and many letters of long worded 
German compliments from the proud Spartacus, to 
win even a young Baron or a Graf juPc come' of age. 
Men in an eafy fituation in life could not brook the 
employment of a fpy, which is bafc, cowardly, and 
corrupting, and has in all ages and countries degraded 
the perfon who engages in it. Can the perfon be call- 
ed wife v/ho thus enflaves himfelf ? Such perfons give 
up the right of private judgment, and rely on their un- 
known Superiors with the blindeft and moft abje61: confi- 
dence. For their fakes, and to rivet ftill faflier their own 
fetters, they engage in the moft corrupting of all em.- 
ployments — and for what ? — To learn fomething more 
of an Order, of which every degree explodes the doc- 
trine of a former one. Would it have hurt the young 
Illuminatiis to have it explained to him all at once ? 
Would not this fire his miind — when he fees with the 
fame glance the great object, and the firnefs of the 
means for attaining it ? Would not ^{\^ exalted charac- 
ters of the Superiors, fo much excelling himfelf in ta- 
lents, and virtue, and happinefs, (otherwife the Order 
is good for nothing,) warm his heart, and fijl him 
with emulation, fince he fees in them, that what is {o 
ftrongly preached to him is an attainable thing ? No^ 
no — it is all a trick j he miuft be kept like a child, 
amufed with rattles;, and ftars, and ribands — and all 
the fatisfa-flion he obtains is, like the Mafons, the di- 
v^x{\on of feeing others running the fame gauntlet. 

Weiiliaupt acknowledges than the Q;reat influence of 
the Order mav be abufed. Surelv, in no v/av fo eafily 

Y 'or 



lyO THE ILLUMINATI. CHAP. U. 

or fo fatally as by corrupting or fediKftive kflbns in the 
beginning. The miltake or error of the pupil is un- 
difcoverable by himfelf, (according to the genuine 
principles of Illumination,) for the pupil n-,ull believe 
his Mentor to be infallible — with him alone he is con- 
ne6Led — his leffons only muil he learn. Who can teli 
him that he has p-one wrong — or who can fct him 
right ? 

HerCj therefore, there is confufion and deficiency. 
There muft be fome ftandard to which appeal can be 
made ; but this is inacceflible to all within the pale of 
the Order; it is therefore without this pale, and inde- 
pendent of the Order — ^and it is attainable only by 
abandoning the Order. The Qui bus Licet, the 
Primo, the Soli, can procure no light to the perfon 
M'ho does not know that he has been led out of the 
right road to virtue and happinels. The Superiors 
indeed draw much ufeful infoimation from thefe re- 
ports, though they affed to ftand in no need of it, and 
they make a cruel return. 

All this is fo much out of the natural road of infcruc- 
tion, that, on this account alone, we may prefume 
that it is wrong. We are generally fafe when we fol- 
low nature's plans. A child learns in his father's 
houfe, by feeing, and by imitating, and in common 
domeftic education, he gets much ufeful knowledge, 
and the chief habits which are afterwards to regulate 
his conduft. Example does almofl every things and, 
with refpe^l to what may be called living, as diftin- 
guifhable from profefTion, fpeculation and argumenta- 
tive inftrudion are fcldom employed, or of any ufe. 
The indifpenfablenefs of mutual forbearance and obe- 
dience, for domeftic peace and happinefs, forms mod 
of thefe habits -, and the child, under good parents, is 
kept in a fituation that makes virtue eafier than vice, 

and 



CHAP. II. THE ILLUMINATI. IJ I 

and he becomes wife and good without any exprefs 
iludy about the matter. 

But this Illumination plan is darknefs over all — it is 
too artificial — -and the topics, t1rom which counfel is to 
be drawn, cannot be taken from the peculiar views of 
the Qrder — for thefe are yet a fecret for the pupil — 
and muft ever be a fecret for hirn while under tuition. 
They muft therefore be drawn from common fources, 
and the Order is of no ufe ; all that can naturally be 
effectuated by this AlTociation is the forming, and afli- 
duoully foftcring a narrov/, Jevv^ifn, corporation fpirit, 
totally oppofite to the benevolent pretenfions of the 
Order. The pupil can fee nothing but this, that there 
is a fet of men, whom he does not know, who may 
acquire incpntroulable power, and may perhaps make 
lift of him, but for what purpofe, and in what way, 
he does not know ; how can he know that his endea- 
vours are to make man happier, any other way than as 
he might have known it without having put this collar 
round his own neck ? 

Thefe refle6tions addrefs themfelves to ail men who 
profefs to comiiudf: themfelves by the principles and dic- 
tates of common fenfe and prudence, and who have the 
ordinary fl:iare of candour and good-will to others. It 
requires no fmgular fenfibility of heart, nor great ge- . 
nerofity, to make fuch people think the do6trines and 
views of the Iliuminati falfe, abfurd, foolifli, and ru- 
inous. But I hope that I addrefs them to thoufands of 
my countrymen and friends, who have much higher 
notions of human nature, and who cherifh with care 
the affe6lions and the hopes that are fuited to a rational, 
a benevolent, and a high-minded being, capable of 
cndlefs improvement. 

To thofe who enjoy the cheering confidence in the 
fuperintendance and providence of God, who confider 
themfelves as creatures whom he has made, and whom 

he 



1/2 TX-IE ILLUMINATI. CHAP. II, 

he cares for, as the fubjecLS of his moral government, 
this. Order muft appear with every charadler of falfe- 
hood and abfurdity on its countenance. What can 
BE MORE IMPROBABLE than this, that He, whom we 
look up to as the contriver, the maker, anddiredtor of 
this goodly frame of things, fliould have fo far miirakcn 
his own plans, that this world of rational creatures 
fliould have fubfifted for thoufands of years, before a 
way could be found out, by which his intention of mak- 
ing men good and happy could be accomplifhed 3 and 
that this method did not occur to the great Arcift him- 
feir, nor even to the wifeft, and happieft, and beil men 
upon earth ; but to a few infignificant perfons at Mu- 
nich in Bavaria, who had been trying to raife ghofls, to 
change lead into gold, to tell fortunes, or difcover trea- 
fures, but had failed in all their attempts ^ men who 
hd-d been engaged for years in every whim which cha- 
racle'rifes a weak, a greedy, or a gloomy mind ? Find- 
ing all thefe beyond their reach, they combined their 
powers, and, at once, foand out this infinitely more 
important secret — for fecret it muft ftill be, other- 
wile not only the Deity, but even thefe philofophers, 
will ftill be difappointed. 

Yet this is the do6lrine that mufc be fwallowed by 
the Mi nervals and the Illuminati Minor es^ to whom it 
is not yet fafc to difclofe the grand fecret, that there is 
no Juch Juperintendance of Deity. At lafl:, however, when 
the pupil has conceived fuch exL?Jted notions of the 
knowledge of his teachers, and fuch low notions of 
the blundering projector of this world, it may be no 
difficult r^iatter to perfuade him that all his former no- 
tions were only old wives tales. By this time he muft 
have heard much about fuperftition, and how men's 
minds have been dazzled by this fplendid pidlure of a 
Providence and a moral government of the univerfe. 
it now appears incompatible with the great object of 

the 



CHAP.. II, THE ILLUIvIINATI. I73 

the Order, the principles of univerfal liberty and equa- 
lity — it is therefore rcje6ted without farther examina- 
tien, for this reafon alone. This was precifely the ar- 
gument ufed in France for rejedling revealed religion. 
It was incompatible with their Rights of Man. 

It is richly worth obferving how this principle can 
warp the judgment, and give quite another appearance 
to the fame objed. The reader will not be difpleafed 
with a moil remarkable inflance of it, which 1 beg 
leave to give at length. 

Our immortal Newton, whom the philofophers of 
Europe look up to as the honour of our fpecies, whom 
even Mr. Bailly, the Prefident of the National AiTem- 
bly of France, and Mayor of Paris, cannot find words 
fufiiciently energetic to praife j this patient, fagacious/ 
and fuccefsfui obferver of nature, after having exhibit- 
ed to the wondering world the chara6leriflic property 
of that principle of material nature by which all the bo- 
dies of the folar fyftem are made to form a connedted 
and permanent univerle -, and after having fliown that 
this law of action alone was adapted to this end, and 
that if gravity had deviated but one thoufandch part 
from the inverfe duplicate ratio of the diftances, the 
fyftem mufl, in the courfe of a very few revolutions, 
have gone into confufion and ruin — -he fits down, and 
viewstiie goodly fcene, — and then clofcs his Principles 
of Natural Fhilofophy with this refledion {h\s Schclium 
generate) : , 

^^ This moft elegant frame of things could not have 
arifcn, unlcfs by the contrivance and the direction of 
a wife and powerful Being; and if the fixed fears are 
the centres of fyftems, thefe fyfbems muft befimilar; 
" and all thefe, conftrudled according: to the fame 
plan, are fubjcct to the government of one Being. 
All thefe he governs, not as the foul of the v/orld, 
'* but as the Lord of all ; therefore, on account of his 

government. 



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174 THE ILLUMINATI. chap. li. 



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governmcnrj he is calJed the Lord God- — Pcvitckra- 
" tor ; for God is a relative term, ajid refers to fubjecls. 
^^ Deity is God's government, not of his own body, as 
" thofc think who confider him as the ibul of the 
*^ world, but of his fervants. The fupreme God is a 
*' Being eternal, infinite, abfolutely pcrfed:. But a be- 
ing, however perfc6t:, without government, is not 
God; for we i^a.y,my God, your God, the God of 
'^ Ifrael. We cannot fay f,'?)' eternal, ;;7y infinite. We 
" may have fome notions indeed of his attributes, but 
*^ can have none of his nature. With refped to bodies, 
*' we fee only fhapes and colour — hear only founds — ^ 
" touch only furfaccs. Thefe are attributes of bodies ; 
^' but of their effence we know nothing. As a blind 
'^ man can form no notion of colours, we can form 
^^ none of the manner in vvhich God perceives, and 
*^ underftands, and influences every thing. 

^* Therefore we know God only by his attributes. 
^^ W^hat are thefc ? The wife and excellent contri- 
*' vance^, ftruclure, and final aim of all things. In 
thefe his perfedions we admire him, and we wonder. 
In his dirc6lion or government, we venerate and 
worfliip him — we worfiiip him as his fervants , and 
God, without dominion, without providence, and 
final aims, is Fate — not the objed either of reve- 
rence, of hope, of love, or of fear. 
But mark the emotions which affcded the mind of 
another excellent obferver of Nature, the admirer 
of Newton, and the perfon who has put the finilhing 
ftroke to the Newtonian philoiophy, by fhov^ing that 
the acceleration of the moon's mean motion, is the 
genuine refult of a gravitation decreafing in the precife 
duplicate ratio of the diflance inverfely ; I mean Mr. 
Deiaplace, one of the moft brilliant ornaments of the 
French academy of fciences. He has lately publiflied 
the Syftcme da Monde ^ a moft beautiful compend of 

aftromoffV 



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CMAP, II. THE ILLUMINATI. I75 

aflronomy and of the Newtonian philofophy. Having 
finilhed his work with the fame obfervation, '^ That a 
*^ gravitation invcrfely proportional to the fquares of 
'' the diftances was the ofily principle which could 
^' unite material Nature into a permanent fyftem ,** 
he alfo fits down — furveys the fcene — points out the 
parts which he had brought within our ken — and then 
makes this rcfledion : *' Beheld in its totality, aftro- 
'' nomy is the nobleft monument of the human mind, 
" its chief title to intelligence. But, feduced by the 
'' illufions of fenfe, and by felf-conceit, we have long 
'^ confidered ourfelves as the centre of thefe motions -, 
'' and our pride has been punifhed by the groundlefs 
«^ fears which we have created to ourfelves. We 
*' imagine, forfooih, that all this is for us, and that 
«^ the ftars influence our dedinies 1 But the labours of 
*^ ages have convinced us of our error, and we find 
'' ourfelves on an infignificant planet, almoft imper- 
^' cepcible in the immenfity of fpace. Bun the fub-, 
*^'lime difcoveries we have made richly repay this 
*^ humble fituation. Let us cherifn thefe with care, as 
*^ the delight of thinking beings — they have deftroyed 
'^ our millakes as to our relation to the refc of the uni- 
^' verfe ; errors which were the more fatal, becaufe 
««^ the focial Order depends on juilice and truth alone. 
*f Far be from us the dangerous maxim, that it is fome- 
times ufeful to depart from thefe, and to deceive 
men, in order to infure their happinefs ; but cruel 
experience has fhewn us that thefe laws are never to- 
*' rally exnin(^t.'' 

There can be no doubt as to the meanins: of thefe laft 
words — they cannot relate to ailrology— this was en- 
tirely out of date. The '-'attempts to deceive men, 
'' in order to infure their happinefs,*' can only be 
thofe bv v/hich we are made to tiiink too hio;hlv of our- 
fclves. '* Inhabitants of this pepper-corn, v/e think 

'-^ ourfelves 



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176 tHE ILLUMINATI. CHAF. 11/ 

" OLirfeives the peculiar favourites of Heaven, nay the 
chief objects of care to a Being, the Maker of all ; 
and then we imagine that, after this life, we are to 
be happy or miferable, according as we accede or 
not to this fubjugation to opinions which enfiave us. 
But truth and juilice have broken thefe bonds/' — ' 
But where is the force of the argument which entitles 
this perfe6ler of the Newtonian philofophy to exult fo 
much ? It all refls on this. That this earth is but as a 
grain of muilard-feed. Man would be more worth at- 
tention had he inhabited Jupiter or the Sun. Thus 
may a Frenchman look down on the noble creatures 
who inhabit Orolong or Pelew. But whence arifes the 
abfurdity of the inteliedlual inhabitants of this pepper- 
corn being a proper object of attention ? it is becaufe 
our fhallow comprehenfions cannot, at the fame glance, 
fee an extenfive fcene, and perceive its mofl: minute 
detail. 

David, a King, and a foldier, had fome notions of 
this *kind. The heavens, it is true, pointed out to 
him a Maker and Ruler, which is more than they feem 
to have done to the Gallic philofopher^ but David was 
afraid that he would be forgotten in the crowd, and 
cries out, " Lord what is man that thou art mindful of 
" him?'' But David gets rid of his fears, not by be- 
coming a philofopher^ and difcoverino; all this to be 
abfurd,— he would dill be forgotten,-— he at once thinks 
of what he is — a noble creature — high in the fcale of 
nature. " But," fays he, ''^ I had forgotten myfeif. 
" Thou haft made man but a little lower than the an- 
*' gels — thou haft crowned him v/ith glory and honour 
" — thou haft put all things under his (cci.'' Here 
are exalted fentiments, fit for the creature whofe ken 
pierces through the immenfity of the vifible univerfe, 
and who fees his relation to the univerfe, being nearly 
allied to its Sovereign, and capable of riling con- 
tinually 



CHAP. II. THE ILLUMINATI. 1/7 

tiniially in his rank, by cultivating thofe talents which 
ciiftinguifh and adorn it. 

Thoiifands, I truil, there are^, who think that this 
life is but a preparation for another, in which the rnind 
of man will have the whole wonders of creation and of 
providence laid open to its enraptured view — v/here 
it will fee and comprehend with one glance what New- 
ton, the moft patient and fuccefsful of all the obfervers 
of nature, took years of meditation to find out — where 
it will attain that pitch of wiiliom, goodnefs^ and en- 
joyment, of which our confciences tell us we are ca- 
pable, though it far fr.rpaffes that of the wifeft, the 
bell, and the happieil of men. Such perfons will con- 
fider this Order as degrading and de tellable, and as in 
diredl oppoficion to their moil confident expe6lations : 
For it pretends to what is impofiibie, to perfect peace 
and happinefs in this life. They believe, and they 
feel, that man mud be made perfect through fufferings, 
which fliali call into adliion powers of mind thatother- 
v^ife would never have unfolded themfeives — powers 
which are frequently fources of the pureil and moft 
foothing pleafures, and naturally make us refb our eyes 
and hopes on that ftate where every tear fhall be wiped 
away, and where tlie kind aife6Lions fhall become the 
never-faiiinof fouixes of pure and unfadins; delio-ht. 
Such perfons fee the palpable abfurdity of a prepara- 
tion which is equally necefiary for ail, and yet muft be 
confined to the minds of a few, who have the low and 
indelicate apoetite for frivolous play -things, and for 
grofs fenfual pleafures. Such minds will turn away 
from this boaded treat with loathing and abhorrence. 

I am well aware that fome of my readers may Imile 
at this, and think it an cnchufiaMical working up of 
the imagination, fimilar to what I reprobate in the cafe 
of Utopian happinefs in a ftare of univerfal Liberty 
and Equality. It is like, they will fay, to the decla- 

Z mation 



i7S ^ THE ILLUMINATI. , CHAP. II. 

matlon in a rermon I y perlons of the trade, who are 

trained up to fineffe, by which tliey allure and tickle 
weak minds. 

. 1 acknowledge that in the preient cafe I do not ad- 
drefs myfelt to the cokl hearts, who contentedly 

" Sink andjlumher in their cells cf ch-y ; 

Peace to all fuch ; — — but to the ^'^ f dices anim^y 

" qiiihlis hcec cogmjcere cura ;''' — to thole who have en- 
joyed the pieafurcs of fcience, who have been fuccefs- 
ful — who have made difcoveries — who have really il- 
luminated the v/orld — lo the Bacons, the Newtons, the 
Lockes. — Allow me to mention one, Daniel Bernoul- 
li, the moil elegant mathematician, t\\t only philofo- 
pher, and the m.oft worthy man, of that celebrated 
family. Fie faid to a gentlem.an, (JJr. Staehling,) 
v/ho repeated it to m,e, that '' Vs^hen reading fome of 
" thofe wonderful gijelles of Sir Ifaac Newton, the 
" fubfequent demonfiration of which has been the 
** chief fource of fame to his mod celebrated comimen- 
^^ tators — his mind has fometimes been fo overpower- 
*' ed by thrilling emotions, that he has wifhed that 
^^ moment to be his laft; and that it v/as this which 
*^ gave him the clearefl: conception of the happinefs 
*^ of heaven." l( fuch delightful emotions could be 
excited by tlie perception of m^ere truth, what muft 
they be when each of thefe truths is an inftance of wif- 
dorn, and when v/e recollect, that what we call wifdom 
in the works of nature, is always the nice adaptation 
of means for producing /^^^/^^t'd';z/ ends i and that each 
of thefe affcdting qualities is fufceptible of degrees 
which are boundlefs, and exceed our higheft concep- 
tions ? What can this complex emotion or feeling be 
but raptrire ? But Bernoulli is a Do61or of Theology — 
and therefore a fufpicious pcrfon, perhaps one of the 

combination 



CHAP. ir. THE ILLUMINAII. I^C^ 

cofPibination hired by defpots to enilave us. I will 
take another nran, a gentleman of rank and family, a 
foldier, who often fignalifrd himJelf as a naval com- 
mander — who at one time forced his way through a 
powerful fleet of the Venetians with a fmall fquadron, 
and brou2;ht relief to a diilrefTed p-arrifon. I would 
defire the reader to oerufe the conclufion of Sir Ken- 
helm Digby's ire^lifes on Body cnni Mrnd ; and after 
having refiected on the fiate of fcience at the time this 
author v/rote^ let him coolly v^eigh the incitements to 
iiianly condu6l v>'hich this foldier Bnds in the difrerences 
obferved betv/een body and mind \ and then let him 
fay, on his confcience, whether they arc more feeble 
than thcfe which he can draw from the eternal Oeep 
of death. \i\\t thinks that they are — he is in the pro- 
per frame for initiation into Spartacus's higher, myfie- 
ries. He may be either jVIagus or Rex. 

Were this a proper place for confidering the quef- 
tion as a queii:ion of fcience or truth, I would fay, that 
every man who has been 2l Juccefsful {Indent of nature, 
and who will reft his conclufions on the fam.e maxims 
of probable reafoning that have procured him fuccefs 
in his pair refearches, ¥/ill confider it as next to certain 
that there is another ftate of exiftence for rational man. 
For he mull own, that if this be not the cafe, there is 
a moil: fingula'r exception to a propofition which the 
whole courfe of his experience has made him confider 
as a truth founded on univerfal indu6lion, viz. that 
noAure ace omfl'ifhes all her flans ^ and that every clafs of 
beings attains all the improvement of which it is capa- 
ble. Let him but turn his thoughts inward, he will 
feel that his intellecl: is ciipable of improvement, in 
comparifon with which Newton is but a child. I 
could purfue this argument very far, and (I th.ink) 
warm the heart of every m..m vviiom I fnould wifh to 
call n)y friend. 

What: 



l80 THE ILLUMINATI. CHAP. II, 

What Opinion will be formed of this i^ffociation by 
the mode't, the iowly- minded, thc^ candid^ who ac- 
knowledge that they too often feel the fuperior force 
of prefent and fcnfible pleafures, by which their minds 
are drav/n off from the contemplation of what their 
confciences tell them to be right, — to be their dutiful 
and filial kntiments and emotions refpecling their great 
and Rood Parent— -to be their dutiful and neip-hbourly 
affections, and their proper condudl to all around them 
' — and which diminiih their veneration for that purity 
of thought and moderation of appetite which becomes 
their noble natures ? What rnuft ^bey think of this Or- 
der f Confcious of frequent faults, v/hich would offend 
themfelves if committed by their deareft children, 
they look up to tlieir Maker with anxiety — are grieved 
to have fo far forgotten their duty, and fearful that 
they may again forget it. Their painful experience 
tells them that their reafon is often too weak, their in- 
formation too fcanty, or its light is obfcrudtcd by paf- 
iion and prejudices, which diilort and difcolour every 
thing i or it is unheeded during their attention to pre- 
fent objects. Happy fnoukl they be, if it iliould pleafe ' 
their kind Parent to remind them of their duty from 
time to time, or to influence their mind in any way 
that v/ould compenfate for their own ignorance, their 
own weaknefs, or even tiieir indolence and negle6l. 
They dare not exped: fuch a favour, wliich their mo- 
dci^iy tells them they do not deferve, and Vvhich they 
fear may be unfit to be granted ; but when fuch a com- 
fort is held out to them, with eager hearts they re- 
ceive it — they blefs the kindnefs that granted it, and 

the hand that brings it. Such amiable ciiaradcrs 

have appeared in ail ages, and in ail fituations of man- 
kind. They have not in all infcances been v/ife — often 
have they been precipitate, and have too readily caught 
at any thing which pretended to give rhem the fo much 

wilhcd- 



CHAP. II. THE ILLUMINATI. iSj 

widied-for affiances ; and, unfortunately, there have 
been enthufiafts, or villains, who have taken advan- 
tage of this, univerfal wiili of anxious man: and the 
world has been darkened by cheats, who have mifre- 
prefented God to mankind, have filled us with vain 
terrors, and have then quieted our fears by fines, and 
facritices, and mortifications, and fervices, which they 
faid were more than fufficienu to expiate all our faults. 
Thus was our duty to our neighbour, to our own dio-- 
nity, and to our Maker and Parent, kept out of fight, 
and religion no longer caine in aid to our fenfe of right 
and wrong; but, on the contrary, by thefe fuperfti- 
tions it opened the dooi's of heaven to the worthlefs 

JL 

and the wicked. — But I wifn not to fpeak of thefe 
men, but of the good, the candid, the modest, the 
HUMBLE, who know their failings^ who love their du- 
ties, but wiih to know, to perceive, and to love them 
uill more. Thefe are they who think and believe that 
" the Gofpel has brought life and immortality to 
*' light," that is, within their reach. They think it 
v/orthy of the Father of mankind, and they receive it 
with thankful hearts, adiTiirins: above all thinf?s the 
fimplicity of its morality, comprehended in one fen- 
tence, '^ Do to another what you can reafonably wifh 
" that another ihould do to you," and that purity 

OF THOUGHT AND MANNERS WHICH DISTINGUISHES 
IT FROM ALL THE SYSTEMS OF MORAL INSTRUCTION 
THAT HAVE EVER BEEN OFFERED TO MEN. HcFC 

they find a ground of refignation under the troubles of 
life, and a fupport in the hour of death, quite fuited 
to the diffidence or their own character. Such men 
are ready to grant that the Stoics were perfons of no~ 
bie and exalted minds, and that i\\^y had worthy con- 
ceptions of the rank or man in the fcale of God's 
works; but they confcfs that they themfeives do not 
feel all that; iupport from Stoical principles which man 

too 



lS2 THE ILLUMINATI. CHAP. II. 

too frequently needs ; and they fay that they are not 
fingular in their opinions, but that the bulk of man- 
kind are prevented, by their want of heroic fortitude, 
by their iituation. or their want of the opportunities of 
cultivating their native ilrength of mind, from ever 
attaining this hearty fubmilTion to the v^ill of the Deity. 
They maintain, that the Stoics were but a few, a very 
few, from among many miliions— and therefore their 
being fatisfied was but a trifle amidft the general dif- 
content, and anxiety, and defpair.~Such men will 
mofc certainly ftart back from this Illumination with 
horror and fright— from a Society which gives the lie 
to their fondett expedlations, makes a fport of their 
grounds of hope, and of their deliverer; and which, 
after laughing at their credulity, bids them fhake off 
all religion whatever, and denies the exiftence of that 
Supreme Mind, tlie pattern of all excellence, who till 
now had iilled their thoughts with admiration and love 
— from an Order which pretends to U't^ them from 
fpiritual bondage, and then lays on their necks a load 
ten times more oppreflive and intolerable, from v/hich 
they have no power of ever efcaping. Men of fenfe 
and virtue will fpurn at fuch a propofal ; and even the 
profligate, vvho trade with Deity, muft be fcnfible that 
they will be better off v/ith their priefts, whom they 
know, and among whom they may make a feltcStion of 
fuch as will with patience and gentlenefs clear up their 
doubts, calm their fears, and encourage their hopes. 

And all good men, ail lovers of peace and of jufcice, 
will abhor and reject the thought of overturning the 
prefcnt conftitution of things, faulty as it may be> 
merely in the endeavour to eilablifli another, which 
the vices of mankind may fubvert again in a twelve- 
month. They muft fee, that in order to gain their 
point, the propofers have found it neceffary to dellroy 
the grounds of morality, by permitting the moil wick-. 

^ ed 



CHAP. II. THE ILLUMINATI. • i Sj 

cd means for accomplifhing any end that our fancy, 
warped by paffion or intereft, may reprefent to us as 
of great Imporrance. They fee, th^t inftead of mora- 
lity, vice mull prevail, and that therefore there is no 
fecurity for the continuance of this Utopian felicity ; 
and, in the mean time, defolation and mifery muil lay 
the v;orld wafte during the fcruggle, and half of thofe 
for whom we are ftriving will be fwept from the face 
of the earth. We have but to look to France, where, 
in eight years there have been more executions and 
fpoliations and difireffcs of every kind by th^ pouvoir 
revGluticnnairey than can be found in the long records 
of that dcfpotic monarchy. 

There is nothing in the whole conllitution of the 
Illuminati that ilrikes m.e with more horror -than the 
propofals of Kcrcules and Minos to cnlift the v/omen 
in this fiiocking warfare v/ith all that '' is good, and 
^^ pure, and lovely, and of good report." They could 
not have fallen on any expedient that will be more ef- 
fectual and fatal. If any of m.y countrywomen fhall 
honour thefe pages with a reading, I w^ould call on 
them, in the moft earneft manner, to confider this as 
an affair of the utmoft importance to themfeives. I 
would conjure them by the regard they have for their 
own dignity, and for their rank in fociety, to join 
againft thefe enemies of human nature and profligate 
degradcrs of the fex ; and I would alTure them that 
the prefent fiate of things alm.oil puts it in their power 
to be the faviours of the world. But if they are remifs, 
and yield to the fedudlion, they Vvill fall from that high 
(late to which they have arifen in Chriitian Europe, 
and again fink into that infignificancy or Oavery in 
which the fex is found in ail ages and countries out of 
the hcarino; of Chriftianitv. 

I hope that my countrywomen v^ill confider this fo- 
lemn addrefs to them as a proof of the high eileem in 

which 



^4 



THL ILLUMrNATI. CHAI>. 11. 



which I hold them. They will not be offended then 
if, in this fcafon of alarm and anxiety, when 1 wifh to 
impreis their minds with a ferious truth, I ihali v/ave 
ceremony, which is always defi gning, and fpeak of 
them in honefl: but decent plainnefs. 

Man is immerfed in luxury. Our accommodations 
are now fo numerous that every thing is pleafure. Even 
in very fober ficuations in this highly-cultivated Soci- 
ec)% there is hardly a thing that remains in the form 
oi a necelfary of lite, or even of a mere conveniency — 
every thing is ornamented— it mud not appear of ufc 
— it muft appear as giving (ome fcnfible pieafure. I 
do not fay this by way of blaming — it is nature — man 
is a refining creature, and our moll: boalled acquire- 
ments are but refinements on our necelTary v/ants. Our 
hut becomes a palace, our blanket a fine drefs, and 
our arts become fciences. This difcontent with the 
natural condition of things, and this difpofition to re- 
finement, is a chara6Leri(tic of our fpecies, and is the 
great employment of our lives. The direftion Vv'hich 
this propenfity chances to take in any age or nation, 
marks its characfler in the m.oft: confpicuous and inte- 
refting manner. AlJ have it in fome degree, and it is 
very conceivable that, in fome, it may confticute the 
chief obje6l of attention. It this be the cafe in any na- 
tions, it is furely moil likely to be io in thofe where 
the accommodations of life are the moii numerous — 
therefore in a rich and luxurious nation. I may furely, 
without exaggeration or reproach, g've that appella- 
tion to our own n tion at this moment. If you do not 
go to the very iov/eii clafs of people, who muil; labour 
all day, is it not the chief obje6l of all to procure jD^";'- 
ceptible pleafure in one v/ay or another ? The fober and 
bufy ftruggle in the thoughts and hopes of gf*tting the 
means of enjoying the fo?/;'7/V/ J- of life without fartlier 
labour — and many have no other objecl than pleafure. 

Then 



CHAP. II. THE ILLUMINATI. l8jfe~ 

Then let us reflect that it is woman that is to grace 
the whole — It is in nature, it is the very conftitution of 
man, that woman, and every thing conneded with 
woman, mull appear as the ornament of life. That 
this mixes with every other focial fentiment, appears 
from the condu6t of our fpecies in all ages and in eveiy 
fituation. This I prefume would be the caic even 
though there w^erc no qualities in the fex to judify it. 
This fentiment refpedling the fex is neceflary, in order 
to rear fo helplefs, fo nice, and fo improveable a crea- 
ture as man ; without it, the long abiding talk could 
not be performied :— and I think that I may venture 
to fay that it is performed in the dif7erent Paces of fo- 
ciety nearly in proportion as this preparatory and indil- 
penfable fentiment is in force. 

On the other hand, I think it no h^s. evident that it 
is the defire of the women to be agreeable to the men, 
and that they will model themfelves according to what 
they think will pleafe. Without this adjuftment of 
fentiments by nature, nothing would go on. We ne- 
ver obferve any fuch want of fymmetry in the works 
of Godc If, therefore, thofe who take the lead, and 
give the fafhion in fociety, were wife and virtuous, I 
have no doubt but that the women would let the 
brighteft pattern of every thing that is excellent. But 
if the men are nice and fafcidious fenfualiiLS, the women 
will be refined and elegant voluptuaries. 

There is no deficiency in the female mind, either in 
talents or in difpofitions ^ nor can we fay with certainty 
that there is any fubjedl of intelledcual or moral difcuf- 
flon in which women have not excelled. It the deli- 
cacy of their confticution, and other phyiical caufes, 
allow the female fex a fmaller fliare of fome mental 
powers, they poflefs others in a fuperior degree, which 
are no lefs refpe6lable in their own nature, an.l ot as 
great importance to fociety. Inftead of dcfcanting at 

2 A lar-c 



l86 THE ILLUMINATI. CHAP. II. 

large on their powers of mind, and fupporting my af- 
fertions by the indances of a Hypatia, a Schurman, a 
Zenobia, an Elizabeth, &c. I may repeat the account 
given of the fex by a perfon of uncommon experience, 
who faw them without difguife, or any motive that 
could lead them to play a feigned part — Mr. Ledyard, 
who traverfed the grcatefi: part of the world, for the 
mere indulgence of his tafte for obfervation of human 
nature ; generally in want, and often in extreme mi- 
fery. 

*^ I have (fays he) alv/ays remarked that women, 
'^ in all countries, are civil, obliging, tender, and hu- 
mane : that they are ever inclined to be gay and 
cheerful, timorous and modeil; and that they do 
^^ not hefitate, like men, to perform a kind or gene- 
rous adion. — Not hau^rhtv, not arroo-ant, not fu- 
percilious, they are full of courtefy, and fond of fo- 
^^ ciety — more liable in general to err than man, but 
" in general, alfo, more virtuous, and performing 
miore good a6lions than he. To a woman, whether 
civilized or favage, I never addrelTed myfelf in ehe 
language of decency and friendfhip — without receiv- 
'^^ ing a decent and friendly anfwer-— with man it has 
" often been otherwife. 

In v;andering over the barren plains of in- 
hofpitable Denmark, through honefl Sweden, and 
frozen Lapland, rude and churlifh Finland, unprin- 
cipled Rufija, and the wide fpread regions of the wan- 
*' dering Tartar,— if hungry, dry, cold, wet, or fick, 
'^ the women have ever been friendly to me, and uni- 
formly fo ; and to add to this virtue, (fo worthy of 
the appellation of benevolence,) thefe adlions have ' 
been performed in fo free and fo kind a manner, that 
" if I was thirlly, I drank the fweeteft draught, and 
if hungry, I ate the coarfe meal with a double 









CC 

CC 

cc 



cc 
cc 
cc 
cc 



cc 
cc 
cc 



cc 



relilli." 



" And 



CHAP. II- THE ILLUMINATI. iSj 

And thefc are they whom Weilhanj3t would cor- 
rupt ! One of thefe, whom he had embraced with 
fondnefs, would he have murdered^ to fave his honour, 
and qualify himfeif to preach virtue ! But let us not be 
toofcvere on Weifhaupt — let us wafh curfelves clear 
of allftain before we think of reprobating him. Are 
wc not guilty in fome degree, when v/e do not culti- 
vate in the women thofe powers of mind, and thofe 
difpofitions of heart, which would equally dignify them 
in every ilation as in thofe humble ranks in which Mn 
Lcdyard mod frequently faw them ? I cannot think 
that we do this. They are not only to grace the whole 
of cultivated fociety, but it is in their faithful and af- 
fedionate perfonal attachment that we are to find the 
fweeteft pleafures that life can give. Yet in all thefc 
fituations where the manner in which they are treated 
is not di6lated by the ftcrn laws of necefiity, are they 
not trained up for mere amufement — are not ferious 
occupations confidered as a taflc which hurts their love- 
linefs ? What is this but felfiilinefs, or as if they had 
no virtues'worth cultivating? Their h{/ine/s is fuppofed' 
to be the ornamiennng themfelves, as if nature did noc 
didlate this to them already, with at lead as much 
force as is neceflary. Every thing is prefcribed to 
them hecauje it makes them more lovely — even their moral 
leifons are enforced by this argument, and Mifs Wool- 
iloncraft is perfe6lly right when (lie lays that the fine 
lelTons given to young women by Fordyceor RouiTeau 
are nothing but feififh and refined voluptuoufnels. This 
advocate of her fex purs her fifcers in the proper point 
of view, when fhe tells them that they are, like man, 
the fubje6ls of God's moral governm.ent,— like man, 
preparing themfelves for boundlefs improvement in a 
better ftate of exillence. Had fhe adhered to this view 
of the matter,* and kept it conflantly in fight, her book 
(which doubtlefs contains many excellent things, highly 

deferving 



l88 THE ILLUMINATI. ^HilP.IU 

deferving of their ferious confideration) would have 
been a nioft valuable work. She juftly obferves, that 
the virtues of the fex are great and refpe6t:able, but 
that in our mad chace of piealure, only pleafure, they 
are little thou^i^ht of or attended to. Man trufts to his 
own uncontroulable power, or to the general goodnefs 
of the fex, that their virtues will appear when we have 
occafion for them ;— '' but we will fend for thefe fome 
" otiier time •/' — Many noble difplays do they make 
of the molt difficult attainments. Such is the patient 
bearing up under misfortunes, which has no brilliancy 
to fupport it in the effort. This is more difficult thaa 
braving danger in an adive and confpicuous fituation. 
How often is a woman left with a family, and the fliat- 
tered rem.ains of a fortune, loft perhaps by diffipation 
or by indolence — and how feldom, how very feldom, 
do we fee woman fhrink from the tafk, or difchargc it 
with negligence ? Is it not therefore folly next to mad- 
nefs, not to be careful of this our greateft bleffmg — of 
things which fo^ nearly concern our peace — nor guard 
ourfeives, and thefe our beft companions and friends, 
from the effcds of this fatal Illumination? It has in- 
deed brought to light what dreadful lengths men will, 
go, when under the fanatical and dazzling glare of hap- 
pinefs in a ftate of liberty and equality, and fpurred on 
by infatiable luxury, and not held in check by moral 
feelings and the reftraints of religion — and mark, reader, 
that the women have here alfo taken the complexion of the 
men, and have even gone beyond them. If wehavefcena 
fon prefent himfelf to the National Affembly of France, 
profcffing his fatisfadion with the execution of his fa- 
ther three days before, and declaring himfelf a true 
citizen, who prefers the nation to all other confidera- 
tions i we have alfo fcen, on the fame day, wives de- 
nouncing their hufbands, and (O fhocking to human 
nature !) miOthers denouncing their fons, as bad ci- 
tizens 



CHAP. 11. THE ILLUMINATI. 189 

tizens and traitors. Mark too what return the women 
have met with for all their horrid fcrvices, where, to 
cxprefs their fentiments of civiim and abhorrence of 
royalty, they threw away the chara(f(;er of their fex, 
and bit the amputated limbs of the'.r murdered coun- 
trymen*. Surely thefe patriotic women merited that 
the rights of their fex fiioukl be confidered in full coun- 
cil, and they were well entitled to a feat -, but there is 
not a finglc a6l of their government in which the fex is 
confidered as having any rights whatever, or that they 
are things to be cared for. 

Are not the accurfed fruits of Illumination to be (c^n 
in the prefenthumiliating condition of woman in France? 
pampered in every thing that can reduce them to the 
mere inftruments of animal pleafure. In their prefent 
ftate of national moderation (as they call it) and fe- 
curity, fee Madame Tailien come into the public thea- 
tre, accompanied by other beautiful women, (I was 
about to have mifnamed them Ladies,) laying afide all 
modefty, and prefcnting themfclves to the public view, 
with bared limb?, a la Sauvage^ as the alluring ohjedls 
of defire. I make no doubt but that this is a ferious 
matter, encouraged, nay, prompted by government. 
To keep the minds of the Parifians in the prefent fe- 
ver of difiblute gaiety, they are at more expence from 
the national treafury for the fupportof the fixty theatres, 
than all the penfions and honorary offices in Britain, 
three times cold, amount to. Was not their abomina- 
ble farce in the church of Notre Dame a bate of the 
fame kind in the true fpirit oC^^tVArxw^i's E'roterion? 

** We 

* I fay this on the authority ofa young gentleman, an emigrant, 
^ho faw it, and who laid, that they were women, not of the dregs 
of the Palais Royal, nor of infamous charader, but well drelTed. — t 
am forry to add, that the relation, accompanied with looksof hor- 
ror and dif;i^uft, only provoked a contemptuous fmile froju an illumi- 
nated Britifh Fair-one. 



x' 



igO THE ILLUMINATI. CHAP. II. 

**■ We do not," fald the high priefb, '^ call you to the 

n ' c ' ■' fc'Ji 'Oil'' fi. ' 



(C 



worfliip of inanimate idols. Behold a mafter-piece 

of nature, (lifting up the veil which concealed the 
" naked charms oi the beautiful Madmf. Barbier) : 
" This Tacred image fnould inflame all hearts." And 
it did fo ; the people fliouted out, '' No more altars, 
*■' no more prieds, no God but the God of Nature." 

Orleans, the firfl; prince of the blood, did not fcruple 
to proilitute his daughter, if not to the embraces, yen 
to the wanton view of the public, with the precife in- 
tention of inflaming their defires. (See the account 
given of the dinners at Sillcry's, by Camille Defmou- 
lines, in his fpeech againft the Briilotins.) But what 
will be the end of all this ? Tht fondlings of the w^eal- 
thy will be pampered in all the indulgences which 
fafl:idious volupcuoufnefs finds neceffary for varying or 
enhancing its pleafures , but they will either be flighted 
as toys, or they will be immured ; and the companions 
of the poor will be drudges and flavcs. 

I am fully perfuaded that it was the enthufiafbic ad- 
miration of Grecian democracy that recommended to 
the French nation the drefs a la Grecque, which exhibits 
not the elegant, ornamented beauty, but the alluring 
female, fully as well as Madame Tallien*s drefs ^ /<^ 
Sauvage. It was no doubt with the fame adherence to 
Jerious principle, that Mademoifelle Therouanne was 
moll: beautifully drefl^ed a V Amazonne on the 5th of 
Oclober 1789, when fne turned the heads of fo many 
young officers of the regiments at Verfailles. The 
Cythera, the borninitm divunqiie vduptas, at the cathe- 
dral of Notre Dame, v/as alfo drelfed a la Grecque : 
There is a moil evident and charadteriftic change in 
the whole fyftem of female drefs in France. The Filles 
de V Opera always gave the ton, and were furely withheld 
by no rigid principle. They fometimes produced 
very extravagant and fantailic forms, but thefe were 

aim oft 



CHAP. II. THE ILLUMINATJ. I^I 

almoft always in the (lyle of the highefl: ornament, and 
they triift^d, for the reil of tlie imprelTion which they 
willifd ro make, to the fafcinaringcxp^'cflion of elegant 
movements. This indeed was wonderful, and hardly 
conceivable by any who have not fcen a grand ballet 
performed by good a6lors. I have fhed tears of the 
mod fincere and tender forrow during the exhibition of 
Antigone, fet to mufic by Traecta, and performed by 
Madame Mcilcour and S^^ Toreili, and Zantini. 1 can 
cafily conceive the impreiTion to be dill (Irongcr, though 
perhaps of another kind, when the former fuperb dref- 
fes are changed for the expreffive fim.plicity of the 
Grecian. I cannot help thinking that the female orna- 
ments in the reft of Europe, and even among ourfelves, 
have k'fs elegance fmce we loft the fancStion of the 
French court. But fee how all this will terminate, 
when we fliall have brought the fex fo lov/, and will 
not even wait for a Mahometan paradife. What caa 
we expe6t but fuch adiflblutenefs of manners, that the 
endearing ties of relation and family, and mutual con- 
fidence within doors, will be flighted, and willceafe ; 
and every man muft ftand up for himfclf, fingle and 
alone ? 

Fcecunda culfd: Jacula nuptias 
Primum inqidnavere, et genusy et dc?nos^ 
Hccfcnte derivata clades 

In patriampo'pulumque fluxit , Hor. iii. 6. 17. 

This is not the fuegeftion of prudifh fear, I think it is 
the natural courfe of things, and that France is at this 
moment giving to the world the fulleft proof of 
Weifhaupt's fagacity, and the judgment with which he 
has formed his plans. Can it tend to the improvement 
of our morals or nianners to have our ladies frequent 
the gymnaftic theatres, and fee them decide, like the 
• Roman 



l^t THE ILLUMINATI. CHAP. II. 

Roman matrons, on the merits of a naked gladiator or 
wredler ? Kave we not enough of this already with our 
vaulters and pr^fture-maftcrs, and fhould we admire 
any lady who had a rage for fuch fpedtacles ? Will it 
improve our taflc to have our rooms ornamented with 
fuch paintings and fculpturcs as filled the ccnaculum, 
and the ftudy of the refined and elegant moralift Ho- 
race, who had the arc — ridendo dtce.e verum ? Shall 
we be improved when fuch indulgences are thought 
compatible with fuch leiTons as he generally gives for 
the condudl of life ? The pure Morality of Illumina- 
tifm is nov/ employed in ftripping Italy of all tbofe pre- 
cious remains of ancient art and voluptuoufnefs; and 
Paris will ere long be the depofit and the refort of ar- 
tills from all nations, there to ffudy the works of an- 
cient mafters, and to return from thence panders of 
public corruption. The plan is maflerly, and the low- 
born Scatefmen and Generals of France may in this ref- 
pe6t be fet on a level wich a Colbert or a Conde. But 
the confcquences of this Gallic dominion over the 
minds of fallen man will be as dreadful as their domi- 
nion over their lives and fortunes. 

Recol]e6L in what manner Spartacus propofed to 
corrupt his fillers (for we need not fpeak of the manner 
in which he expe6led that this would promote his plan 
— this is abundantly plain). It was by deftrcying their 
moral fentiments, and their fentiments of religion. Re- 
coiled what is the recommendation that the Atheifl 
Minos gives of his ilep-daughters, when he fpeaks of 
them, as proper perfons for the Lodge of Sillers, 
*' They have got over all prejudices, and, in matters 
^' of religion they think as I do." Thefe profligates 
judged rightly that this affair required much caution, 
and that the utmod attention to decency, and even de- 
licacy, mufl be obferved in their rituals and ceremo- 
nies, otherv^ife the \Tomen would be difgujled. This 

was 



CHAP. ir. THE ILLUMINATI. I9J 

was judging fairly of the feelings of a female mind^ 
But they judged falfely, and only according to theirs 
own coarfe experience, when they attributed their dif- 
guft and their fears to coynefs. Coyncfs is indeed the 
inftindlive attribute of the female. In woman it is very 
great, and it is perhaps the genuine fource of the dijgufl 
of which the Illuminati were fufpicious. But they have 
been dim-fighted indeed, or very unfortunate in their 
acquaintance, if they never obferved any other fource 
of repugnance in the mind of woman to what is im- 
moral|or immodeil — if they did not fee diflike — moral 
difapprobation. Do they mean to infmuate, that in 
that regard which modeil women exprefs in all their 
words and a6lions, for what every one underftands by 
the terms decency, modefty, and the difapprobation 
of every thing that violates thofc feelings, the women 
only fliow female coynefs ? Then arc they very blind 
inftruQors. But they are not fo blind. The account 
given of the initiation of a young Sifler at Frankfort, 
under the feigned name FJychariGn^ fhows the mofl 
fcrupulous attention to the moral feelings of the fex; 
and the confufion and diilurbance which, after all their 
care, it occafioned among the ladies, fliows, that when 
they thought all right and delicate, they had been bun 
coarfe judges. Minos damns the ladies there, becaufe 
they are too free, too rich, too republican, and too 
wife, for being led about by the nofe (this is his own 
expreffion). But Philo certainly thought more cor- 
redlly of the fex in general, when he fays. Truth is a 
modeft girl : She may be handed about like a lady, by 
good fenfe and good manners, but mud not be bullied 
and driven about like a ftrumpet. I would here infert 
the difcourfes or addrefles which were made on thac 
occafion to the different clafTes of the affembly, girls, 
young ladies, wives, young men, and fbrangers, which 

* 2 B are 



194- THE ILLUMINATJ. GHAP. If. 

a^e really ingenious and well ccmpofed, were they not 
fuch as would offend my fair countrywomen. 

The religious fentiments by which mortals are to be 
affifted, even in rhe difcharge of their moral duties, 
and frill more, the fentiments \\!/hich are purely reli- 
gious, and have no reference to any thing here, are 
precifely thcfc which are moil eadly excited in the 
mind of woman. Affedion, admiration, filial reve- 
rence, are, if I m.iilake not exceedingly, thofe in 
which the v.omen fir furpafs the .men ; and it is on 
this account that we generally find them fo much dif- 
pofed to devotion, which is nothing but a fort of fond 
indulgence of thofe affedions without limit to the ima- 
gination. The enraptured devotee pours out her foul 
in expreffions of thefe feelings, juft as a fond mother 
mixes the careiTes given to her child v/ith the m.oft ex- 
travagant exprefficns of love. The devotee even en- 
deavours to excite higher degrees of thefe affections, 
by expatiating on fuch circumHances in the divine 
condudl with refpeci: to man as naturally awaken them; 
and he does this without any fear of exceedino:: be- 
caufe Infinite Wiidom and Goodnefs will always juftify 
the fentiment, and free the expreffion of it from all 
charge of hyperbole or extravagance. 

I am convinced, therefore, that the female mind is 
well adapted to cultivation by means of religion, and 
that their native foftnefs and kindnefs of heart will al- 
ways be fufficient for procuring it a favourable recep- 
tion from them. It is therefore with double regret 
that I fee any of them join in the arrogant pretenfions 
of our Illuminated philofophers, who fee no need of 

iuch aiTiilances for the knowledo-e and difcharore of 

... "-^ 

their duties. There is nothincr fo unlike that general 
modefty of thought, and that diiiidence, which wc are 
difi}ofcd to think the charader of the female mind. I 

am 



CHAP. II. THE ILLUMINATI. IQ 



«. 



am inclined to think, that fuch deviations from the ge- 
neral condudl of the fcx are marks of a harfner cha- 
ra6ler, of a heart that has lefs fenfibility, and is on the 
whole lefs amiable than that ot others. Yet it muit 
be owned that iherc are fome luch among us. Much, 
if not the whole of this pcrverfion, has, 1 am perfiiad-^ 
ed, been owing to the contagion of bad example in 
the men. They are made familiar with fuch expref- 
iions — their firft horror is gone, and (would to heaven 
that I were miitaken !) fome of them, have already 
wounded their confciences to fuch a degree, that they 
have fome reafon to wiili that religion may be without 
foundation. 

But I would call upon all, and theje v/om.en in parti- 
cular, to confider this matter in a.'iother iisrht — as it 
may afl'cdl themfeives in this life ; as it may afteft their 
rank and treatment in ordinary fociety. I would fay 
to them, that if the world fliallonce adopt the bellc-f 
that this life is our all, then the true maxim of rational 
condudl will be, to ^"' eat and to drink, fmce to-mor- 
** row v/e are to die 3'* and that when they have no- 
thing to truft to but the fondnefs of the men, they 
will foon find themfeives reduced to flavery. The 
crown which they now wear will fall tl-om their heads, 
and they will no longer be the arbiters ot what is lovely 
in human life. I'he empire of beauty is but fhort; 
and even in republican France, it will not be many 
years that Madame Tallien can fafcinate the Parifian 
Theatie by the exhibition of her charm.s. Man is faf- 
tidious and chaneeable, he is the ihonercr animal, and 
can always take his own will with refped: to w( man. 
At prefent he is vvith-heid by refped for her moral 
worth — and many are with -held by religion — and m^a- 
ny more are with-held by public laws, which laws 
were fram.ed at a time when religious truths iniiuenced 

the 



196 THE ILLUMINATI. CHAP. II. 

the minds and the condu6t of men. When the fenti- 
ments of men change, they will not be fo foolifh as to 
keep in force laws which cramp their flrongeft defires. 
Then will the rich have their Harems, and the poor 
their drudges. 

Nay, it is not merely the circnmilance of woman's 
being confidered as the moral companion of man that 
gives the fex its empire among us. There is fome- 
thing of this to be obferved in all nations. Of all the 
diftinftions which fet our fpecies above the other fen- 
tient inhabitants of this globe, making us as unlike to 
the beft of them as they are to a piece of inanimate 
matter, there is none more remarkable than the differ- 
ences obfervable in the appearances of thofe defires by 
which the race is continued. As I obferved already, 
fuch a diilindion is indifpenfably neceflary. There 
muft be a moral conne6lion, in order that the human 
fpecies may be a race of rational creatures, improve- 
able, not only by the increafing experience of the in- 
dividual, but alfo by the heritable experience of the 
fuccefTive generations. It may be obferved between 
the foiitary pairs in Labrador, where hum:in nature 
ftarves, like the ftunted oak in the crevice of a baron 
rock j and it is feen in the cultivated focieties of Eu- 
rope, where our nature in a feries of ages becomes a 
majeftic tree. Whatever may be the native powers 
of mind in the poor but gentle Efquim.aux, fhe can do 
nothing for the fpecies but nurfe a young one, who 
cannot run his race of life without inceflant and hard 
labour to keep foul and body together — here therefore 
her ftation in fociety can hardly have a name, becaufe 
there can hardly be faid to be any aflbciation, except 
what is neceflary for repelling the hoilile attacks of 
Indians, who feem to hunt them without provocation 
as the dog does the hare. In other parts of the world, 

■ we 



CHAP. 11. THE ILLUMINATI. 1^7 

we fee that the confideration in which the fex is held, 
nearly follows the proportions of that aggregate of ma- 
ny different particulars, which we confider as confti- 
tuting the cultivation of a ibciety. We may perhai s 
err, and we probably do err, in our efliim.ation of tho'e 
degrees, becaufe we are not perfe6lly acquainted with 
what is the real excellence of man. But as far as wc 
can yad&Q of it, I believe that my affcrtion is acknow- 
ledged. On this authority, I might prefume to lay, 
that it is in Chridian Europe that man bas attained his 

A. 

highelf degree of cultivation — and it is undoubtedly 
here that the women have attained the highefl rank. 
I may even add, that it is in that part of Europe wliere 
the elTential and diftinguifhing dodtrines of Chriftian 
morality are moft generally acknowledged and attended 
to by tne laws of the country, that woman acls the 
highefl part in general fociety. But here we muft be 
very careful how we form our notion, cither of the 
fociety, or of the female rank — it is furely not from 
the two or three dozens who fill the highefl ranks in 
the flate. Their number is too fmail, and their fitu- 
ation is too particular, to afford the proper average. 
Befides, the fituation of the individuals of this clafs in 
all countries is very much the fame — and in all it is 
very artificial — accordingly their character is fantaili- 
cal. Nor are v/e to take it from that clafs that is the 
moft numerous of all, the lowefl clafs of fociety, for 
thefc are the labouring poor, whofe conduct and oc^ 
cupations are fo much dictated to them by the hard 
circumflances of their fituation, that fcarcely any thing 
is left to their choice. The fituation of women of this 
clafs muft be nearly the fame in all' nations. But this 
clafs is flill fufceptible of fome variety — and we fee it 
— and I think that even here there is a perceptible fu- 
periority of the female rank in thole countries wliere 

the 



198 THE ILLUMINATI. CHAP. II. 

the pureft Chriilianity prevails. We mufl however 
take our meafures or proportions from a numerous 
clafs, buc ah'b a ciafb in Ibmewhat of ealy circum- 
ilances, where meral fentiments call fome attention, 
^nd pcrfons have fome choice in their condud:. And 
here, although I cannot pretend to have had many 
opportunities of obfervation, yet I have had fome. I 
can venture to fay that it is not in Ruifia, nor in 
Spain, that woman is, on the whole, the mod im- 
portant as a member of the community. I would 
fay, that in Britain her important rights are more ge- 
nerally refpe6led than any where elfe. No where is 
a man's character fo much hurt by conjugal infide- 
lity — no where is it fo difHcult to rub off the fligma 
of bailardy, or to procure a decent reception or foci- 
ciety for an improper conne6tion ^ and I believe it 
will readily be granted, that the fhare of the women 
in fucceifions, their authority in all matters of domef- 
tic trufr, and even their opinions in what concerns 
life and manners, are fully more rcfpected here than 
in any country* 

I have long been of the opinion, (and every obfer- 
vation that 1 have been able to make fince I firfl 
formed it confirms me in it,) that v^oman is indebted 
to Chriftianity alone for the high rank fne holds in 
fociety. Look into the writings of antiquity — into, 
the works of the Greek and Latin poets — into the 
num.berlefs panegyrics of the fex, to be found both 
in profe and verfe — I can find little, very little in- 
deed, where woman is treated with refped: — there is 
no want of love, that is, of fondnefs, of beauty, of 
charms, of graces. But of woman as the equal of 
man, as a moral companion, travelling with him the 
road to felicity — as his advifcr — his folace in misfor- 
tune — as a pattern froin which he may fometim.es 

copy 



CHAP. H. THE ILLUMINATI. 



9f 






copy with advantage ; — of ail this there is hardly a 
trace. Woman is always mentioned as an objedt of 
padion. Chaftity, modeily, fbber-mindcdnefs, are 
all confidered in relation to this finglc point; or fome- 
times as of importance in refpe^t of economy or do- 
meflic quiet. RecolleCl the famous fpeech of Metel- 
tellus Numidicus to the Roman people, when^, as, 
Cenfor, he was recommendinp- marriao;e. 

'^ Si fine uxore poiTemus Quirites tiTc, omncs ea 
moleftia careremus. Sed quoniam ita nacura tradi- 
dit, ut nee cum illis commode, nee fine ilHs ullo 
modo vivi polfet, faluti perpetuse potius quam brevi 
voluptati confuiendum." 

Jd. Cell, No^. Att. I, 6. 

What does Ovid, the great panegyrifl of the fex, 
fay for his beloved daughter, whom he had praifed 
for her attra6Lions in various places of his Triftia and 
other compofirions ? He is writing her Epitaph — and 
the only thing he can fay of her as a rational creature 
is, that (lie was — Domifida — not a Gadabout. — Search 
Aouleius, where you will find manv female characters- 
in ahftrdofc — You will find that his little Photis (a 
cook- maid and firumpet) was neareil to his heart, af- 
ter all his philofophy. Nay, in his pretty (lory of 
Cupid and Pfyche, which the very wife will tell you 
is a fine lefibn of moral philofophy, and a reprefenta- 
tion of the operations of the intclleftual and moral fa- 
culties of the human foul, a fbory which gave him 
the fined opportunity, nay, almofc made it necefiTary 
for him to infert whatever can ornam.ent the female 
character i what is his Pfyche but a beautiful, fond, 
and filly girl ; and what are the v/hole fruits of any 
acquaintance with the fex ?— Pleafure. Bat why take 
more pains in the fcarcli ? — Look at their ini mortal 

goddcfics — 



200 THE ILLUMINATI. CHAP. II. 

croddeiTes — is there one amonff them v/hom a wife man 
would ielccl for a wire or a friend ? — I grant that a 
Lucretia is praifcd — a Portia, an Arria, a Zenobia— 
but thefe are individual charadlers — not reprefentatives 
of the fex. The only Grecian ladies who made a 
figure by intelleftual talents, were your Afpafias, Sap- 
phos, Phrynes, and other nymphs of this caft, who 
had emerged from the general infignificance of the fex, 
by throwing away what we are accuRomed to call its 
greatefc ornament. 

I thini<..that the firft piece in which woman is pic- 
tured as a refpeftable chara6ter, is the oldeft novel 
that 1 am acquainted with, written by a Chriftian Bi- 
Hiop, Heliodorus — I mean the Adventures of Thea- 
crenes and Chariclea. I think that the Heroine is a 
greater chara6ler than you will meet with in all the 
annals of antiquity. And it is worth while to obferve 
what was the efFi:(5i of this painting. The poor Bi- 
jQiop had been depofed, and even excommunicated, 
for dodrinal errors, and for drawing fuch a pi6lure of 
a heathen. The magiflrates of Antioch, the mod 
voluptuous arxd corrupted city of the Eaft, wrote to 
the Emperor, telling him that this book had reformed 
the ladies of their city, where Julian the Emperor and 
his Sophifts had formerly preached in vain, and they 
therefore prayed that the good Bifhop might not be 
deprived of his mitre. — It is true, we read of Hypatia, 
daughter of Theon, the mathematician at Alexandria, 
who was a prodigy of excellence, and taught philofo- 
phy, i. e. the art of leading a good and happy life, with 
great applaufe in the famous Alexandrian fchool. — 
But ?i\t alio was in the times of Chriftianity, and was 
the intimate friend of Syncellus and other Chriftian 
Bifhops. 

It 



CHAP. II. THE ILLUMINATI. 201 

It is undoubtedly Chriflianity that has fet woman on 
her throne^, making her in every refped the equal of 
man^ bound to the fame duties, and candidate for the 
fame happinefs. Mark how woman is defcribed by a 
Chriftian poet, 

•" Yet when I approach 



Her lovelinefs, fo abfoiute Ihe feems, 
And in herfelf complete, fo well to know 
Her own, that what fhe wills to do or fay 
Seems "u;//^, virtnoufijl^ difcrectefl^ be/}. 

Neither her uutfide, form'd fo fair,- 



So much delights me, as thofe graceful a£}sj 
Thofe thoufand decencies that daily flow 
From all her words and actions, mix'd with love 
And fweet compliance, which declare unfeign'd 
Union of mind ^ or in us both one foul, 

-And, to confummate all, 



Greatnefs ofmind^ and noblenefs^ their feat 
Build in her lovelieft, and create an aws 
About her J as a guard angelic ■plac'dr 

Milton. 

This IS really moral painting, v/ithout any abatement 
of female charms. 

This is the natural confequence of that purity of 
heart, which is fo much infifted on in the Chriitian mo-- 
rality. In the inftru6tions of the heathen philofophers, 
it is either not mentioned at all, or at mod, it is recom- 
mended coldly, as a thing proper^ and worthy of a mind 
attentive to great things. — But, in Chriitianity, it is 
infilled on as an indifpenfable duty, and enforced by 
many arguments peculiar to itfelf 

It is worthy of obfervation, that the moft prominent 
fuperftitions which have difnonoured the Chriftian 
churches, have been the exceffive retinements which 

* 2 C ' the 



202 THE ILLUMINATI. CHAP. II, 

the enthufiaflic admiration of heroic purity has allow- 
ed the holy trade to introduce into the manufa61:ure of 
our Ipirituai fetters. Without this enthufiafm, cold 
expediency v/ould not have been able to make the Mo- 
nadic vow fo general, nor have given us fuch numbers 
of convents. Thefe were generally founded by fuch 
enthufiafls- — the rulers indeed of the church encouraged 
this to the utniofc, as the befl: levy for the fpiritual 
power — but they could not enjrAn fuch foundations. 
From the fame fource we may derive the chief influ- 
ence of auricular confefTion. When thefe were firmly 
eftablifnedj and were venerated, almoll all the other 
corruptions of Chriflianity followed of courfe. I may 
almcft add, that though it is here that Chriflianity has 
fuffered the iBofl violent attacks, it is htre that the 
place is mofl tenable. — Nothing tends fo much to knit 
all the ties of fociety as the endearing connediions of 
family, and whatever tends to lefTen our veneration for 
the marriage-contrad:, weakens them in the moil effcc- 
tual manner. Purity of manners is the mod effedual 
iupport, and pure thoughts are the only fources from 
which pure manners can flow, I readily grant that in 
former times this veneration for perfonal purity was 
carried to an extravagant height, and that feveral very 
ridiculous fancies and cuftoms arofe from this. Ro- 
mantic love and chivalry are flrong inftances of the 
ftrange vagaries of our imagination, when carried along 
by this enthufiaflic admiration of female purity ; and 
fo unnatural and forced, that they could only be tem- 
porary failiions. But I believe that, with all their ri- 
dicule, it would be a happy nation vs^here this was the 
general creed and pradlice. Nor can I help thinking 
a nation on its decline, when the domeftic connc6tions 
ceafe to be venerated, and the illegitimate offspring of 
a nabob or a nobleman are received with eafe into good 

company. 

Nothing 



CHAP. II. THE ILLUMINaTI. 20J 

Nothing is more clear than that the defign of the II- 
luminati was to abolifii Chriftianity'— and we now fee 
how effe6lual this would be for the corruption of the 
fair fex, a purpofe which they eagerly v/iihed to gain^ 
that they might corrupt the men. But if the women 
would retain the rank they now hold, they will be 
careful to preferve in full force on their minds this re- 
ligion^ fo congenial to their difpofitions, which nature 
has m.ade affectionate and kind. 

And with refpeCl to the men^ is it not egregious 
folly to encourage any thing that can tend to blafl our 
fweetefl enjoyments ? Shall we not do this moft effec- 
tually if we attempt to corrupt what nature will always 
make us confider as the higheft elegance of life ? The 
divinity of the Stoics was^, '^ Mensjana in cor "pore Jam y^ 
< — but it is equally true. 



" Gratior eft pidchro veniens e corpore virtus. 



it 



If, therefore, inftead of profclTedly tainting w^hat is of 
itfelf beautiful, we could really work it up to 

^' That fair form, which, wove in fancy's loom, 
'' Floats in light vifions round the poet's head," 

and make woman a patrern of perfection, we fnould 
undoubtedly add more to the heartfelt happinefs of life 
than by all the difcoveries of the Illuminati. See wkat 
was the effect of Theagenes and Chariclea. 

And vv'e fhould remember that with the fate of wo- 
man that of man is indiffolubly knit. The voice of 
nature fpoke through our immortal bard, when he mads 
Adam fay, 

-" From thy flate 



," Mine never fhall be parted, blifs or woe." 

Shoi Id 



^04 TffiC ILLUMINATI. CHAP. II. 

Should we fufFer the contagion to touch our fair part- 
ner^ ail is gone, and too late ihall we fay, 

'' O faireft of creation 1 laft and beO: 

" Of ail God's works, creature in whom excell'd 

^^ Whatever can to fight or thought be form'd, 

^' J^oiy^ divine J good^ amiable^ orjhveet ! 

^ Hov/ art thou loft, — and now to death devote? 

' ' And me with thee haft ruin'd ; for with thee 

'^ Certain my refoiution is to die.'' 



I ^97 ] 

CHAP. Ilii 

Th^ German Union. 



W 



HEN fuch a fermentation had been ex- 
cited in the public mind, it cannot be fuppofed that 
the formal fuppreffion of the Order of the lilumi^ 
nati in Bavaria, and in the Duchy of Wirtemberg, 
by the reigning princes, would bring all to refl again. 
By no means. The minds of men were predifpof- 
ed for a change by the reftlefs fpirit of fpeculation 
in every kind of enquiry, and the leaven had been 
carefully and fkilfuily diffeminated in every quarter 
of the empire, and even in foreign countries. Weif- 
haupt faid, on good grounds, that " if the Orders 
fhould be difcovered and fuppreffed, he would re- 
ftore it with tenfold energy in a twelvemonth." Even 
in thofe ftates where it was formally abolifhed, no- 
thing could hinder the enlifting new members, and 
carrying on all the purpofes of the Order. The 
Areopagitae might indeed be changed, and the feat 
of the direclion transferred to fome other place, but 
the Minerval and his Mentor could meet as former- 
ly, and a ride of a few miles into another State, 
would bring him to a Lodge, where the young would 
be amufed, and the more advanced would be engage 
ed in ferious mifchief. \¥ei{haupt never liked chil- 
dren's play. He indulged Philo in it, becaufe he 
faw him taken with fuch rattles : but his own pro- 
jeds were dark and folemn, and it was a relief to 
him now to be freed from that m^ummery. He foon 
found the bent of the perfon's liiind on whom he 
had fet his talons, and, he fays, that ** no man ever 
efcaped him whom he thought it worth v^hile to fe- 
cure." He had already filled the Ijfls wkh enough 

<2B of 



IgS THE GERMAN UNION. CHAP. lii. 

of the young and gay, and when the prefent condition 
of the Order required fly and experienced heads, he 
no longer couried them by play-things. He commu- 
nicated the ranks and the inflrudions by a letter, 
without any ceremony. The correfpondence with 
Phiio at the time of the breach with him, thews the 
fuperiority of Spartacus. Philo is in a rage, provok- 
ed to find a pitiful profeflbr difcontented with the 
immenfe fervices which he had received from a gen- 
tleman of his rank, and treating him with authority, 
and with difingenuity. — He tells Spartacus v/hat fliil 
greater fervices he can do the Order, and that he can 
alfo ruin it with a breath. — But in the midft of this 
rage, he propofes a thoufand modes of reconcile- 
ment. The fmallefl: concelTion would make him 
hug Spartacus in his arms. But Spartacus is deaf to 
ail his threats, and firm as a rock. Though he is con- 
fcious of his own vile condud, he abates not in the 
fmailefi: point, his abfolute authority — requires the 
mod implicit fubmifiion, which he fays '' is due not 
to him, but to the Order, and without which the 
Order mull: immediately goto ruin." — He does not 
even deign to ch?.llenge Philo to do his word, but 
allows him to go out of the Order without one angry 
word. This (hows his confidence in the energy of 
that fpirit of reliefs difcontent, and that hankering 
after reform which he had fo fuccefsfully fpread a- 
broad. 

This had indeed arifen to an unparalleled height^ 
unexpeded even by the feditious themfelves. This 
Appeared in a remarkable manner by the reception 
given to the infamous letters on the conflitution 6f 
the PrufTian States* 

The general opinion was, that Mirabeau was the 
author oFthe letters themfelves, and it was perfedly 
underllood by every perfon, that the tranflation into 
French was a joint contrivance of Mirabeau and Ni- 

cholai. 



€HAP. 111. THE GERMAN UNION. igg 

cholai. I vvas affuredof this by the Brltifli MInifter 
at that Court. There, are fome blunders in refped 
of names, which an inhabitant of the country could 
hardly be guilty of, but are very confiftent with the 
felf-conceit and precipitancy of this Frenchman — 
There are feveral inftances of the fame kind in two 
pieces, which are known for certain to be his, viz. 
the Chronique fcandaleiife and the Hifloire Jecrette de 
la Cour de Berlin, Thefe letters were in every h^nd, 
and were mentioned in every converfation, even in 
the Pruflian dominions — and in other places of the 
empire thev were quoted, and praifed, and com- 
mented on, although fome of their contents were 
nothing Ihort of rebellion. 

Mirabeau had a large portion of that felf-conceit 
which diftinguifhes his countrymen. He thought 
himfelf qualified not only for any high office in ad- 
miniflration, but even for managing the whole af- 
fairs of the new King. He therefore endeavoured 
to obtain fome poft of honour. But he was difap- 
pointed, and, in revenge, did every thing in his 
power to make thofe in adminiflration the objeds of 
public ridicule and reproach. His licentious and 
profligate manners were fuch as excluded him from 
the fociety of the people of the firft claffes, whom 
it behoved to pay fome attention to perfonal digni- 
ty. His opinions were in the highefl: degree cor- 
rupted, and he openly profeffed Atheifm. This 
made him peculiarly obnoxious to the King, who was 
determined to corred the difturbances and difquiets 
which had arifen in the Pruffian ftates from the in- 
difference of his predeceflbr in thofe matters. Mi- 
rabeau therefore attached himfelf to a junto of wri- 
ters and fcribblers, who had united in order to dif- 
feminate licentious principles, both in refped of re- 
ligion and of government. His wit and fancy were 
great, and he had not perhaps his equal for eloquent 

and 



20Q THE GERMAN UNION, CHAP, ill, 

and biting fatire. He was therefore careffed by 
thofe writers as a moft valuable acquifition to their 
Society. He took all this deference as his jafl due ; 
and was fo confident in his powers, and fo foolifh^ 
as to advife, and even to admonifh, the King. 
Highly obnoxious by fuch condud, he was excluded 
from any chance of prefernient, and was exceeding- 
ly out of humour. In this flate of mind he was in 
a fit frame for Illumination. Spartacus had been 
eyeing him for fome time, and at lafl: communicated 
this honour to him through the intermedium cf Mau- 
villon, another Frenchman^ Lieutenant-Colonel in 
the fervice of the Duke of Brupfwick. This perfon 
had been niofl adive during the formal exi Hence of 
the Order, and had contributed much to its recep- 
tion in the Proteflant ftates — he remained long con- 
cealed. Indeed his Illumination was not known till 
the invafion of Holland by the French. Mauvillon 
then ftepped forth, avowed his principles, and re- 
commended the example of the French to the Ger- 
mans. This encouragement brought even Philo 
again on the flage, notwithflanding his refentment 
againfi Spartacus, and his folemn declaration of hav- 
ing abjured all fuch focieties. — Thefe, and a thou- 
fand fuch fads, fhow that the feeds of licentious 
Cofmopolitifm had taken deep root, and that cut- 
ting down the crop had by no means deflroyed the 
baneful plant.-— But this is not all — a new method of 
cultivation had been invented, and immediately 
adopted, and it was now growing over all Europe in 
another form. 

I have already taken notice of the general perver- 
fion of the public mind which co-operated with the 
fchifms of Free Mafonry in procuring a liflening 
ear to Spartacus and his affociates. It will not be 
doubted but that the machinations of the Illuminati 
iricreafed this, even among thofe who did not enter 

inJo 



CHAP, iili THE GERxMAN UNION. ^Ol 

into the Order. It was eafier to diminni the refped 
for civil ellablifliments in Germany than in almoil 
any other country. The frivolity of the ranks and 
court-offices in the different confederated petty llares 
made it impoffible to combine dignity with the ha- 
bits of a fcanty income. — It was ftill eaher to expofe 
to ridicule and reproach thofe numberlefs abufes 
which the foily and the vices of men had introdu- 
ced into religion. The influence on ihe public mind 
which natural! V attaches to the venerable office of a 
moral infirucior, was prodigioufly diminiihed by the 
continual difputes of the Catholics and Proteilanis, 
which were carried on with great heat in every little 
principality. The freedom of enquiry, vn'hich was 
lupported by the ftate in Proteflant Germany, was 
terribly abufed, (for what will the folly of man not 
abufe?) and degenerated into a wanton licentiouf- 
nefs of thought, and a rage for {peculation and fcep- 
ticifm on every fubjedt whatever. The ftruggle, 
which was originally between the Catholics and the 
Proteflanls, had changed, during the gradual progrefs 
of luxury and immorality, into a contefi: between 
reafon and fuperftition. And in this conteft the 
denomination of fuperftition had been gradually ex- 
tended to every doi^rine which profefied to be of 
divine revelation, and reafon was declared to be, for 
certain, the only way in which the Deity can inform 
the human mind, 

Some refpectable Catholics had publifhed v.orks 
filled with liberal fentiments. Thefe weie repre- 
fented as villainous machinations to inveide Protef- 
tants. On the other hand, fome Proteftant divines 
had propofed to imitate this liberality by making con- 
cefhons which might enable a good Catholic to live 
more at eafe among the Proteftants, and might even 
accelerate an union of faiths. This was hooced be- 
yond meafure, as Jefuitical, and big with danger. 

"While 



202 THE GERMAN UNION. CHAP. ill. 

While the fceptical junto, headed by the editors of 
the Deutfchc Bibliothek and the Berlin Monatjchrift^ 
were recommending e'^ery performance thatwasliof- 
tileto the eftabliflied faith of the country, Leuchtfen- 
ring was equally bufy, finding Jefuits in every corner, 
and went about with all the inquietude of a madman, 
picking up anecdotes. Zimmerman, the refpe(5\abie 
phyiician of Frederick King of Pruflia, gives a di- 
verting account of a vifit which he had from Leucht- 
fenring at Hanover, all trembling with fears of Je- 
fuits, and wifhing to perfuade him «that his life was 
in danger from them. Nicholai was now on the 
hunt, and during this crufade Philo laid hands on 
him, being introduced to his acquaintance by Leucht- 
fenring, who was, by this time, cured of his zeal for 
Protedanifm, and had become a difciple of Illumi- 
natifm. Philo had gained his good opinion by the vi- 
olent attack which he had publifhed on the Jefuits and 
RofjTrucians by the orders of Spartacus. — He had 
not far to go in gaining over Nicholai, who was at 
this time making a tour through the Lodges. The 
fparks of Illumination which he perceived in many 
of them pleafed him exceedingly, and he very cheer- 
fully received the precious fecret from Philo. 

This acquifition to the Order was made in Janua- 
ry 1782. Spartacus was delighted with it, confider- 
ed Nicholai as a mofi: excellent champion, and gave 
him the name of Lucian^ the great fcoffer at all reli- 
gion, as aptly exprelling his character. 

Nicholai, on his return to Berlin, publidied many 
volumes of Ijis difcoveries. One would imagine 
that not a Jefuit had efcaped him. He mentions 
many flrange fchifmatics, both in religion and in 
Mafonrv — -But he never once mentions an Illumina' 
tus. — When they were fiifl: checked, and before the 
difcovery of the fecret correfpondence, he defended 
them, and ifrongly reprobated the proceedings of the 

Eiedor 



Chap, iii* the German union. 203 

Elc'ilor of Bavaria, calling it vile perfecution. — » 
Nav, after the difcovery of the letters found in 
Zwack's houfe, he perfiRed in his defence, vindica- 
ted the poiTefiion of the abominable receipts, and 
highly extolled the character of Weifhaupt. — But 
when the difcovery of papers in the houfe of Batz 
informed the public that he himfelf had long been 
an Illuminatus^ he was fadly put to it to reconcile his 

defence with any pretenfions to religion*. 

Weifhaupt faved him from difgrace, as he thought, 
by his publication of the fyftem of liluminarifm' — 
Nicholai then boldly faid that he knew no more of 
the Order than was contained in that book, tliat is, 
only the two firft degrees. 

But before this, Nicholai had made to himfelf a 
mod formidable enemy. The hiftory of this con- 
teft is curious in itfelf, and gives us a very inQrudive 
pidure of the machinations of that conjuration des 
philofopbes^ or gang of fcribblers who were leagued 
againfl the peace of the v/orld. The reader will 
therefore find it to our purpofe. On the autl:ority 
»f a lady in Courland, a Countefs von der Recke, 
Nicholai had accufed Dr. Stark of Darmiladt (who 
made fuch a figure in Free Mafonry) of Jeiuitifm, 
and of having even fubmitted to the ionfure. Stark 
was a moft reftlefs fpirir — had gone through every 
myflery in Germany, liluminatifm excepted, and 
had ferreted out many of Nicholai's hidden tranfac- 

* He impudently pretended that the papers contaluing the 
fyftem and doftrines of Ilkinfiinatifm, came to him at Berlin, from 
an unknown hand. But no one beheved him — it was inconfiltent 
with what is faid of him in the fccret correfpondence. He had 
faid the fame thing concerning the French tranilation of the Let- 
ters on the Conftitution of the PrulTian States. Fifty copies were 
found in his ware-houfe. He faid that they had been fent from Straf- 
burg, and that he had never fold one of them. — Suppofing both 
thefe afTertlons to be true, it appears that Nicholai was cdniidered 
as a very proper hand for difperfmg Xuch poifon. 

tions. 



204 THfe GERMAN UNIOW. CHAP, ili^ 

tions. Be was alfo an unwearied book-maker, and 
dealt ouc thefe dircovevies by degrees, keeping the 
eye of the public continually upon Nichoiai. He 
I'iad ftifpeded his Illumination for fome time pall, 
and when the fecret came our, by Spartacus' letter, 
where he boalls of his acquiii.ion, calling Nichoiai 
a moll: ifurdv combatant, and laying that he was 
conteniij]hnus^ Stark left no ftone unturned till he 
difcjvered that Nichoiai had been initiated in all the 
horrid and moll profligate mvfteries of Iliuminatifm, 
and that Spartacus had at the very fiiTc entrufted him 
Vvith his moil darling fecrets, and advifed with him 
on raanv occafions*. 

\ his complete blading of his moral charadet 
could not be paiientiy borne, and Nichoiai was in 
his turn the bitter enemy of Stark, and, in the pa-^ 

* Cf this we have complete proof In the private correfpond* 
ence. Philo, fpeaklng in one of his letters of the gradual change 
which was to be produced in the minds of their pupils from Chrifti- 
anity to Deifm, fays, *' Nichoiai informs me, that even the pious 
** Zollikofer has nov^ been convinced that it would be proper to fet 
" up a deidical church in Berlin." It is in vain that Nichoiai 
fays that his knowledge of the Order was only of what Weiihaupt 
had piibliihed ; for Philo fays that that corre<Sed fyftem had not 
been introduced into it when he quitted it in 1784.. But Nichoiai 
deferves no credit — he is one of the molt fcandalous examples of 
the operation of the principles of Weiihaupt. He procured ad- 
miffion into the Lodges of Free Mafons and Rofycrucians, merely 
to a£t the difhonourable part of a fpy, and he betrayed their fecrets 
as far as he could. In the appendix to ^.he 7th volume of his 
journey, he declaims againft the Templar Mafons, Rofycrucians, 
and Jcfuits, for their blind fubmiflion to unknown fuperiors, for 
their fuperllitions, their priefthoods, and their bafe principles- — and 
yet had been five years in a fsciety in which all thefe were carried 
to the crveateft hei'jht. He remains true to the liluminati alone, 
becaufe they had the fame object in view with himfelf and his 
atheiiUcal aHbciatcs, His defence of Protedantifm is all a cheat ; 
and perhaps he maybe confidered as an enemy equally formidable 
with Weiihaupt himfelf. This is the reafon v*'hy he occupies fo 
many of thefe pages. 

roxyfms 



CUA?. 111» THS GERMAN UNlOiV. 305 

roxyfms of his anger, pub! iuied every idle tale, al- 
though he Vv^i-^s often obliged to contradict them in the 
next Review. In the coiirfe of this attack and de- 
fence, Dr. Stark di-covered the revival of the lihi- 
minati, or ac leail a iocie^v which carried on the 
fanie great work in a fomtrwhat different way. 

Dr. Stark had written a defence againd one of Ni- 
choiai'saccufations, and wifbed to have it printed at 
Leipzig. He therefore fent the manufcript to a 
friend, who relided there. This friend immediate- 
ly propofed it to a moil improper perfon, Mr. Pott, 
who had written an anonymous commentary on the 
King of PrulTia's edid for the uniformity of religious 
worlhip in his dominions. This is one of the moft 
ihamelefs attacks on the efiabiiihed faith of the na- 
tion, and the authority and ccnducl of the Prince, 
that can be imagined. Stark's friend was ignorant 
of this, and fpoke to Polt, as the partner of the 
grea.t piiblifher Walther. They, without hehtation, 
undertook the publiihing ; but when fix weeks had 
paffed over, Stark's friend found that it was not be- 
gun. Some exceptionable parages, which treated 
with difrefpect the religion of Reafon, were given 
as the cauie of delay ; and he was told that ths au- 
thor had been written to about them, but had not yet 
returned an anfvv^er. This was afterwards found to 
be falfe. Then a pr.dlige in the preface was objed- 
ed to, as treating roughly a lady inCourland, v.^hich 
Walther could not print, becaufe he hadconnedlions 
with that court. The author muft be entreated to 
change his expreffions. /Vfter another delay, paper 
was wanting. The MS. was withdrawn. Walther 
now faid that he v/ould print it immediately, and 
again got it into his hands, promiling to fend the 
fheets as they came from the prefs. Thefe not ap- 
pearing for a long time, the agent made enquiry, 
and found that it was fent to Michaelisat H^lie, lo 

2C ' be 



2o6 THE GERMAN UNIONi CHAP. ilL" 

be printed there. The agent immediately went 
thither, and found that it was printing with great al- 
terations, another title, and a guide or key, in which 
the work was perverted and turned into ridicule by 
a Dr. Bahrdt, who refided in that neighbourhood. 
An adion of recovery and damages was immediately 
commenced at Leipzig, and after much conteft, an 
interdid was put on Michaeiis's edition, and a pro- 
per edition was ordered immediately from Walther, 
with fecuritty that it fhould appear before Eahrdi's 
key. Yet when it VJ3S produced at the next fair, 
the bookfellers had been alieady fupplied with the 
fpurious edition ; and as this was accompanied by 
the key, it was much more faleabie ware, and com- 
pletely fupplanted the other. 

This is lurely a ftrong inllance of the machina- 
tions by which the Illuminati have attempted to 
deftroy the Liberty of the Prefs, and the power 
they have to difcourage or fupprefs any thing that 
is not agreeable to the taPce of the literary junto. 
It was in the courfe of this tranra£lion that Dr^ 
Stark's agent found people talking in the cofFee- 
houfes of Leipzig and Halle of the advantages of 
public libraries, and of libraries by fubfcription^ 
in every town, where perfons could, at a fmall ex- 
pence, lee what was palling in the learned w^orld^ 
As he could not but acquieice in thefe points, they 
who held this language began to talk of a gene- 
ral Aflociation, which flioulcl aft in concert ovel' 
all Germany, and make a full communication of 
its numerous literary producftions by forming Ib- 
cietic^ for reading and infbrudiion, which diou'Id 
.be regularly fupplied with every publication. Fly- 
ing Qieets and pamphlets were afterwards put into 
his hands, dating the great ufe of fucli an Alfoci- 
ation, and the efftft which it would fpeedily pro- 
duce by enliphtenirig the nation. By and by he 

learned 



€HAP. ill. THE GERMAN UNION. ^.Q-J 

learned that fuch an Aflociation did really exift, 
and that it was called the German union, for 

ROOTING OUT SUPERSTITION AnD PREJUDICES, 
AND ADVANCING TRUE CHRISTIANITY. On 

enquiry, however, he found that this was to be a 
Secret Society, becaufe it had to combat pi*ejudi- 
ces which were fupported by the great of this 
world, and becaufe its aim was to promote that 
general information wdiich priefts and defpots 
dreaded above ail things. This Alfociation was 
acceffible only through the reading focieties, and 
oaths of lecrecy and fidelity were required. In 
(hort, it apppeared to be the old fong of the Illu- 
minati. 

This dlfcovery was immediately announced to 
the public, in an anonymous publication in defence 
of Dr. Stark. It is fuppofed to be his own per- 
formance. It difclofes a fcene of complicated 
villiany and folly, in w^hich the Lady in Courland 
makes a very llrange figure. She appears to bs a 
wild fanatic, deeply engaged in magic ana ghofl- 
raifmg, and leagued with Nicholai, Gedicke, and 
Biefter, againft Dr. Stark. He is very conipletely 
cleared of the fa£ls ailedged againft him ; and his 
three male opponents appear void of all principle 
^nd enemies of all religion. Stark however would, 
in Britain, be a very fingular character, confider- 
ed as a clergyman. The frivolous fecrets of Ma- 
fonry have either engroffed his whole mind, or he 
has laboured in them as a lucrative trade, by which 
he took advantage of the folly of others. The 
conteft between Stark and the Triumvirate at 
Berlin engaged the public attention much more 
than we Ihould imagine that a thing of fo private 
a nature would do. But the chara£lers were very 
notorious ; and it turned the attention of the pub- 
lic to thofe clandefline attacks which were made 

in 



Qo8 The GERMAN UNION* CHAP, u'l, 

ill every quarter on the civil ar.d religious eftablifli- 
ments. It was obvious to every perjon^ that theie 
reading I'ccleties had all on a iuddeii become very 
numerous; and the charadlers of thoie who pa- 
troniled them only increalcd the iufpicions which 
were nov/ railed. 

l-'hefiriL v/ork that ipeaivs exprefsly of the Ger- 
man Union, h a very lenlible performance "" On 
*' i'/ie Right of Princes to dirtCi the Rtligion of thtir 
*' ZuhjcChr The ne:h;t is a curious Vv'ork, a fort 
of narrative Dialogue on the Charaiiers cf Nicho- 
lai^ Gtdicke^ and Biejlcr, it is chiefiy occupied 
with the conteft v/ith Dr. Stark, but in the 5th 
part, it treats particularly of the German Union, 

About the fame time appeared fome farther ac- 
count, in a book called Archives of Faiiaiicifmand 
Illirminatijm, But all thefe accounts are very 
vague and unfatisfadory. The fullefl account is 
to be had in a Vv'ork pubiifhed at I^ipzig- by Goi- 
chen the bookfeller. It is entitled, ^'' Merc Notes 
" than Text^or the GtrmanUnion of XX 1 1 ^ a new 
^' Secret Society for the Good of Mankind^' Ltip^ 
zig 1789. The publiilicr fays that it v/as fent 
him by an unknown hand, and that he publilhcd 
it v/ith all fpeed, on account of the many mif- 
chiefs which this Societv, ioi which he had be- 
fore heard feverai reports,) might do to the world ^ 
and to tlie trade, if allowed to go on working in 
fecret. L'r;.m this work, therefore, we may form 
a notion of this redoubtable Society, and judge 
how far it is pra£ticable to prevent fuch ibcret 
machinations againil tlie peace and happinefs of 
mankind. 

Tbeie is another work, " Further information 
*' concerning the German Union , (Nahere Beleuch- 
'• tung der Beutfche Union,) alfo JhovAng .hou\ 
" for a moderate price ^ one viay become a Scotch 

'* Free 



GKAP. iii* T>KE GERMAM UNION. 9,09 

" Free Mfffon^ Frank ford and Lehzi^. \ 780, 
The author fays th::* he had all the papers in his 
hands : whsfeas the a'Jthcr of More Notes titan 
Text acknowledges the want of fonie. But ven/ 
little additional light is thrown on the fiibjetl by 
this work, and the firil is fciii the inoft iniliudtlve, 
and will chiefly be followed in the account which 
is now^ to be laid before the reader. 

The book More Notes than Text contains plans 
and letters, which the Twenty-two United Bre- 
thren iiave allowed to be given oiit, and of which 
the greateft part v/ere printed, bnt were entruiled 
•oniv' to ail u red members. 

No, I. is the firR plan, printed on a fmgle quar- 
o page, and is addreifed, To all the Friends cfF^ea- 
fon^ of Truths and of Virtue, It is pretty v/ell 
written, and Hates among other things, that " be- 
' caufe a great number of perfons are labouring, 
' with united elfort, to bring Reafon under the 
' yoke, and to prevent all infrru^lion, it is there- 
' fore neceiTary that there be a comb!*iation which 
' (hall work in oonofition to them fo that man- 
' kind may not fmk anew into irrecoverable bar- 
' barifm, when Reafon and Virtue fiiall have been 
' completely fubdued, overpovrered by the re- 

' fliaints v^^hich are put on oar opinions.'*' 

' For this noble purpofe a company of tv.'enty- 
• two perfons, public inftrucStors, and men in pii- 
' vate ftations, have uhited themlelves, according 
' to a plan v/hich they have had under confidera- 
' tion for more than a year and a half, and which, 
' in their opinion, contains a method that is fair 
' and irrcfiriible bv any human power, for pro- 
' motinjy the enlip-htening- and forming- of m.an- 
' kind, and that will gradually remove all the ob- 
' (lades which fuperilition fupported by force 
' has hitherto put in the v>^ay." 

This 



21 & 



THE GERMAN UNION. 



CHAP. iii. 



This addrefs is intended for an enlifling adver-^ 
tifemenL, and, after a few infignificant remarks 
on the AlTociation, a rix-dahler is required along 
with the fubfcription of acquiefcence in the plan, 
as a compenfation for the expences attending this 
mode of intimation and confent. 

Whoever pays the rix-dahler, and declares his 
"wiili to join the AfTociation, receives in a few days, 
No. II. which is a form of the Oath of fecrecy, 
alfo printed on a fingle Ato page. Having fubfcrib- 
ed this, and given a full defignation of himfelf, 
he returns it agreeably to a certain addrefs ; and 
foon after, he gets No. III. printed on a 4to flieet. 
This number contains what is called the Second 
Plan, to which all the fubfequent plans and circu- 
lar letters refer. A copy therefore of this will 
give us a pretty full and juft notion of the Order, 
and its mode of declaration. It is intitled, 

\^/ie Plan of the Twenty-Two^ 



and bep^ins with this declaration : " We have unit- 
ed, in order to accomplidi the aim of the ex- 
alted Founder of Chriftianity, viz. the enlighten- 
ing of mankind, and the dethronement of fu- 
perdition and fanaticifm, by means of a fecret 
fraternization of all who love the work of God, 
" Our liril: exertion, which h^s already been 
very extenfive, confifts in this, that, by means 
of cociidentiai perfons, we allow ourfeives to 
be announced every where as a Society united 
for the above-mentioned purpofe; and we in- 
vite and admit into brotherhood with ourfeives 
every perfon who has a fenfe of the importance 
of this matter, and wiflies to apply to us and 
fee our plans. 



ilHAP. iii. THE GERMAN UNION. 21^ 

" We labour fird: of all to draw into our Aflb- 
ciation all good and learned writers. This we 
imagine will be the eafier obtained, as they 
mud derive an evident advantage from it. 
Next to fuch men, we feek to gain the mailers 
and fecretaries of the Poll-offices, in order to 
facilitate our corr.eipondence. 
*' Befides thefe, we rece-ive perfons of every 
condition and ftation, excepting princes and 
their minillers. Their favourites, however, 
may be admitted, and may be ufeful by their 
influence in behalf of Truth and Virtue. 
'* When any perfon writes to us, we fend him 
an oath, by which he mufl abjure all treachery 
or difcovery of tlie AiTociation, till circum- 
{lances fliall make it proper for us to come for- 
ward and diow ourielves to the world. Vv"hen 
he fubfcribes the oath, he receives the plan, and 
if he finds this to be what fatisfies his mind as 
a thing good and honourable, he becomes our 
friend only in fo far as he endeavours to gain 
over his friends and acquaintances. Thus 
we learn who are really our zealous friends, 
and our numbers increafe in a double pro- 
portion. 

" This procedure is to continue till Provi- 
dence iliall fo far blefs our endeavours, that 
we acquire an active Brother and coadjutor in 
every place of note, v\^here there is any lite- 
rary profeffion ; and for this purpofe we have 
a fecretary and proper office in the center of 
the AiTociation, where every thing is expedit- 
ed, and all reports received. When this happy 
epoch arrives, we begin our fecond operation.*' 
That is to fay. 

We intimate to all the Brotherhood in every 
quarter, on a certain day, that the GsKMAif 

" Union 






212 



THE GKRIviAN UNION. 



€HAP llli 



' Union has now acquired a conjiflcnce^ and we 
' now divide the fraternifed part of the nation 
' into ten or twelve Provinces or Diccefcs^ each 
' direcled by its Diocefan at his ofuce ; and thefe 
' are io arranged In due fubordinaiion, that all 
' biilincls comes into the Union-eouse as irito 
' the center of the whiole. 

*'• Agreeably to this manner of proceeding there 
' are twn clalTes of the Brotherhood, the Grdi- 
' ?!a?y and the Managing Brethren, The latter 
' alone know the aim of the affociation, and all 
' the means for attaining it; and they alone 

• conilitate the UNi07>r, the name, and the con- 
' neclion of vv'hich is not intended to be at all 

• conlpicuous in the world. 

'• To this end the bufinefs takes a new exter- 
nal form. The Brethren, to wit, fpeak not of 
the Union in the places where thev refide, nor 



.- r^C 



or a bocicty, nor ot enlightening the people ; 
but they ailcmble, and act together in every 
quarter, merely as a Literary Society, 
bring into it all the lovers of reading and of 
ufefiu knowledge; and fuch in fa6£ are the 
Ordinary Bretlireii, who only know that an 
AiTociation exifcs in their place of refidence 
for the encouragement of literary men, but 
bv no means that it has any connexion witii 
ciny other limilar Society, and that they all 
conPtitute one vvliole. But thefe Societies will 
naturally point out to tlie intelligent Brethren 
fuch perfons as are proper to be felected for 
carrying forward the great work. For per- 
fons of a fcrious turn of mind are not mere 
loungers in fuch company, but fnow in their 
converfatioa the intcred tiiey take in real in- 
(Iruaion. And the call of t]:eir reading, v/hich 
mud not be checked in the beginning in the 

*' fmalled 



CHAP. iii. THE GERMAN UNION. 2l3 

f nailed degree, although it may be gradually 
directed to proper fubjects of information, will 
point out in the moH: unequivocal manner their 
peculiar ways of thinking on the important 
iiibjccfts conne<fted with our great objedl. Here, 
therefore, the a£live Brethren will oblerve in 
fecret, and will ielcA thofe whom they think 
valuable acquifitions to the facred Union, They 
will invite fuch perions to unite with them- 
felves in their endeavours to enlighten the 
reft of mankind, by calling their attention to 
profitable fubje^ls of re^ading, and to proper 
books, lieacing Societies, therefore, are to be 
formed in every quarter, and to be furnilhed 
with pioper books. In this provifion attention 
muft be paid to two things. The tafte of the 
public muft be complied with, that the So- 
ciety may have any effcd at all in bringing 
men together who are born for fomewhat more 
than juft to look about them. But the general 
tafte may, and muft alfo be carefully and fldl- 
fully dire(fted to fubje£ls that will enlarge the 
comprehenfion, will fortify the heart, and, by 
habituating the mind to novelty, and to fuc- 
cefsful difcovery, both in phyfics and in morals, 
will hinder the timid from being ftartled at 
docftrines and maxims which arc ftngular, or 
perhaps oppofite to thofe which are current 
in ordinary fociety. Commonly a man fpeaks 
as if he thought he was uttering his own fen- 
ti merits, while he is only echoing the general 
found. Our minds are drefted in a prevailing 
faftiion as much as our bodies, and with ftuif 
as little congenial to fentiment, as a piece 
of woollen cloth is to the human ficin. So care- 
lefs and indolent are men, even in what they 
call fi-rious converfation. Till refle£lion be- 

2 D *' comes 



214 THE GERMAN UNION. CHAT. IIU 

*' comes a habit, what is really a thought ftartles, 
'* however fimple, and, if really uncommon, it 
" aftonidies and confounds. Nothing, therefore, 
" can fo powerfully tend to the improvement of 
'' the human character, as well-managed Read- 
'* ing Societies. 

'' When thefe have been eftablilhed in different 
*' places, we mud endeavour to accomplifh the 
" following intermediate plans; i. To introduce 
" a general literary Gazette or Review, which, 
" by uniting all the learned Brethren, and com- 
*' bining with judgment and addrefs all their 
" talents, and ileadily proceeding according to 
" a diftind and precife plan, may in time fup- 
*' plant every other Gazette, a thing which its 
" intrinfic merit and comprehenfive plan will 
«' eafily accomplifh. 2. To felecl a fecretary for 
" our Society, who fliall have it in charge to 
'' commiilion the books which they (hall feie6t 
^* in conformity to the great aim of the Affocia- 
" tion, and who (hall undertake to commiilion 
*' all other books for the curious in his neigh- 
" bourhood. If there be a bookfeller in the place, 
" who can be gained over and fworn into the 
*« Society, it will be proper to choofe him for 
*' this ofRce, fmce, as will be made more 
^' plain afterwards, the trade will gradually 
" come into the plan, and fall into the hands 
** of the Union. 

*' And now, every eye can perceive the pro- 
" greffive moral influence which the Union will 
" acquire on the nation. Let us only conceive 
*' w^hat fupcrllition will loie, and what inftruc- 
" tion muft gain by this; when, i. In every 
" Reading Society the books are (elected by our 
'- Fraternity. 2. When we have confidential 
^^ perfons in every quarter, v/ho v/ill make it 

^* their 



CHAP. iii. THE GERMAN UNION* 2I5 

*^ their ferioiis concern to fpread fuch perform- 
** ances as promote the enlightening of mankind, 
*' and to introduce them even into every cot- 
" tage. 3. When we have the loud voice of the 
" public on our fide, and fince we are able, 
*' either to banifn into the fhade ali the fanatical 
*' writings which appear in the reviews that are 
** commonly read, or to warn the public againfl 
*' them ; and, on the other hand, to bring into 
*' notice and recomm.end thofe performances 
" alone v/hich give light to the human mind. 
" 4. When we by degrees bring the whole trade 
*' of bookfelling into our hands, (as the good 
'^ writers will fend all their performances into 
*' the market through our means) we (hall bring 
" it about, that at lail: the writers who labour in 
*' the caufe of fuperfiition and redraint, will 
" have neither a publiflier nor readers. 5. When, 
' laftly, by the fpreading of our Fraternity, ali 
*' good hearts and fenfible men will adhere to 
'' us, and by our means will be put in a con- 
*' dition that enables them to work in filence 
' upon ail courts, families, and individuals in 
*' every quarter, and acquire an influence in the 
'* appointment of court-ofRcers, (lewards, fecre- 
'* taries, parifli-priefts, public teachers, and pri- 
*' vate tutors. 

" Remark, That we fnall fpeedily get the trade 
*' into our hands, (which was formerly the aim 
" of the Affcciation called the Gelth'ttrihuch- 
" hand lung ) is conceivable by this, that every 
writer who unites with us immediately acquires 
a triple number of readers, and finds friends 
in every place who promote the fale of his 
perform.ance; fo that his gain is increafed ma- 
'' nifold, and confequently all will quit the book- 
" fellers, aiid accede to us by degrees. Had the 

" above 



< 



( 






^l6 TUE GERMAN UNIONT. CHAP, lil* 

*' above named Alfociation been confl:ru£led in 
** this manner, it would, long ere now, have 
*' been the only fhop in Germany," 

The book called Fuller Information^ &c. gives 
a more particular account of the advantages held 
forth to the literary manufa(£iurers of Germany 
by this Union for God's incrk. The clafs of lite- 
rary Brothers, cr writers by trade, was divided 
into Mejopolites^ Aldermen^ Men, and Cadets, 

The Mesopolites, or Metropolitans, are to 
be attached to the archive-office, and to be taken 
care of in the Union-houfe, when in flraits through 
age or riiisfortune. They will be occupied in the 
department of the fciences or arts, which this 
AlTociation profefs principally to cherifh. They 
are alfo Brethren of the third degree of Scotch 
Free Mafonfy, a qualification to be explaineil af- 
terwards. The Union-houfe is a building which 
the oftenfible Founder 6f the Union profeffed to 

have acquired, or fpeedily to acquire at ^ , 

through the favour and protection of a German 
Prince, who is not named. 

Aldermen are perfons who hold public of- 
fices, and are engaged to exercife their genius and 
talents in the fciences, Thefe alfo are Brothers of 
the third rank of Scotch Free Mafonry, and out 
of their number are the Diocefans and the Direc- 
tors of the Reading Societies feleCled, 

The members who are defigned fimply Men, 
are Brothers of the feCond rank of Mafonry, and 
have alfo a definite fcientific occupation alTigned 
them. 

The Cadets are writers who have not yet 
merited any particular honours, but have exhi* 
bited funic lent difpcfitions and talents for differ- 
ent kinds of literary manufadure. 

Every 



CHA?. Ill* THE GERMAN UNION. ^I'J 

Every member is bonnd to bring the produc- 
tions of his genius to maiket through the Union, 
An Alderrriai! receives for an original work do per 
cent, of the returns, and 70 for a tranfiatioii. \hc 
member of the next clals receives 60, and tiie 
Cadet ^o. As to tiie expence of printing, the Al- 
derman pays nothing, even thou^^h the woik 
(hould he on hand unfold ; but the Man and the 
Cadet muil pay one-half. ^1 hree months after 
pubHcation at the fairs an account is brouglit in, 
and after this, yearly, when and in what manner 
the author Ihfill deiire. 

In every Diocefe wiJl be eflabhihed at leaPc one 
Reading Society, of which near 800 arc pro- 
pofed. To each of thefe will a copy of an slider- 
man s work be fcnt. The fanie iavour will be 
fhown to a dilTcrtation by a Man, or by a Cadet, 
provided that the manincript is documented bv 
an Alderman, or formally approved by him upon 
ferious perufal. This i?nprh}iatu7\ which mud be 
confidered as a powerful recommendation of the 
work, is to be pnbliOied in the General P^tviexv or 
Gazette, This is 10 be a vehicle of political as 
well as of literary news ; and it is hoped that, by 
its intrinfic worth, and the recommendation of 
the members, it will foon fiipplant all others, 
(With refped: to afiairs of the Union, a fort of 
cypher was to be employed in it. Each Dlocefan 
was there defigned by a letter, of a (ize that 
marked his rank, and each member by a number. 
It was to appear weekly, at the very fmaii price 
of five-and-twenty fniUings.)---But let us return 
to the plan. 

When every thing has been eftablidied in the 
manner fet forth above, the Union will aifume 
the following republican form, (the reader al- 
ways recoUedling that this is not to appear to 

the 



2l8 THE GERxMAN UNION. CHAP. ill. 

the world, and to be knovvn only to the manag- 
ing Brethren, 

Here, however, there is a great blank. The 
above-named fl^etch of this Conuitution did mot 
come to the hands of the perfon who furnilhed 
the bookfeller with the reft of the information. 
But v/e have other documents which give fuffi- 
cient information for our pnrpofe. In the mean 
time, let usjiift take the papers as they ftand. 

No. IV. Contains a lift of the German Union^ 
v/hich the fender received in manufcript. Here 
wc find many names which we (hould not have 
expected, and mifs many that were much more 
likely to have been partners in this patriotic 
fcheme. There are feveral hundred names, but 
very few defignations ; fo that it is diificult to 
point out the individuals to the public. Some 
however are defigned, and the writer obfervcs 
that names are found, which, when applied to 
fome individuals whom he knows, accord furprif- 
ingly with the anecdotes that are to be feen in the 
private correfpondence of the llluminati, and in 
the romance called Materials for the Hiftory of 
Socratifm (Illuminatifm)*. It is but a difagree- 
able remark, that the lift of the Union contains 

* This, by the by, is a very Cdiious and entertaining work, 
and, had the whole affair been better known in this country, 
would have been a much better antidote againft the baneful 
efFeds of that Affociation than any thing that I can give to 
the pubh'e, being written with much accutenefs and knowledge 
of the human mind, and agreeably diverfified with anecdote and 
ironical exhibition of the affeded wifdom and philanthropy of 
the knavilli Foimder and his coadjutors. If the prefent imper- 
fed and defultory account fhall be found to intereft the public, I 
doubt not but that a transition of this novel, and fome other 
fanciful performances on the fubjcft, will be read with entertain- 
ment and prcfiu 

the 



CHAP. iii. THE GERMAN UNION. *2 1 ^ 

the names of many public teachers, both from the 
pulpit, and from the accademic chair in all its 
degrees; and among thefe are feveral whofe cy- 
phers fnow that they have been active hands. 
Some of thefe have in their writings given evi- 
dent proofs of their mifconception of the fimple 
truths, whether dogmatical or hifiorical, of re- 
vealed religion, or of their inclination to twift 
and manufafture them fo as to chime in with, the 
religion and morality of the Sages of France. But 
it is m^ore diltrefiing to meet with unequivocal 
names of fome who profefs in their writings to 
confider thele fubje(fts as an honeil man (hould 
confider them, that is, according to the plain and 
common fenfe of the words; whereas we have 
demonflrative proofs that the German Union had 
the diametrically oppofite purpofe in view. The" 
only female in the lift is the Crafin von dcr Rccke^ 
the Lady who gave Dr. Stark of Darmftadt fo 
much trouble about his Tonfure, This Lady, as 
we have already feen, could not occupy herfelf 
with the frivolity of drefs, flirtation, or domci- 
tic cares. " F'emina f ante pat tt, vir pecforej^ She 
was not pleafed however at finding her name in 
fuch a Plebeian lift, and gave oath, along with 
Biefter at the centre, that (he was not of the h.i- 
ibciation. I fee that the public was not fatisfied 
with this denial. The Lady has pubiifhed fome 
more fcandal againft Stark fince that time, and 
takes no notice of it; and there have appeared 
many accounts of very ferious literary connec- 
tions between thefe two perfons and the man wiio 
was afterwards difcovered to be the chief agent 
of the Union. 

No. V. is an important document. It is a letter 
addreUed to the fworn members of the Union, re- 
minding the beloved feiiovv-workers that " the by- 

" gone 



it 






22,0 THE GERMAN UNION. CMAP. ill. 

*' pone manaeement of the bufmefs has been ex- 
peniive, and that the XXII. do not mean to make 
any particular charge for their own compenfation. 
*' But that it was neceiTary that ail and each of the 
'' members ihould know precifely the objedt of the 
*•' Aflbciation, and the way which mature confidera- 
tion had pointed out as the mofl effectual method 
of attaining thisobjed. Then, and not till then, 
could the worthy members acl by one plan, and 
confequentiy with united force. To accomplifh 
this purpofe, one of their number had compofed 
a Treatil'e on Inftrutlion^ and the means of promot- 
ing if^'' This work has been revifed by the whole 
number, and may be conlidered as the refult of their 
deepefl: refieclion. They fay, that it would be a 
fignal misfortune fhould this AlTociation, this under- 
taking, fo important for the happinefs of mankind, 
be cramped in the very beginning of its brilliant 
progrefs. They therefore propofe to print this 
work, this Holy Scripture of their faith and pradice, 
by fubfcription, (They here give a fliort account 
of the work.) And they requell the members to 
encourage the work by fubicribing, and by exerting 
more than their ufual aclivity in procuring fubfcrip- 
tions, and in recommending the performance in the 
newfpapers. Four perfons are named as Dioceians, 
who are to receive the money, which they beg may 
be fpetdhy advanced in order to purchafe paper, 
thit the work may be ready for the firlt fair (Eaiter 

J788.), \ 

iNo. VI. is a printed paper (as is No. V.) without 
date, farther recommending the Eifay on Iniirudion. 
No. VII. is in manufcript, Vv'ithout date. It is ad- 

* Ueler ausfklarung unJ Jeren BefordeningS']\IitteI. The only 
proptr tra'iil'Htion of this word would be, clearing up or enlighten' 
in*. Injiruction feems the fn:gle word that comes ncared to the 
Drtz\{< meaning of Aiiffklarimg^ but is not fynonymous. 

drcficd 



/ 



CHAP. 111. THE GERMAN UNION. 221- 

dreffed to "" a worthy man," intimating that the like 
are fent to others, to whom will alfo fpeedily be for- 
warded an icnproved plan, with a requeil to cancel 
or deflroy the former contained in No. III. It is 
added, that the Union now contains, among many 
others, more than two hundred of the moft refpec- 
table perfons in Germany, of every rank and condi- 
tion, and that in the coarfe of the year, (1788,) a 
general lift will be fent, with a requefl that the re- 
ceiver will point cut luch as he does not think wor- 
thy of perfect confidence. It concludes with ano- 
ther recommendation of the book on In/lru^ion. on 
the returns from which firfl work of the German 
Union the fupport of the fecretary's office is to de- 
pend. 

Accordingly No. VIIL contains this plan, but it 
is not entitled The Improved Plan. Such a denomi- 
nation would have called in doubt the infallibility of 
the XXII. It is therefore called the Progrefftve 
(vorlaufig) plan, a title which leaves room for every 
fubfequent change. It ditfers from the former only 
in fome unimportant circumftances. Some expref- 
fions; which had given offence or raifed fufpicions, 
are foftened or cancelled. Two copies of this, which 
we may call A and B, are given, differing alfo in 
fome circumflances. 

" The great aim of the German Union is the good 
** of mankind, which is to be attained only by means 
" of mental illumination (^Auffklarung) and the de- 
*' throning of fanaticifm and moral defpotifm." 
Neither paper has the expreffion which immediately 
followed in the former plan, '' that this had been 
*' the aim of the exalted founder of Chriflianity." 
The paper A refers, on the prefent fubjed, to a dif- 
fertation printed in 17B7, without a name. On the 
freedom of the Prefs and its Liynitation, This is one 
of the moft licentious pieces that has been publifhed 

1^ on 



%22 tHE GERMAN UNION. CHAP. lUs 

on the fubjecl, not only enforcing the inoft unquali- 
fied liberty of publifliing every thing a man pleafes, 
but exemplifying it in the n)ofl fcanclaloas manner ; 
libelling charaders of every fort, and perfons of eve- 
ry condition, and this frequently in the nioft abu- 
five language, and exprelTions ih coarfe, as fhewed 
t\v^ author to be either habituated to the coarfeft cora- 
pat\iy, or determined to try boldly once for all, what 
the public eye can bear. The piece goes on : ''The 
Union conliders it as a chief part of its feci et plan 
of operation, to include the trade of bookfelling 
in their circle. By getting hold of this, they 
have it in their power to increafe the number of 
writings which prom.ote inibuclion, and to lefTen 
that of thofe which mar it, fmce the authors of 
the latter will by degrees lofe both their publifh- 
ers and their readers. That the prefent book- 
fellers may do them no harm, they will by degrees 
draw in the greater part of them to unite with 
them." — The literary newfpaper is here llrongly 
infifled on, and, in addition to what was faid in the 
former plan, it is faid, '' that they will include po- 
*' litical news, as of mighty influence on the public 
'^ mind, and as a fubjed that merits the clofeft at- 
'* tention of the moral inftruclor. For what illumi- 
nation is that mind fulceptible of, that is fo blind- 
ed by the prejudice created and nurfed by the 
habits of civil fubordination, that it worlhips flu- 
pidity or wickednefs under a coroilet, and neglecls 
talents and virtue under the bearfkin cap of the 
boor ? We muft therefore reprefent political 
tranfadions, and public occurrences, not as they 
*' affed that artificial and fantaflical creature of ima- 
*' gination that we fee every where around us wheel- 
" ed about in a chariot, but as it aflfeds a man, ra- 
*' tional, adive, free born man. By thus Gripping 
" the tranfadion of all foreign circumlbnces, we 

'' lee 



41 
IS 

(C 

It 



it. 
(I 
il 



CHAP. iii. THE GERMAN UNION. QQj 

fee it as it affeds, or ought to affed, ourfelves. 
Be allured that this new form of political intelli- 
gence will be highly interefling, and that the 
Gazette of the Union will foonfuperfedeall others, 
and, of itfelf, will defray all our necefl'ary ex- 
*' pences." 

This is followed by fome alluficns to a fecret cor- 
refpondence that is quick, unfufceptible of all dif- 
covery or treachery, and attended with no expence, 
by which the bulinefs of the fecret plan (^different 
from either of thoje comjnumcated\ to the fworn Bre- 
thren at large) is carried on, and which puts the 
members in a condition to learn every thing that 
goes on in the world, for or againft their caufe, and 
alfo teaches them to know mankind, to gain an in- 
fluence over all, and enables them effecTlually to pro- 
mote their beft fubjedls into all offices, &:c. and finally, 
from which every member, whether ftatefman, mer- 
chant, or writer, can draw his own advantages. Some 
pafTages here and in another place make me imagine 
that the Union hoped to get the command of the 
poft-oifices, by having their Brethren in the di- 
redion. 

It is then faid, that '' it is fuppofed that the levy 
will be fufnciently numerous in the fpring of the 
enfuing year. When this takes place, a general 
fynod will be held, in which the plan of fecret 
operations will be finally adjufled, and accommo- 
dated to local circumflances, fo as to be digefled 
into a law that wdll need no farther alteration. A 
proper perfon will fet off from this fynod, with 
full powers to vifit every quarter where there are 
fworn Brethren, and he will there eftablifh a 
Lodge after the ancient iimple ritual, and will 
communicate verbally the plan of fecret opera^ 
ration^ and certain inflru(flions. Thefe Lodges 
will then efiablifh a managing fund or box. Each 

*' Lodge 



(I 
(I 

It 
(I 



224 "^"^ GERMAN UNION. CHAP, ill. 



(I 
It 



11 



Lodge will alfo eflablifh a Reading Society, under 
the management of a bookfeller refiding in the 
place, or of fome perfon acquainted with the me- 
chanical condud of things of this nature. There 
mud alfo be a colledor and agent, (Expediteur^) 
*' fo that in a moment the Union will have its of- 
'' fices or comptoirs in every quarter, through which 
it carries on the trade of bookfelling, and guides 
the ebb and flow of its correfpondence. And thus 
'' the whole machine will be fet in motion, and its 
'^ adivity is all directed from the centre." 

I remark, that here we have not that excluiion of 
Princes and miniflers that was in the former plan ; 
they are not even mentioned. The exclufion in ex- 
prefs terms could not but furprife people, and ap- 
pear fomewhat fufpicious. 

No. IX. is a printed circular letter to the fworn 
Brethren, and is fubfcribed *' by their truly afibciat- 
'' ed Brother Barthels, Oheramtfman (firfl bailiff) 
" for the King of Pruflia, at Halle on the Saal." 

In this letter the Brethren are informed that '' the 
*' XXII. were wont to meet fometimes at Halle, and 
*' fometimes at Berlin. But unavoidable circum- 
flances oblige them not only to remain concealed 
for fometime, but even to give up their relation 
" to the Union, and withdraw themfelves from anv 
fliare in its proceedings. Thefe circumflances 
are but temporary, and will be completely ex- 
plained in due time. They trull, however, that 
*' this necelfary Hep on their part will not abate the 
" zeal and adivity of men of noble minds, engag- 
" ed in the caufe by the convidion of their own 
*' hearts. They liave therefore communicated to 
*' their worthy Brother Barthels all necelfary in- 
" formations, and have unanimoufly conferred on 
*' him the diredion of the feci etary's office, and 
" have provided him with every document and 

*' mean 



IC 






44 
41 
44 
44 
44 



fcHAP. iii. THE GERMAN UNION. 225 

" mean of carrying on the correfpondence. Ke has 
*' devoted himfelf to the honourable office, giving 
" up all other employments. They obfeive that by 
" this change in the manner of proceeding, the Af- 
*' fociation is freed from an objedion made with 
" juftice to all other fecret focieties, namely, that 
" the members fubjedl themfelves to blind and un- 
qualified fubmifiion to unknown fuperiors." — 
1 he Society is now in the hands of its own avow- 
ed members. Every thing will ioon be arranged 
according to a confliiution purelv republican ; a 
Diocefan will be chofen, and will direct in every 
province, and report to the centre every fecond 
month, and inflrudions and other informations 
" will ilTue in like manner from the centre. 

" If this plan fhall be approved of by the Affo- 
ciated, H. Earthels will tranfmit to all the Dio- 
cefes general lifts of the Union, and the Plan of 
Secret Operation, the refult of deep medita- 
*' tion of the XXII. and admirably calculated for 
carrying on with irrefiftable efied their noble and 
patriotic plan. To (lop all cabal, and put an end 
to all flander and fufpicion, H. Barthels thinks it 
proper that the Union fhall flep forward, and de- 
clare itfelf to the world, and openly name fome 
of its moft refpedabie members. The public 
muft however be informed only with refpect to 
the exterior of the Society, for which purpofe he 
had written a fheet to be annexed as an appendix 
to the work. On InflruSIion^ declaring that to be 

the work of the Societv, and a fufficient indica- 

■J ' 

' tion of its moil honourable aim. He dtfires 
" fuch members as choofe to fliare the honour 
*' with him, to {^cud him their names and proper 
dcfignations, that they may appear in that Ap- 
pendix. Andj laUiy, he requefts them to in- 
ftrudt him, and co-operate with him, according 

*' to 



44 
44 
(4 



<4 

41 
C4 

44 
44 

b4 
44 
44 
44 

44 

14 






• • • 



226 THE GERMAN UNION. ^ CHAP. Ill, 

" to the concerted nilesof the Union, in promot- 
** ing the caiifc of God and the happineis of man- 
*« kind.'' 

The appendix now alluded to makes No. X. of 
the packet fent to the Bookfeller Gofciien of Leip- 
zig, and is dated December 1788. It is alfo found 
in the book On Inpru^ion^ Sec, printed at Leipzig 
in 1789, by Waither* Here, however, the Appen- 
dix is dated January 1789. This edition agrees in 
the main with that in the book from which I 
have made fuch copious extracts, but differs in 
fome particulars that are not unworthy of remark, 
" In the packet it is written, " The Under- 
" 7%^^^ ^-^ il^<s'?/2^<fr and ^gent of the German 
*' Union, in order to redtify feveral miftakes and 
*' injurious llanders and accufations, thinks it ne- 
*' celTary that the public itfelf (liould judge of their 
'* obje(^ and conduct.'' — Towards the end it is 
faid, *' and all who have any doubts may apply 
'' to thofe named below^ and are invited to write 
" to them." No names however are fubjoined. 
In the Appendix to the book it is only faid, *' the 
agent of the German Union," Sec, and " per- 
fons who wifh to be better informed may write 
*• to the agent, under the addrefs, To tkc*^erman 
Union — under cover to the (hop of Walther, 
bookfeller in Leipzig." — Here too there are no 
names, and it does not appear that any perfon has 
chofen to come from behind the curtain*. 

* Wakher is an eminent bookfeikr, and carries on the bufinefsof 
publifhing to a great extent, both at Leipzig and other places. 
He was the publifher of the moft virulent attacks on the King of 
Pruflia's Edid; on Religion, and was brought into much trouble 
about the Commentary by Pott which is mentioned above. He 
alfo pubiiihes many cf the fceptical and licentious, writings which 
have fo much diftnrbed the peace of Germany. 

There 






it 



CHAP. ill. THE GERMAN UNION. 227 

There has already been fo much faid about En- 
lightening^ that the reader mufi: be almoii tired of ic. 
He is allured in this performance that the Illumina- 
tion propofed by the Union is not that of the fVoI- 
fenbuttle Fragments^ nor that of Horus, nor that of 
Bahrdt. The Fragments and Horus tuq books wliich 
aim direcflly, and without any concealment, to de- 
liroy the authority of our Scriptures, either as hiflo- 
rical narrations or as revelations of the intentions of 
providence and of the future profpeds of man. The 
Theological writings of Bahrdi are grofs perverfions, 
both of the fenfe of the text, and of the moral in- 
flruclions contained in it, and are perhaps the moil 
exceptionable pertormances on the fubjcd. They 
are iligmatifed as abfurd, and coarfe, and indecent, 
even by the writers on the fame fide ; yet the work 
recommended fo often as containing the elem.ents of 
that liiamination which the world has to expeci from 
the Union, not onlv coincides in its general princi- 
ples with thefe performances, but is almofl an ab- 
flrad of fome of them, particularly of his Popular 
Religion^ his Parapbrafe on the Sermon on the Mounts 
and his Morality of Religion. We have alfo {tQ,T\. 
that the book on the Liberty of the Prefs is quoted 
and recommended as an elementary book. Nay 
both the work on Infft uction and that on the Liber- 
ty of the Prefe^ are now known to be Bahrdt's. 

But thefe principles, exceptionable as they may 
be, are probaoly not the worit of the inftitution. 
We fee thac the outfide alone of the Union is to be 
fhewn to the r)ublic. Barthels felicitates the public 
that there is no fubordmation and blind obedience 
to unknown Superiors; yet, in the fame paragraph, 
he tells us that there is a fecret plan of operations, 
that is known only to the Centre and the Confiden- 
tial Brethren. The author of Fuller Information 
fays that he has this plan, and would print il, were 

he 



225 ^ THE GERMAN UNION. CHAP. iil. 

he not re{lralned by a promife*. He gives us enough 
however to (how us that the higher myfteries of the 
Union are precifeiy the fame with thofe of the Illu- 
minati. Chriftianity is exprefsiy faid to have been 
a Myliical AiTociation, and its founder the Grand 
Maifer of a Lodge. The Apodles, Peter, James, 
John, and Andrew, were the Ele^^ and Brethren of 
the Third Degree, and initiated into all the myfte- 
ries. The remaining Apoftles were only of the 
Second Degree ; and the Seventy-two were of the 
Firfl degree. Into this degree ordinary Chriflians 
may be admitted, and prepared for further advance- 
ment. The great miftery is, that J C was a 

Naturalift, and taught the dodlrine of a Supreme 
Mind, the Spedator, but not the Governer of the 
World, pretty nearly in the fenfe of the Stoics. 
The Initiated Brethren were to be inflruded by read- 
ing proper books. Thofe particularly recommend- 
ed are Baf dozvs P radical Knowledge^ Eherhard's 
Apology for Socrates^ Bahrdfs Apology for Reafon^ 
Steinbardf 5 Syftem of Moral Education^ Meiners An- 
cient Myfteries, Bahrdfs Letters on the Bible ^ and 

Bahrdfs Completion of the Plan and Aim of J 

C . Thefe books are of the moft Antichriftian 

charader, and fome of them aim at fhaking off all 
moral obligation whatever. 

Along with thefe religious dodrines, are incul- 
cated the moft dangerous maxims of civil condudi. 
The defpotifm that is aimed at over the minds of 
men, and the machinations andantrigues for obtain- 
ing poffeftion of places of truft and influence, are 
equally alarming; but being perfedly fimilar to thofe 
of the Illuminati, it is needlefs to mention them. 

The chief intelligence that we ' get from this 
author is that the Centre of the Union is at a 



* This I find to be falfe, and the book a common job. 

houfe 



# 



GHAF. ill. THE GERMAN UNION; 22g 

houfe in the neighbonrliood of Halle. It is a fort 
of tavern, in a vineyard immediately without the 
city. This was bought by Doctor Karl Frie- 
DERICH Bahrdt, and fitted up for the amufement 
of the Univerfity Students. He calls it Bahrdt's 
RUHE (Bahrdt's Ptepofe). The author thinks that 
this muit have been the work of the AiTociation, 
becaufe Bahrdt had not a farthing, and was total- 
ly unable for iuch an undertaking. He may how- 
ever have been the contriver of the inftitution. 
"tie has never affirmed or denied this in explicit 
terms ; nor has he ever faid who are the XXH co- 
adjutors. Wucherer, an eminent bookfeller at 
Vienna, feems to have been one of the mofl active 
hands, and in one year admitted near two hun- 
dred members, among whom is his own fhoe- 
maker^ He has publiQied fome of the mofl profli- 
gate pamphlets which have yet appeared in Ger- 
many, 

The publication of the lift of members alarmed 
the nation ; perfons were aftonifhed to find them- 
felves in every quarter in the midft of villains who 
were plotting againft the peace and happinefs of 
the country, and deflroying every fentiment of re- 
ligion, morality, or loyalty. Many peribns pub- 
liihed in the newfpapers and literary journals affir- 
mations and proofs of the falfe iniertion of their 
names. Some acknowledged that curiofity had 
made them enter the AfTociation, and even conti- 
nue their correfpondence with the Centre, in or- 
der to learn fomething of what the Fraternity had 
in view, but declared that they had never taken 
any part in its proceedings. But, at the fametime^ 
it is certain that many Heading Societies had been 
fet up during thefe tranfadions, in every quarter 
of Germany, and that the oftenfible managers 
were in^'general of very fufpiciouscharadters, both 

2 F as 



23® f"HE GERMAN' 'JMION. CHAF. Ill- 

as to morals and loyalty. The Union had actual- 
ly fet up a prets of their own at Calbe, in the 
neighbourhood of Halberdadt, Every day there 
appeared ilroriger proofs of a combination of the 
lournalifts, Reviewers, and even of the publidiers 
knd bookfellers, i^ fupprefs tlie w^ritings which 
appeared in defence of the civil and ecclefiallical 
conftitutions of the States of Germany. The ex- 
tenfive literary manufa£lure of Germany is carri- 
ed on in hich a manner that it is impodibh for any 
thing Icls than the joint operation of the whole 
federated powers to prevent this. The fpirit of 
freethinking and innovating in religious matters 
had been remarkably prevalent in the dominions 
of the King of Prudia, having been much encou- 
raged by the indifference of the late King. One of 
the vileft things publifhed on this occaiion was an a- 
bominable farce, called the Religion Edid. This 
was traced to Bahrdt's Rube, and the Doclor was ar- 
reted, and all his papers feized and ranfacked. The 
civil Magidrate was glad of an opportunity of expif- 
cating the German Union, which common fame had 
alfo traced hither. The correfpondence was ac- 
cordingly examined, and many difcoveries were 
made, which there was no occafion to communicate 
to the public, and the profecution of the bufinefs of 
the Union was by this means Hopped. But the per- 
fons in high office at Berlin agree in faying that the 
AfTociation of writers and other turbulent perfons in 
Germany has been but very faintly hit by this blow, 
and is almoft as active as ever. 

The German Union appears a mean and precipi- 
tate Affociation. The Centre, the Archives, and 
the Secretary are contemptible. All the Archives; 
that were found were the plans and lifts of the mem- 
bers and a parcel of letters of correfpondence. The 
correfpondence and other bufinefs Vv^as managed by 

an 



CHAP. ill. THE GERMAN UNION. ^3! 

an old man in feme very inferior office or judicato- 
ry,, who lived at bed and 'Doard in Bahidt's houfe for 
about fix (hillings a week, having a cheit of papers 
and a vvriting-defi<: in the corner of the common 
room of the houfe. 

Bahrdt gives a long narration of his concern in 
Jhe affair, but we can put little confidence in what 
he fays : yet as v;e have no better authority, I fhall 
give a very Ihort abftra<ft of it, as follows : 

He faid, that he learned Cofmo-political Free 
Mafonry in England, when he was there getting pu- 
pils for his academy — but negleded it on his return 
to Germany. Some time after his fettlement he 
was roufed by a vifit from a firanger who paffed for 
an Engliftiman, but whom he afterwards found to be 
a Dutch officer — (he gives a defcription which 
bears confiderable refemblance to the Prince or Ge- 
neral Salms who gave fo much difturbance to the 
States General)— He was Hill more excited by an 
anonymous letter giving him an account of a Society 
which was employed in the infirudion of mankind, 
and a plan of their mode of operations, nearly the 
fame with that of No. HI. He then fet up a Lodge 
of Free Mafonry on Cofmo-political principles, as a 
preparation for engaging in this great plan— he was 
llopped by the National Lodge, becaufe he had no 
patent from it.— -1 his obliged him to vjork in fe- 
cret.— He met with a gentleman in a coffee houfe, 
who entreated him to go on, and promifed him gieat 
afiiiiance — this he got from time to time, as he Hood 
moft in need of it, and he now found that he was 
working in concert with many powerful though un- 
known friends each in his own circle. The plan 
of operation of the XXn. was gradually unfolded to 
him, and he got folemn promiies of being made ac- 
quainted with his colleagues. But he now touiid, 
that after he had fo effentially fcrved their noole 

cauie 



" • ♦ 



«3'2 THE GERMAN UNION. CHAP. 111. 

caufe, he was dropped by them in the hour of dan- 
ger, and thus was made the facrifice for the public 
good. The lad packet which he received was a re- 
quefl; from a Friend to the Union to print two per- 
formances fent hjm, with a promife of loo dahlers 
for his trouble. Thefe were the abominable farce 
called the Religion Edid, and fome Diflertations on 
that Royal Proclamation. 

He then gives an account of his fyflem of Free 
Mafonry, not very different from Weifliaupt's Ma- 
fonic Cbriftianity— and concludes with the follow- 
ing abftrad of the advantages of the Union — Ad- 
vancement of Science— A general intereft and con- 
cern for Arts and Learning— Excitement of Talents- 
Check of Scribbling- — Good Education — Liberty — -. 
Equality — Hofpitaiity — Deli very of many from Mis- 
fortunes — Union of the Learned—- and at lafl-— per- 
haps— Amen. 

What the meaning of this enigmatical conclufion 
is we can only guefs— and our conjedures cannot be 
very favourable. 

The narration, of which this is a very fhort in- 
dex, is abundantly entertaining; but the opinion of 
the mod intelligent is, that it is in a great meafure 
fiditious, and that the contrivance of the Union is 
moftly his own. Although it could not be legally 
proved that he was the author of the farce, every 
perfon in court was convinced that he was, and in- 
deed it is perfedly in Bahrdt's very lingular manner. 
This invalidates the whole of his ilory — and he af- 
terwards acknowledges the farce (at lead by impli- 
cation) in feveral writings, and boafts of it. 

For thefe reafons I have omitted the narration in 
detail. Some information, however, which I have 
received hnce, feems to confirm his account, w-hilc 
it diminiihes its importance. I now find that the 
book called Fuller Information is the performance of 

a clergyman 



■A-', 



CHAP. iii. THE GERMAN UNION. ^3^ 

a ciergvir.an cnlled ^chutz, of the lowed clafs, and 
bv no means of an eminent charadler. — Another 
performance in the form of a dialogue between X, 
y, and Z, giving nearly the fame account, is by Potr, 
the dear friend of Bradht and of his Union, and au- 
thor of the Commentary on the Edi<fi. Schntz got 
his materials from one Roper, an expelled ftudent 
of debauched morals, who fubhfied by copying and 
vending filthy raanufcripts. Bahrdt fays, that he 
found him naked and (farving, and, out of pity, 
took him into his houfe, and employed him as an 
amanuenfis. Roper iioie the papers at various times, 
taking them with him to Leipzig, whither he went 
on pretence of ficknefs. At laft Schutz and he went 
to Berlin together, and gave the information on 
which Bahrdt was put in prifon. In fliort they aii 
appear to have been equally profligates and traitors 
to each other, and exhibit a dreadful, but I hope a 
ufeful picfiure of the influence of this Illumination 
which fo wonderfully fafcinates Germany. 

This is all the direct information that I can pick 
up of the founder and the proceedings of the Ger- 
man Union. The project is coarfe, and palpably 
mean, aiming at the dahlers of entry-money and of 
annual contribution, and at the publication and pro- 
fitable fale of Dr. Bahrdt's books. This circumfiance 
gives it firong features of its parentage — Philofpeaks 
of Bahrdt in his Final Declaration in terms of con- 
tempt and abhorence. There is nothing ingenious, 
nothing new, nothing enticing, in the plans; and 
the immediate purpoie of indulging the licentious 
tafte of the public comes fo frequently before the 
eye, that it bears all the marks of that groflhefs of 
mind, precipitancy, and impatient overfight that 
are to be found in all the voluminous writings of 
Dr. Bahrdt. Many in Germany, however, afcribe 
the Union to Wei&aupt, and fay that it is the Illu- 

minati 



234 THE GERMAN UNION. CHAP. iii. 

minati working In another form. There Is no deny- 
ing that the principles, and even the manner of 
proceeding, are the fame in every effential circu al- 
liance. Many paragraphs of the declamations cir- 
culated through Germany with the plans, are tran- 
icribed verbatim from Weifhaupt's Corrected Jyftem 
of Illuminatifm. Much of the work On Injlruction^ 
and the Means for promoting it^ is very nearly a copy 

of the fame work, blended with floveniv extracls 

' 1/ 

from fom.e of his own writings — There is the fame 
feries of deluhons from the beginning, as in Illumi- 
natilm — Free Mafonry and Chriflianity are com- 
pounded — lirfl: v/ith marks of refpecl — then Chrif- 
tianity is twifted to a purpofe foreign from it, but 
the fame with that aimed at by Weifhaupt — then it 
is thrown away altogether, and Natural Religion and 
Atheifm fubllituted for it— For no perfon will have 
a moment's hefitation in faying, that this is the creed 
of the author of the books On Inftruclion and On the 
Liberty of the Prefs, Nor can he doubt that the 
political principles are equally anarchical with 
thole of the iiluminati. — The endeavours aifb to 
get pofreiiion of public ofBccs — of places of edu- 
cation — of the public mind, by the Reading So- 
cieties, and by publications — are {.o many tran- 
icripts from the liluminati. Add to this, that Dr. 
Bahrdt was an Illiimlnatus — and wrote the Better 
than Horus^ at the command of Weidiaupt, Nay, 
it is well known that Weidiaupt was twice or 
thrice at Bahrdt's R.uhe duriug thofe tranf^.c^lions^ 
and that he zcaloudy promoted the formation of 
Ftcadiug Societies in feveral places. — But 1 am ra- 
ther of the opinion that Weidiaupt made thofc 
vifits in order to keep Dr. Bahrdt within tome 
bounds of decency, and to hinder him from hurt- 
ing the caiife by his precipitancy, when fpurrcd on 
by the want of money. WelHiaupt could not work 

in 



€HAP. Hi. THE GERMAN UNION. t^S 

in fach an unfldlful manner. But he would be 
very glad of fuch help as this coarfe tool could 
give iiim — and Bahrdt gave great help; for, when 
lie was imprifoned and his papers (eized, his Ar- 
chives,, as he called them, fiiewed that there 
v*7ere many Reading Sccicties which his proje£t 
had drawn together. The Prullian States had 
above thirty, and the number of readers was af- 
tonifningly great — and it was found, that the per- 
nicious books had really found their way into 
every hut. Bahrdt, by defcending a ftory lower 
than Weidiaupt, has greatly increafcd the number 
of his pupils. 

But, although I cannot confider the German 
Union as a formal revival of the Order under an- 
other name, I mud hold thofe United^ and the 
members of thoie Heading Societies, as Illuminati 
2iX\(l ,Mhierva!s, I muib even confider the Union 
as a part of Spartacus' work. The plans of Wei- 
(haupt were partly carried into eifedt in their dif- 
ferent branches — they were pointed out, and the 
way to carry them on are diflinctiy defcribed in 
the private coriefpondence of the Order — It re- 
quired little genius to attempt them in imitation, 
Bahrdt made the attempt, and in part ILcceedcd. 
Weiiliaupt's hopes were well founded — The lea- 
ven was not only diflributed, but the management 
of the fermentation was now underftocd, and it 
went on apace* 

It is to be remarked, that nothing was found 
among Bahrdt's papers to fupport the (lory he 
writes in his diary — no fuch correfpondenccs — 
but enough for detcdting many of thefe Societies. 
Many others however were found unconncdled 
with Eahrdt'sRuhe, not of better character, either 
as to Morality or Loyalty, and fome of them con- 
liderable and cxpenfive; and many proofs were 

found 



2^6 THE GERxMAN UNION i 6HAP. ilh 

found of a combination to force the public to a 
certain way of thinking, by the management of 
the Reviews and Journals. The extenfive dealings 
of Nicholai of Berlin gave him great weight in 
the book-making trade, which in Germany fur- 
paiFes all our conceptions. The catalogues of jiew 
writings in ilieets, which are printed twice a-year 
for each of the fairs at Leipzig and Frankfort, 
would allonifh a Britiili reader by the numbere- 
The bookfellers meet there, and at one glance 
fee the whole republic of literature, and, like Ro- 
man fenators, decide the fentiments of diflant 
provinces. By thus feeing the whole togethery 
their fpeculations are national, and they really 
have it in their power to give what turn they 
pleafe to the literature and to the fentiments of 
Germany. Still however they mud be induced by 
motives. The motive of a merchant is gain, and 
every object appears in his eye fomething by 
which money may be made. Therefore in a lux- 
urious and voluptuous nation, licentious and free- 
thinking books will abound. The writers fuggelf^ 
and the bookfellers think how the thing w^ill tickle* 
Yet it mufl not be inferred, from the prevalence- 
of fuch books, that fuch is the common fenfe of 
mankind, and that the writings are not the cor- 
rupters, but the corrupted, or that they arc what 
they ought to be, becaufe they pleafe the publico- 
We need only pulh the matter to an extremity^ 
and its caufe appears plain. Filthy prints will al- 
ways create a greater crowd before the (hop win- 
dow than the fineft performances of Wollett. Li- 
centious books will be read w^ith a fluttering eager- 
nefs, as long as they are not univerfally permitted ^ 
and pitiable will be the ftate of the nation when 
their number makes them familiar and no longer 
captivating. 

But 



CHAP. iii. THE GERMAN UNION. 237 

Bat although it mull be confeiTed that great en- 
couragement was given to the fceptical, infidel, 
and licentious writings in Germany, we fee that 
it was flill necefTary to pratitifc feduftion. The 
Religionifl was made to expe(^ Ibme engaging ex- 
hibition of his faith. The Citizen mult be told 
that his civil connexions are refpe£ted, and will 
be improved ; and all are told that good manners 
or virtue is to be fupported. Man is fuppofed to 
be, in very eflential circumftances, what he wifhes 
to be, and feels he ought to be : and he is cor- 
rupted by means of falfefhood and trick. The 
principles by which he is wheedled into wicked- 
nefs in the lirll inflance, are therefore fuch as are 
really addreffed to the general fentim^ents of man- 
kind : thele therefore lliould be confidered as 
more expredive of the public mind than thofe 
which he afterwards adopts, after this artificial 
education. Therefore Virtue, Patriotifm, Loy- 
alty, Veneration for true and undefiled Religion, 
are really acknowledged by thofe corrupters to be 
the -prevailing fentiments ; and they are good if 
this prevalence is to be the teft of worth. The 
mind that is otherwife aifedted by them, and hy- 
pocritically ufes them in order to get hold of the 
uninitiated, that he may in time be made lo cherifti 
the contrary fentiments, cannot be a good mind, 
notwithitanding any pretenfions it may make to 
the love of mankind. 

No man, not Weiftiaupt himfelf, has made 
flronger profeiTions of benevolence, of regard for 
thehappinefs of mankind, and of every thing that 
is amiable, than Dr. Bahrdt. It may not be ufe- 
lefs to enquire what effect fuch principles have had 
on his own mind, and thofe of his chief coadju- 
tors. Deceit of every kind is diflionourable ; and 
the deceit that is profelfedly employed in the pro- 

2 G ceedingi 



238 THE GERMAN UNION. CHAPUU 

ccedings of the Union is no exception. No pi- 
ous fraud ^whatever mud be ufed, and pure reli- 
gion mud be prefented to the view without all 
difguife. 

** The more fair Virtue's feen, the more '^\t charms. 
** Safe, plain, and eafy, are her artlefs ways. 
** With face ereft, her eyes look ftrait before ; 
** For dauntlefs is her march, her Hep fecure. 

** Not fo, pale Fraud — now here fhe turns, now there, 

** Still feeking darker fhades, fecure in none, 

** Looks often back, and wheeling round and round, 

** Sinks headlong in the danger (he would ftiun.'* 



The mean motive of the Protellant Sceptic is 
as inconfiftent with our notions of honefty as with 
our notions of honour ; and our fufpicions are 
juftly raifed of the character of Dr. Bahrdt and 
his afrociates,even although we do not fuppofe that 
their aim is the total aboliihing of religion. With 
propriety therefore may we make fome enquiry 
about their lives and conduct. Fortunately this 
is eafy in the prefent inftance. A man that has 
turned every eye upon himfelf can hardly efcape 
obfervation. But it isnotfo eafy to get fair infor- 
mation. The peculiar fituation of Dr. Bahrdt, 
and the caufe between him and the public, are of 
all others the moft productive of millake, mif- 
reprefentation, obloquy, and injuftice. But even 
here we are fortunate. Many remarkable parts 
of his life are eftablifhed by the mod refped:able 
teftimony, or by judicial evidences; and, to make 
all fure, he has written his own life. I Ihall infert 
nothing here that is not made out by the two laft 
modes of proof, reding nothing on the fird, how- 
ever refpeftable the evidence may be. But I mud 
obferve, that his life was alfo written, by his dear 
friend Pott, the partner of Walther the bookfel- 

ler. 



CHAP. iii. THE GERMAN UNION. 239 

ler. The flory of this publication is curious, and 
it is inftrudtive. 

Bahrdt was in prifon, and in great poverty. He 
intended to write his own life, to be printed by 
Wakher, under a iidlitious name, and in this work 
he intended to indulge his fpleen and his diflikc of 
all thofe who liad offended him, and in particular 
all priefls, and rulers, and judges, who had given 
him fo much trouble. He knew that the (Irange, 
and many af them fcandalous anecdotes, with 
which he had fo liberally interlarded many of his 
former publications, would let curiofity on tiptoe, 
and would procure a rapid fale as foon as the pub- 
lic ftiould guefs that it was his own performance, 
by the lingular but lignificant name which the 
pretended author would aiTume. He had almofl 
agreed with Walther for a thoufand dahlers, 
(about L. 200), when he wasimprifoned for being 
the author of the farce fo often named, and of 
the commentary on the Religion Edidl^ written by 
Pott, and for the proceedings of the German Uni- 
on. He was refufed the ufe of pen and ink. H# 
then applied to Pott, and found means to corref- 
pond with him, and to give him part of his life 
already v/ritten, and materials for the reft, con- 
fifting of flories, and anecdotes, and correfpon- 
dence. Pott fent him fcveral Iheets, with which 
he was fo pleaied, that they concluded a bargain. 
Bahrdt fays, that Pott was to have 400 copies, and 
that the reft was to go to the maintenance of Bahrdt 
and his family, confifting of his wife, daughter, a 
Chriftina and her children who lived with them, 
Sec, Pott gives a different account, and the truth 
was different from both, but of little confequence 
to us. Bahrdt's papers had been feized, and fearch- 
ed for evidence of his tranfaclions, but the ftri<^- 
eft attention was paid to the prccife points of the 

Clijg 



2^0 THE GERMAN UNION. CHAP. ii'l. 

charge, and do paper was abdradled which did 
not relate to thele. All others were kept in a Teal- 
ed room. Pott procured the removal of thefcals 
and got poiFellion of them. Bahrdt lays, that Ivis 
wife and daughter came to him in prifon, ahnoft 
flarving, and told him that now that the room was 
opened, Pott had made an offer to write for their 
fupport, if he had the ufe of thcfe papers — that 
this was the conclufion of the bargain, and that 
Pott took away all the papers. N. B. Pott was the 
alTociate of Walther, who had great confidence 
in him ( Anecdotenhnch fur meinen kihen Ajiitjbr'u- 
der^ p, 400) and had conducted the bufmefs of 
Stark's booii, as has been already mentioned. 
No man was better knov/n to Bahrdt, for they had 
long a£ted together as chief hands in the Union. 
He would therefore write the life of its founder 
cort amore^ and it might be expected to be a rare 
and tickling performance. And indeed it was. 
The firfl part of it only was publifhed at this time ; 
and the narration reaches from the birth of the 
hero till his leaving Leipzig in 1768' The atten- 
tion is kept fully awake, but the emotions which 
fucceiRvcly occupy the mind of the reader are no- 
thing but llrong degrees of averfion, diigulf, and 
horror. The figure fet up to view is a monfter, 
a man of talents indeed, and capable of great things; 
but loft to truth, to virtue, and even to the atlec- 
tation of common decency — In fliort, a (hamelefs 
profligate. — Poor Bahrdt was alioniflied, — (tared 
- — but, having his wits about him, faw that this 
life would {^\\^ and would alfo fell another. — 
Without lofs of time, he faid that he would hold 
Pott to his bargain — but he reckoned without his 
hod. " No, no,'' faid Potr, *' your are not the 
" man I took you for — your correipondence was 
*' put into my bands— 1 law that you had de- 

'' ceived 



CHAP. iii. THE GERMAN UNION. 24I 



u 
(( 
it, 






" ceived me, and it was my duty, as a man 
-wko loves truth above all things ^ to hinder you 
from deceiving tlie world. 1 have not writ- 
ten the book you deiired me. i did not worii 
for you, but for myieif — therefore you get 
not a grofchen.'* " Why, Sir," faid Bahrdt, we>- 
" both imow that this won't do. You and i have 
*' ah'cadv tried it. You received Stark's manu- 
" fcript, to be printed by Walther — Walther and 
" you Tent it hither to Michaelis, that I might fee 
it during the printings 1 wrote an illuitratino 
and a key, which made the fellow very ridicu- 
lous, and they were printed together, with one 
title page. — -You know that we were caft in 
court. — Waither was obliged to print the work 
" as Stark firil ordered, and we loft all our la- 
" hour. — So ftiall you now% for I will commence 
" an adlion this inilant, and let me fee with what 
*' face you will defend yourfeif, w^ithin a few 
" weeks of your lail appearance in court." Pctl 
faid, " You may try this. My w^ork is already fold, 
" and difperfed over all Germany — and I have 
" no objection to begin yours to-morrow — believe 
" me, it will fell.'' Bahrdt pondered — and refolv- 
ed to write one himfelf. 

This is another fpecimen of the Union, 
Dr. Carl Frederick Bahrdt was born in 
1 741. His father was then a parifn minifter, and 
afterwards Profeifor of Theology at Leipzig, 
where he died^ in 1775* The youth, when at 
College, enlifted in the PruiTian fervice as a huffar, 
but was bought off by his father. He was M. A. 
in 1 76 1. Ke became caret hift in his father's 
church, was a popular preacher, and pubiidied 
fermons in 1765, and fome controverfial writings, 
which did him honour — But he then began to in- 
dulge in conviviality, and in anonymous pafqui- 

nades, 



242 THE GERMAN UNION, CHAP, ill, 

iiades, uncommonly bitter and offenfive. No per- 
fon was lafe — ProfefTors — Magiftrates — Clergy- 
men, had his chief notice — alio ftudents — and 
even comrades and friends. (Bahrdt lays, that 
thefe things might cut to the quick but they were 
all juft. j Unluckily his temperament was what the 
atomical philofophers (who can explain every 
thing by asthers and vibrations) call fanguine. He 
therefore (his own word) was apaffionate admirer 
of the ladies. Coming home from fupper he fre- 
quently met a young Mifs in the way to his lodg- 
ings, neatly drelTed in a rofe-coloured filk jacket 
and train, and a fable bonnet, coftly, and like a 
lady. One evening (after fome old Kenifh, as he 
fays,) he faw the lady home. Some time after, the 
miftrefs of the houfe, Madam Godfchuflcy, came 
into his room, and faid that the poor maiden was 
pregnant. He could not help that — but it was very 
unfortunate, and would ruin him if known. — He 
therefore gave the old lady a bond for 200 dah- 

lers, to be paid by inftalments of twenty-five. 

*' The girl was fenfible, and good, and as he had 
** already paid for it, and her converfation was 
" agreeable, he did not dilcontinae hisacquaint- 
" ance." A comrade one day told him, that one 
Bel, a magiftrate, whom he had lampooned, knew 
the affair, and would bring it into court, unlefs he 
immediately retrieved the bond. This bond was 
the only evidence, but it was enough. Neither 
Bahrdt nor his friend could raife the money. But 
they fell on another contrivance. They got Ma- 
dam Godfchufl<:y to meet them at another houfe, 
in order to receive the money. Bahrdt was in a 
clofet, and his comrade wore a fword. The wo- 
man could not be prevailed on to produce the 
bond till Balirdt (hould arrive, and the money be 
put into her hands, with aprefcnt to herfelf. The 

comrade 



•HAP. iii. THE GERMAN UNION. 24J 

comrade tvied to flutter her, and, drawing his 
Iword, (hewed her how men fenced — made pafies 
at the wall — and then at her — but (he was too 
firm — he then threw away his fword, and began 
to ti y to force the paper from her. She defended 
herfelf a good while, but at length he got the pa- 
per out of her pocket, tore it in pieces, opened the 

clofet door, and laid, " There you b , there 

" is the honourable fellow whom you and your 
*' wh — have bullied — but it is with me you have 
" to do now, and you know that I can bring you 
'' to the gallows.*' There was a great ftquabble to 
be fure, fays Bahrdt, but it ended, and I thought 
all was now over. — But Mr. Bel had got word of 
it, and brought It into court the very day. that 
Bahrdt was to have made fome very reverend ap- 
pearance at church. In (liort, after many attempts 
of his poor father to fave him, he was obliged to 
fend in his gown and band, and to quit the place. 
It was fome comfort, how^ever, that Madam 
Godichuiky and the young Mifs did not fare much 
better. They were both imprifoned. Madam G. 
died lometime after of Ibme (liocking difeafe. 
The court records give a very different account of 
the v/hole, and particularly of the fciffle; bfeit 
Bahrdt's ftory is enough. 

Bahrdt fays, that his father was fevere— but ac- 
knovviedges that his own temperament was hafty, 
(why does not his father's temperament excufe fome- 
thing? Vibratiuncula will explain everything or 
nothing. '' therefore (again) I fometimes forgot 
myfelf. One day I laid a loaded piftol on the table, 
and toid him that he (hould meet with that if he went 
on fo. But I was only feventeen." 

Dr. Bahrdt was, of courfe, obliged to leave the 
place. His friends, and Semler in particular, 2iVi 
eminent theological writer, who had formed a very 

favourable 



^44 "^^E GERMAN UNION. CHAP. HI, 

favourable opinion of his uncommon talents, were 
aiTidiious in their endeavours to get an edabiifhnient 
for him. But his high opinion of himfeif, his tem- 
per, impetuous, precipiianf.and overbearing, and a 
bitter fatirical habit which he had freelv induked 
in his oulfet of life, m.ade their endeavours very in- 
etfedual. 

x^t lad he got a profefforfhip at Erlangen, then at 
Erfurth, and in 1771, at Gieffen. But in all thefe 
places he was no fooner fettled than he got into dif- 
putes v;nth his colleagues and with the eflablifhed 
church, being a llrenuous partizan of the innova- 
tions which were attempted to be made in the doc- 
trines of chriftianity. In his anonymous publica- 
tions, he did not trufl to rational difcuiTion alone, 
but had recourfe to ridicule and perfonal anecdotes, 
and indulged in the mod cutting farcafms and grofs 
fcurrility. Being fond of convivial company, his 
income was infuSicient for the craving demand, 
and as foon as he found that anecdote and flander 
always procured readers, he never ceafed writing. 
He had wonderful readinefs and adivity, and fpared 
neither friends nor foes in his anonymous perform- 
ances. But this could not lad, and his avowed the- 
ological writings were fuch as could not be fuffered 
in a Profelfor of Divinity. The very dudents at 
Gieden were (hocked with fome of his liberties. Af- 
ter much wrangihig in the church judicatories he 
was jud going to be difmided, when he got an invi- 
tation to Marfchlins in Switzerland to fuperintend 
an academy. He went thither about the year 1 776, 
and formed the feminary after the model of Bafe- 
dow's Philanthropine, or academy, at Dedau, of 
which I have already given fome account. It had 
acquired fome celebrity, and the plan was peculiarly 
fuiied to Bahrdt's tade, becaufe it left him at liberty 
to introduce any fydeai of religious or irreligious 

opinions 



«c 



^HAP, ill; THE GERMAN UNION. 245 

opinions that he pleafed. He refolved to avail him- 
felf of this libert}^ and though a clergyman and 
Dodor of Theolog}', he would outftrip even Bafe- 
dovv, who had no ecclefiaftical orders to reftrain 
him. But he wanted the moderation, the prudence 
and the principle of Bafedow. He had, by this time, 
formed his opinion of mankind, by meditating on 
the feelings of his own mind. His theory of human 
nature was fimpie — '' The leading propeniities, fays 
he, of the human mind are three — Inftinc^ive liber- 
ty (Freyheitftriebe) — inftindlive adivity (Triebe 

fur Thatigkeit) and inftindive love (Liebes 

triebe)." I do not wifli to mifunderftand him, but 
I can give no other tranilation.— ^' If a man is ob- 
ftruded in the exercife of any of thefe propenii-^ 
ties he fuffers an injury. — The bufmefsof a good 
education therefore is to teach us how they are to 
be enjoyed in the highefl degree." 
We need not be furprifed although the Dodor 
fliould find it difficult to manage the Cyclopedia 
in his Philanthropine in fuch a manner as to give 
fatisfaclion to the neighbourhood, which was ha- 
bituated to very different fentiments, — Accord- 
ingly he found his fituation as uncomfortable as at 
Gieflen. He fays, in one of his latefl performances, 
that the Grifons were a ilrong inftance of the 
immenfe importance of education. They knew: 
nothing but their handicrafts, and their minds 
were as coarfc as their perfons.'' He quarrelled 
with them all, and was obliged to abfcond after 
lying fometime in arreft. 

He came to Durkheim or Turkheim, where 
his father w^as or had been miniller. His literary 
talents were well known» — After fo me little time 
he got an afibciation formed for ere£ling and fup- 
porting a Philanthropine or houfe of education. 
A large fund was coile£led, and he was enabled to 

2 H travel 






246 THE GEPvMAN UNlON.f CHAP^ llL 

travel into Holland and England, to engage pu- 
pil?^ and was furnillied with proper recommend- 
ations. — On Ills return the plan was carried into 
execution. The caflle or refidence of Count Lein- 
ing Hartzburgh, at lieidelhcim, having gardens, 
park, and every handfome accommodation, had 
been fitted up for it, and it w^as coniecrated by a 
folemn religious fellival in 1778. 

But his old misfortunes purfued him. He had 
indeed no colleagues to quarrel with, but his 
avowed publications became every day more ob- 
noxious — and when any of his anonymous pieces 
had a great run, he could not itifie his vanity and 
conceal the author's name. Of thefe pieces, fome 
were even (liocking to decency. It was indifferent 
to him whether it was friend or foe that he abul- 
ed ; and fome of them were fo horribly injurious 
to the characters of the mofi: refpeciable men in 
the (late, that he was continually under the cor- 
rection of the courts of jufHce. There was hardly 
a man of letters that had ever been in his com- 
pany who did not fuffer by it. For his conftant 
practice was to father every nev^ flcp that he took 
towards Atheiim on fome other perfon ; and, 
whenever the reader fees, in the beginning of a 
book, any perfon celebrated by the author for 
found fenfe, profound judgment, accurate reafon- 
ing, or praiied for a£ts of friendfliip and kindnefs 
to himfelf, he may be allured that, before tliC 
clofe of the book, this man will convince Dr, 
Bahrdt in fome private converfation, that fome 
doctrine, cheriihed and venerated by all Chrii- 
tians, is a piece of knavilh fuperftition. So lofl 
was Dr. Bahrdt to all fenfe of ftiame. He faid that 
he held his own opinions independent of all man- 
kind, and was indifferent about their praile or 

their reproach. 

Bahrdt's 



CHAP. ill. THE GERMAN UNION. 24^ 

Bahrdt's licentious, very licentions life, was the 
"caufe of moft of thefe enormities. No income 
could fuifice and he wrote for bread. "The artful 
manner in whicii the literary manufadlure of 
Germany was conducted, made it im.poilible to 
hinder the rapid difperfion of his writings over 
all Germany ; and the indelicate and coarfe maw 
of the public was as ravenous as the fenfuality of 
Ur, Br^.hrdt, who really battened in the Epicurean 
fly. The coniequence of all this was that he was 
obliged to {]y from Reidefneim, leaving his furetics 
in \\\^ Pkilanthropine to pay about 14,000 dahlers, 
befides debts without number to his friends. He 
was impriibned at Dienheim., but was releafed I 
know not bow, and fettled at Halle. There he 
funk to be a keeper of a tavern and billiard-table, 
and his houfe became the relort and the bane of 
the (Indents in the Univerfity, — He was obliged 
therefore to leave the city. He had fomehow got 
funds which enabled him to buy a little vineyard, 
prettily fituated in the neighbourhood. This he 
fitted up with every accommodatioti that could 
invite the fludents, and called it Bahrdfs Ruke, 
We have already feen the occupations of Dr. B. 
in this Buen Retiro — Can we call it otium cum 
dignitafe ? Alas, no ! He had not lived two years 
here, buftling and toiling for the German Union, 
fometimes without a bit of bread — when he was 
fent to prifon at Halle, and then to Magdeburg, 
where he was more than a year in jail. He was 
fct at liberty, and returned to Bakrdfs Ruhe^ not, 
alas, to live at eafe, but to lie down on afick-bed, 
where, after more than a year's fuifering increai- 
ing pain, he died on the 23d of April 1793, the 
mod wretched and loathfome victim of unbridled 
fenfuality. The account of his cafe is written by 
a friend, a Dr. Jung, v;ho profefFes to defend his 

memory 



248 THE GERxMAN UNION, CHAP, iHj 

memory and his principles. The medical defcripr 
tion melted my heart, and I am certain would 
make his bitterell enemy weep. Jung repeatedly 
fays, tl-at the cafe was not venereal — calls it the 
vineyard difeafe — the quickhlver dileafe, (he was 
dying of an unconquerable falivation,) and yet, 
through the whole of his narration, relates fymp- 
toms and futferings, which, as a medical man, he 
could not poiRbly mean to be taken in any other 
fenfe than as effects of pox. He meant to pleafe 
the enemies of poor Bahrdt, knowing that fuch a 
man could have no friends, and being himfelf ig- 
norant of what friendfhip or goodnefs is. The 
fate of this poor creature affected me more than 
any thing I have read of a great while. Ail his 
open enemies put together have not faid fo much 
ill of him as his trulted friend Pott, and another 
confident, whofe name I cannot recolle^l, who 
publiihed in his lifetime an anonymous book call- 
ed Bahrdt with the Iron Brow—^ind this fellov/ 
Jung, under the abfurd majfk of friendfiiip, exhi- 
bited the loathfome car cafe for a florin, like a ma- 
lefactor's at Surgeon's Hall, Such were the fruits 
of the German Union, of that Illumination that 
was to refine the heart of man, and bring to ma- 
turitv the feeds of native virtue, which are choak- 
ed in the hearts of other men by fuperfrition and 
defpotifm. We fee nothing but mutual treachery 
and bafe defertion, 

I do not concern myfelf with the gradual per- 
verlion of Dr. Bahrdt's moral and religious opi- 
nions. But he affe£ted to be the enlightener and 
reformer of mankind; and ailirmed tliat all the 
mifchiefs in life originated from defpotifm fup- 
ported by fuperllition. " In vain," fays he, *' do 
" we complain of the ineiiicacy of religion. All 
" pofitive religion is founded en injuPiice. No 

" Prince 



CHAF. ill. THE GERMAN UNION, 249 

*' Prince has a right to prefcribc or faiKftion zuy 
" fuch iyftem. Nor would he do it, were not 
** the prieils the firmell pillars of his tyranny, 
'' and liiperilition the ilrongeft fetters for hisfub- 
*' jeds. He dares not fnow Religion as (he is — 
*' pure and undefiled — She would charai the eyes 
*' and the hearts of mankind, would immediately 
^' produce true morality, would open the eyes 
*' of freeborn man, would teach him what are 
^'' his rights, and who are his opprtiTors, and 
" Princes would vanifh from the face of the 
** earth." 

Therefore, without troubling ourfelves with. 
the truth or fallehood of his religion of Nature, 
and afTuming it as an indifputable point, that Dr. 
Bahrdt has feen it in this natural and fo efreclive 
purity, it is furely a very pertinent queftion, 
*' Whether has the fight produced on his mind 
*' an effe£t fo far fuperior to the acknow^ledged 
" faintnels of the impreilion of Chriitianity on 
" the bulk of mankind, that it will be prudent to 
" adopt the plan of the German Union, and at 
•*' once put an end to the divifions which fo un- 
" fortunately alienate the minds of profelRng 
" Chriftians from each other ?" The account 
here given of Dr. Bahrdt's life feems to decide 
the quellion. 

But it wall be faid, that I have only related fo 
many inllances of the quarrels of Prieiis and their 
flavilh adherents, with Dr. Bahrdt. Let us view 
him in his ordinary conduct, not as the champion 
and martyr of Illumination, but as an ordinary 
citizen, a hufband, a father, a friend, a teacher 
of youth, a clergyman. 

When Dr. Bahrdt was a parifh-minifler, and pre- 
fident of fome inferior ecclefiailicai diflrid, he u as 
empovv-ered to take off the cenfures of the church 

from 



250 THE GERMAN UNION?. 6HAP. ill, 

from a yoving woman who had born a baflard child. 
By violence he again reduced her to the fame con- 
dition, and efcaped cenfure, by the poor girl's dyini^ 
of a fever before her pregnancy was far advanced, 
or even legally documented. Aifo, on the night of 
the folemn farce of confecrating his Philanthropine, 
he debauched the maid-fervant, who bore twins, and 
gave him up for the father. The thing, I prefume, 
was not judicially proved, otherwi'e he would have 
furely been difgraced ; but it was afterwards made 
evident, by the letters which were found by Pott, 
when he undertook to write his life. A fsries of 
thefe letters had paiTed between him and one Graf, a 
fleward, who was employed by him to give the woman 
the fmall pittance by which {he and the infants were 
maintained. Remonftrances were made when the 
money v;as not advanced ; and there are particular- 
ly letters about the end of I779, which fhow that 
Bahrdc had ceafed giving any thing. On the 
of February 1780, the infants (three years old) were 
taken away in the night, and were found expofed, 
the one at Uffiein, and the other at Worms, many 
miles difiant from each other, and almoft frozen to 
death. The firil was difcovered by its moans, by a 
ftioemaker in a field by the road-fide, about fix in 
the morning; the other was found by two girls be- 
tween the hedges in a lane, fet be'cween two great 
ftones, pall all crying. The poor mother travelled 
up and dovv/n the country in quell of her infants, 
and hearing thefe accounts, found rhem both, and 
took one of them hom.e ; but not being able to main- 
tain both, when Bahrdt's commilTioner refufed con- 
tributing any more, it remained with the good wo- 
man who had taken it in'''^'. 

* This is worfe than RouiTeau's conduct, who only fent hfs 
children to the Foundh'ng hafpit 1, that he might never know 
them again. (See his ConfefTicns,) 

Bahrdt 



6HAP. iii. THE GERMAN UNION. ^^l' 

Bahrdtivas married in 1772, while atGieffen; but 
after vvaliing the greareli part of his wife's little for- 
tune left her by a former hiifband, he was provoked 
by loiing 1000 ilor ins (about lio/. ) in the hands of 
her brother who would not pay it up. After this 
he ufed her very ill, andfpeaks very contemptuouih/-' 
of her in his O'vvn account of his life, callins; her a 
dowdv, jealous, and every thing contemptible. In 
two infamous novels, he exhibits characters, in 
which {he is reprefented in a ir.ofi cruel manner; 
yet this woman (perhaps daring the honey-moon) 
vvas enticed by him one day into the bath, in the 
pond of the garden of the Piiilanthrcpineat Hside- 
ilieinj, and there, in the fight of all the pupils did he 
(alio undreffed) toy vvith his naked wife in the water. 
When at Haile, he ufed the poor woman extremely 
ill, keeping a miflrefs in the houfe, and giving her 
the whole command of the family, while the wiie and 
daughter were confined to a feparate part of it. 
When in prifon at Magdeburgh, the ilrumpet lived 
with him, and bore him two children. -He brought 
them all to his houfe when he was at liberty.' buch 
barbarous ufage made the poor woman at iall leave 
him and live with her brother, llie daughter died 
about a year before him, of an overdofe of laudanum 
given by her father, to procure fletp, when ill of a 
fever. He ended his own v;retched life in the ii^.me 
manner, unable, poor man, lo bear his diilrefs, Vv'ith- 
out the fmailell compuncfiion or forroyv for his con- 
ducl; and the laft thing he did was to fend for a 
bookfeller, (Vipink' of Halle, who had publifhed 
fome of his vile pieces,) and recommend his ilrum- 
pet and her children to his protection, without one 
thought of his injured wife. 

I (hall end my account of this profligate. monfier 
with a fpecimen of his way of uhng his friends. 

'' Of 



25^ 



THE GERMAN UNION. 



CHAP. iiL^ 



" Of all the acquiiitions which I made in Eng- 
land, Mr. — —-(the name appears at full length) 
was the mofl: important. This perfon was ac- 
compliihed in the highed degree. With found- 
judgment, great genius, and correct taile, he was 
pei fedly a man of the world. He was my friend, 
and the only perfon who warmly interefled him- 
felf for my inflitution. To his warm and repeat- 
ed lecommendations I owe all the pupils I got in 
England, and many mou refpedable connedions; 
for he was univerfaliy elieemed as a man of learn- 
ing and of the moil unblemifhed worth. He 
wa'^ my friend, my conductor, and I may fay my 
preferver ; for when I had not bread for two days, 
he took me to his houfe, and fupplied all my 
wants. This gentleman was a clergyman, and had 
a fmall but genteel and feleded congregation, a 
flock which required ftrong food. My friend 
preached to them pure natural religion, and was 
beloved by them. His fermons were excellent, 
and delivered with native energy and grace, be- 
caufe they came from the heart. I had once the 
honour of preaching for him. But what a dif- 
ference—I found myfelf afraid — I feared to fpeak 
too boldly, becaufe I did not know where I was,- 
and thought myfelf fpeaking lo my crouching 
countrymen. But the liberty of England opens 
every heart, and makes it acceihble to morality. 
i can give a very remarkable inil:ance. 
*' The women of the town in London do not, to 
befure, meet with my unqualified approbation in 
all refpeds. But it is impoffible not to be flruck 
with the propriety and decency of their manners, 
fo unlike the clovvnifh impudence of our German 
V'h — . I could not diffinguiih them from modeft 
women, otherwife than by their greater attention 
and eagernefs to (lievv me civility. My friend 

'' ufed 



e.HAP. iii; the German union. 253 



41 
II 

(C 

(I 

iC 

(I 
(I 
ifc 
ic 

41 
«l 

(I 
&( 
(I 
<C 
II 
(I 
(I 
«l 
tl 
41 
4i 
CI 

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(I 



ufed to laugh at my miftakes, and I could not be- 
lieve him when he told me that the lady who had 
kindly fliewed the way to me, a foreigner, was a 
votary of Venus. He maintained that Englifh li- 
berty naturally produced morality and kindnefs. 
I ftill doubted, and- he faid that he would con- 
vince me by my own experience. Thefe girls 
are to be feen in crowds every evening in every 
quarter of the town. Although fome of them 
may not have even a fliift, they come out in the 
evening dreffed like princeffes, in hired clothes, 
which are entrufted to them without anv fear of 
their making off vvith them. Their fine fhape, 
their beautiful fkin, and dark brown hair, their 
bofoms, fo prettily fet off by their black filk drefs, 
and above all, the gentle fweetnefs of their man- 
ners, makes an imprellion in the higheft degree 
favourable to them. They civilly offer their arm 
and fay, '' My dear, will you give me a glafs of 
wine." If you give them no eiKouragement, they 
pafs on, and give no farther trouble, I went with 
my friend to Covent Garden, and after admiring 
the innumerable beauties we faw in the piazzas, 
we gave our arm to three very agreeable girls, and 
immediately turned into a temple of the Cythere- 
an Goddefs, which is to be found at every fecond 
door in the city, and were (hewn into a parlour 
elegantly carpeted and furniflied, and lighted with 
wax, with every other accommodation at hand. — 
My friend called for a pint of wine, and this wa5i 
all the expence for which we received fo much 
civility. The converfation and other behaviour 
of the ladies was agreeable in the higheff degree, 
and not a zc;(5rJ palled that would have dillinguifti- 
ed them from nuns, or that was not in the higheft 
degree mannerly and elegant. We parted in the 
llreet—and fuch is the liberty of England, that 

Q I "■ iny 



» 



2^^ THE GERMAN UNION. CHAP. UI. 

" my friend ran not the fmalleD: riHc of fuffering ei- 
" tber in his honour or ufefuinefs. — Such is the ef- 
'' fed of freedom." 

We may be fure, the poor man was afionifhed 
when he favv his name before the public as one of the 
enlighteners of Chriftian Europe. He is really a 
man of worth, and of the moli irreproachable chat 
rader, and knew that whatever might be the protec- 
tion of BritiOi liberty, fuch condudl would ruin him 
with his own hearers, and in the minds of all his re- 
fpedabie country mm. He therefore fent a vindica- 
tion of his charader from this flanderous abufe to the 
publifhers of the principal newfpapers and literary 
journals in Germany. The vindication is complete, 
and B. is convided of having related what he could 
7iot pojjlbly have feen, Ic is worthy of remark, that 
the vindication did not appear in the Berlin Monat- 
Ichfift^ nor- in any of the journals which made favor- 
able mention of the performances of the Enlight- 
eners. 

** Think not, indignant reader,^' fays Arbuthnot, 
'' that this man's life is uieleis to mortals." It fliews 
in a ftrong light the faliity of all his declamations in 
favour of his fo much praifed natural religion and 
univerfal kindnefs and humanity. No man of the 
party writes with more perfuafive energy, and, 
though his petulance and precipitant felf-conceit 
lead him frequently aflray, no man has occafionally 
put all the arguments of thefe philofophers in a 
clearer light ; yet we fee that all is falie and hollow. 
He is a vile hypocrite, and the real aim of all his 
writings is to m/ake money, by foitering the fenfual 
propenhties of human nature, although he fees and 
feels that the completion of the plan of the German 
Union would be an event more dcftrudtive and la- 
mentable than any that can be pointed out in the an- 
nals of 111 per Hit ion. I will not favthat all partifans 

of 



CUAF. iii. THE GERMAN UNION. 255 

of Illiunination are hogs of the fty of Epicurus like 
this wretch. But the reader muO acknowledge that, 
in the inllitution of Weifhaupt, there is the fame 
train of fenfual indulgence laid afong the whole, and 
that purity of heart and life is no part of the morali- 
ty that is held forth as the perfedion of human na- 
ture. The final abolition of Chrlllianity is undoubt- 
edly one of its objecls— whether as an end of their 
efforts, or as a mean for the attamment of fome end 
Hill more important. Parity of heart is perhaps the 
moft diftindive feature of Chriilian morality. Of 
this Dr. Bahrdt feems to have had no conception; 
and his inliitution, as well as his writings, fhew hira 
to have been a very cuarfe fenfualift. But his tafie, 
though coai'fe, accorded with wh^t Weifhaupt confi- 
dered as a ruling propenfity, by which he had the beft 
chance of fecuring the fidelity of his fubjeds. — Cra- 
ving deiires, beyond the bonds of our means, were 
the natural confequences of indulgence ; and fince 
the purity of Chriilian morality ftood in his way, his 
firft care was to clear the road by rooting it out alto- 
gether — What can follow but general difTolutenefs 
of manners ? 

Nothing can more diftindly prove the crooked 
politics of the Reformers than this. It may be 
confidered as the main-{|3ring of tlieir whole ma- 
chine. Tbsir pupils were to be led by means of 
their fenfual appetites, and the aim of their con- 
dudors was not to inform them, but merely to 
lead them ; not to reform, but to rule the world, 
—They \vould reign, though in hell, rather than 
ferve in heaven. — Dr. Bahrdt was a true Apoflle 
of llluminatifm ; and though his torch was m.adc 
of the grofTeft materials, and " lerved only to dif- 
*' cover fights of woe," the horrid glare darted 
into every corner, roufmg hundreds of filthy ver- 
min, and direding their flight to the rotten car- 



rion 



256 THE GERMAN UNION, CHAP, ill, 

rion where they could beft depofit their poiion 
and their eggs ; in the breafts, to wit, of the ien- 
fual and profligate, there to feOer and burit forth 
in a new and filthy progeny ; and it is afLonin-'ing 
what numbers were thus roufed into adlion. Tne 
fcheme of Reading Societies had taken prodigi- 
oufly, and became a very profitable part of the 
literary trade of Germany. The bookfellers and 
writers foon perceived its importance, and afted 
in concert. 

I might iill a volume with extrads from the 
criticifms which were publiihed on the Religion 
Edidl fo often mentioned already. The Leipzig 
catalogue for one year contained 173. Although 
it concerned the Prullian States alone, thefe ap- 
peared in every corner of Germany; nay, alfo in 
Holland, in Flanders, in Hungary, in Switzerland, 
in Courland. and in Livonia. This fliows it to 
have been the operation of an Aflbciated Band, 
as was intim.ated to the King, with fo much pe- 
tulance by Mirabeau. There was (pail all doubt) 
fuch a combination among the innumerable fcrib- 
blers w^ho fupplied the fairs of Leipzig and Frank- 
fort. Mirabeau calls it a Conjuration des Philojo- 
pkes^ an expreffion very clear to himlclf, for the 
myriads of gareteeis who have long fed the crav- 
ing mouth of Paris ('' always thirfting after fome 
^' new thing'') called themfelves philofophers, 
and, like the gangs of St, Giles's, converfed with 
each other in a cant of their own, full pf morale^ 
of energie^ of bienvillance^ &c. &c. c^c, unintel- 
ligible or mifunderftood by other men, and ufed 
for the purpofe of deceit. While Mirabeau lived 
too, they formed a Ccnjuration, The J4th of July 
1790, the moil folemn invocation of the Divine 
pretence ever made on the face of this earth, put 
gn end to the propriety of this appellation; for it 

became 



eHAP. ill. THE GERMAN UNION. *X^'J 

became neceiTary (in the progrefs of political Il- 
lumination) to declare that oaths were nonfenfe, 
becaiife the invoked wss a creature of the imai^i- 

■•--3 

nation, and the grand federation, like VVieiliaiipt 
and Bahrdt's Mafonic Chriftianity, is declared, to 
thofe initiated into the higher myfteries, to be a 
lie. But if we liave no longer a Conjiircition des 
Philofopkes^ we have a gang of fcribblers that has 
got poiTeilion of the public rnind by their ma- 
nagement of the literary Journals of Germany, 
and have made licentious fcntiments in politics, 
jn morals, and in religion, as familiar as were for- 
merly the articles of ordinary news. All the fcep- 
tical writings of England put together will not 
make half the number that have appeared in Pro- 
teftant Germany during tlie laft twelve or fifteen 
years. And, in the Criticifms on the Edid, it is 
hard to fay whether infidelity or difloyalty fills 
the mod pages. 

To fuch a degree had the Illuminati carried 
this favourite and important point that they ob- 
tained the direction even of thole whofe office it 
vv^as to prevent it. There is at Vienna, as at Ber- 
lin, an otiice for examining and licenfing writings 
before they can have their courfe in the market. 
This ofdce pcbliihes annually an index of forbid- 
den books. In this index are included the accouut 
of the laft Operations of Spartacus and Philo in 
the Order of Illuminati^ and a difTertation on The 
Final OverthroTu of Free Majonry^ a moil excel- 
lent performance, fliowing the gradual corruption 
and final pefverfion of that fociety to a ieminary 
of fedition. Alfo the Vienna Magazine of Litera- 
ture and Arts^ which contains many accounts of 
the interferences of the Illuminati in the difturb- 
ances of Europe. The Cenfor who occaiioned 
this prohibition was an Illuminatus named Retzer. 

He 



25^ THE GERMAN UNION. CHAP, lli, 

He makes a mod pitiful and jefr.itical defence, 
fliowing bimfelf completely veriant in ^11 the chi- 
cane of the Ilhimhiati^ and devoted to their In- 
fidel principles. (See Rel, Begebtnh, 1795, p. 

493') 

There are two performances which give us 

much information refpecling the ilate of moral 
and political opinions in Germany about this time. 
One of them is called, Proofs of a hidden Ccmbina- 
tion to deflroy the Freedom of Thought and PFrit- 
ing in Germany, Thefe proofs are general, taken 
from many concurring circumftances in the con- 
dition of German literature. They are convinc- 
ing to a thinking mind, but arc too abftracled to 
be very impreilive on ordinary readers. The 
other is the Appeal to my Country^ which I men- 
tioned in page 84. This is much more driking, 
and in each branch of literature, gives a progrel- 
live account of the changes of fentiment, ail flip- 
ported by the evidence of the books themfelves. 
The author puts it pad contradiftion, that in 
every fpccies of literary compofition into which it 
was polSble, without palpable abiurdity, to intro- 
duce licentious and feditious principles, it was 
done. Many romances, novels, journeys through 
Germany and other countries*, are written i^vxx 
purpofe to attach praife or reproach to certain 
ientiments, charafters, and pieces of conduft. The 
Prince, the nobleman, is made deipotic, opprci- 
five, unfeeling or ridiculous— the poor, and the 
man of talents, are unfortunate iind. negletled— 
and here and there a fidlitious Gralf><)r Baron is 

* A plan adopted within thefe few years in our own country, 
which, if profecuted with the fame induilry with wlilch it has 
been begun, will foon render our circulating I^ibrarles fo many 
Nurferies of Sedition aud Impiety. (See Travels into Germany 
by Efte.) 

. made 



CHAP. iii. THE GERMAN UNION. 2^g 

made a divinity, by philanthropy cxprefTed in ro- 
mantic charity and kindnefs, or olleritatious indif- 
ference for the Jittle honours w hich are fo preci- 
ous in the eyes of a German. — In iliort, the fyf- 
tem of Wei(haupt and Knigge is carried into vi- 
gorous efFc<^l over all. In both thtfe performances, 
and indeed in a vaft number of other pieces, I fee 
that the influence of Nicholai is much comment- 
ed on, and confidered as having had the chief 
hand in all thofe innovations. 

Thus I think it clearly appears, that the fup- 
preirion of the llluminati. in Bavaria and of the 
Union in Branden burgh, were infufticient for re- 
moving the evils which they had introduced. The 
Elettor of Bavaria was obliged to iiTue another 
proclamation in Novem^ber 1790, warning his 
fubje^ls of their repeated machinations, and par- 
ticularly enjoining the m.agiClrates to obferve 
carefully the afTemblies in the Pveading Societies, 
which were multiplying in his States. A fimilar 
proclamation was made and repeated by the Re- 
gency of Hanover, and it was on this occafion 
that Mauvillon impudently avowed the mod anar- 
chical opinions. — But Weifliaupt and his agents 
were (lill bufy and fuccefsful. The habit of plot- 
ting had formed itfelf into a regular fyflem. So- 
cieties now afted every where in fecret, in cor- 
refpondence with fimilar focietles in other places. 
And thus a mode of co-operation was furnilhed to 
the difcontented, the reillers, and the unprincipled 
in all places, without even the trouble of formal 
initiations, ?.nd without any external appearances 
by vv'hich the exigence and occupations of the 
members could be diftinguiPaed. The hydra's 
teeth were already fcjwn, and each grew up, in- 
dependent c»f the reil, and foon fent out its own 
offsets. — In all places where fuch fecret pradtices 

were 



* 



26o THE GERiMAN UNION. CHAP ill* 

< 

were going on, there did not fail to appear fome 
individuals of more than common zeal and afti- 
vity, who took the lead, each in his own circle. 
This gave a confiftency and unity to the opera- 
tions of the reft, and they, encouraged by this co- 
operation, couid now attempt things whicli they 
would not other wife have ventured on. It is not 
till this ftate of things obtains, that this influence 
becomes fenfible to the public. Philo, in his pub- 
lic declaration, unwarily lets this appear. Speak- 
in<r of the numerons little focieties in which their 
principles were cultivated, he fays, " we thus be- 
" gin to be formidable.'* It may now alarm — but 
it is now too late. The fame germ is now fprout- 
ing in another place. 

I mufl not forget to take notice that about this 
time (17B7 or 1788,) there appeared an invitation 

from a Baron or Prince S , Governor of the 

Dutch fortrefs H , before the troubles in Hol- 
land, to form a fociety/(?r the Protection of Princes, 
— The plan is expreifed in very enigmatical terms, 
but fuch as plainly (hew it to be merely an odd title, 
to catch the public eye ; for the Affociation is of the 
fame feditious kind with all thofe already fpoken of, 
viz. profeffing to enlighten the minds of men, and 
making them imagine that all their hardihips proceed 
from fuperflition, which fubjeds them to ufelefsand 
crafty prieds ; and from their own indolence and 
Vv'ant of patrioiifm, which make them fubmit to the 
mal-adminillration of miniilers. The Sovereign is 
fuppofed to be innocent, but to be a cypher, and 
every magiftrate, who is not chofen by the people 
actually under him, is held to be a defpot, and is to be 
bound hand and foot. — Many circumilances concur 
to prove that the projedor of this infidious plan is 
the Prince Salms, who {^ aifiduoufly fomented ail 
the diilurbances in the Dutch and Audrian Nether- 
lands. 



CHAP. ilL TH£ GURMAN U^ION. tQl 

lands. He had, before this time, taken into his 
fervice Zwack, the Gato of the Illuminati. The 
projed had gone fome length when it was difcovered 
and fuppreded by the States. 

Zimmerman, who had been Prefident of the Illu- 
minati in Manheim, was alfo a mofl: active perfon 
in propagating their dodrines in other countries. 
He was employed as a miffionary, and ere^ed fome 
Lodges even in Rome — alfo at Neufchatel — and in 
Hungary. He was frequently feen in the latter 
place by a gentleman of my acquaintance, and 
preached up all the oftenfible dodrines of IHumina- 
tifm in the moft public manner, and made many 
profelytes. But when it v/as difcovered that the r 
real and fundamental dodrines were different from 
thofe which he profeffed in order to draw in profe- 
lytes, Zimmerman left the country in hafte. — Some 
time after this he was arreted in Pruffia forfeditious 
harangues— but he efcaped, and has not been heard 
of fince. — When he was in Hungary he boaffed of 
having ereded above an hundred Lodges *n dif- 
ferent parts of Europe, fome of which were in 
England, 



That the Illumhiati and other hidden Cofmo-po- 
litical focieties had fome influence in bringing about 
the French Revolution, or at leall in accelerating it, 
can hardly be doubted, Iti reading the fecret cor- 
refpondence, I was always furprifed at not finding 
any reports from France, and fomething like a hefi- 
tation about eftablifhing a milTion there ; nor am I 
yet able thoroughly to account for it. But there is 
abundant evidence-that they interfered, both in pre- 
paring for it in the fame manner as in Germany, and 
in accelerating its progre/fs. Some letters in the 

% K Brunfwick 



262 THE GERMAN UNION. CHAP. iiL 

Brunfvvick Journal from one Campe^ who was an in- 
fpedor of the feminaries of education, a man of 
talents, and an Illuminatus^ put it beyond doubt. 
He was refiding in Paris during its firfi: movements, 
and gives a minute account of them, lamenting 
their exceffes, on account of their imprudence, and 
the rifk of {hocking the nation, and thus deftroying 
the projed, but juftifying the motives, on the true 
principles of Cofmo-politifm. The Vienna Zeit- 
ichrift and the Magazine of Literature and Fine 
Arts for 1790, and other pamphlets of that date, fay 
the fame thing in a clearer manner. I fhall lay to- 
gether fome paiTages from fuch as I have met with, 
w^hich I think will fhew beyond all poflibility of 
doubt that the IJluminati took an adive part in the 
whole tranfadion, and may be fald to have been its 
chief contrivers. I fhall premife a few obferva- 
tions, which will give a clearer view of the matter. 



f 263 ] 

CHAP. IV. 

The French Revolutiofj, 



D 



URING thefe diflenfions and dlfcontents, 
3nd this general fermentation of the public mind in 
Germany, political occurrences in France gave ex- 
ercife and full fcope for the operation of that fpirit 
of revolt which had long growled in fecret in the 
different corners of that great empire. The Cof- 
mo-political and fceptical opinions and fentiments 
fo much cultivated in all the Lodges of the Phila- 
' lethes had by this time been openly profefled by ma- 
ny of the fages of France, and artfully interwoven 
with their flatiftical economics* The many contelts 
between the King and the Parliament of Paris about 
the regiftration of his edids, had given occaiion to 
much difcufFion, and had made the public familiar- 
ly acquainted with topics altogether unfuitable to 
the abfojute monarchy of France. 

This acquaintance with the natural expedations 
of the fubjecfl, and the expediency of a candid at- 
tention on the part of Government to thefe expec- 
tations, and a view of Legiflation and Government 
founded on a very liberal interpretation of all thefe 
things, was prodigioufly promoted by the raCh inter- 
ference of France in the difpute between Great 
Britain and her colonies. In this attempt to ruin 
Britain, even the court of France was obliged to 
preach the dodrines of Liberty, and to take its chance 
that Frenchman would confent to be the only flaves. 
But their officers and foldiers, who returned from 
America, imported the z\merican principles, and in 
every company found hearers who liftened with de- 
light and regret to their fafcinating tale of American 

independence* 



*S54 THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. GHAP. IV^ 

independence. During the war, the Minifter, who 
had too confidently pledged himfelf for the deilruc- 
tion of Britain, was obliged to allow the Parifians to 
amufe themfelves with theatrical entertainments, 
where Englifh law was reprefented as oppreirion,and 
every fretful extravagance of the Americans was 
applauded as a noble flruggle for native freedom.-^. 
All wiil:ied for a tafte of that liberty and equality 
which they were allowed to applaud on the ftage ; 
but as foon as they came from the theatre into the 
ftreet, they found themfelves under all their former 
reftraints. The fweet charm had found its way in- 
to their hearts, and all the luxuries of France be- 
came as dull as common life does to a fond girl wheq 
fhe lays down her novel. 

in this irritable fla*-e of mind a fpark was fuffi- 
clent for kindling a flame. To import this dange- 
rous delicacy of American growth, France had ex- 
pended many millions, and was drowned in debts. 
The mad prodigality of the Royal Family and the 
Court had drained the treafury, and foreflalled every 
livreof the revenue. The edids for new taxes and 
forced loans were mofi: unwelcome and opprefQve. 

The Avocats au parlemenf had nothing to do with 
flate-affairs, being very little more than barriflers in 
the highefl court of jullice ; and the highef}" claim 
of the Prelidents of this court was to be a fort of 
humble counfcllors to the King in common matters. 
Jt Vi^as a very flrange inconfiflency in that ingenious 
nation to permit fuch people to touch on thole flate- 
fubjeds ; for, in f^^, tht King of Fi ance v/as an 
abfolute Monarch, ghd the fubjeds were flaves. This 
is the refuit of all their painful refearch, notwith- 
flanding that glimmerings of natural juflice and 
of freedom are to be met with in their records. 
There could not be found in their hifiory io 
much as a tolerable account of the manner of 

calling 



^HAP. iV. THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. t6j 

calling the nation together, to learn from the people 
how their chains would bell: pleafe their fancy. Bat 
jail this was againil nature, and it was neceffary that 
it fhould come to an end, the firft time that the mo- 
narch confeiTed that he could not do every thing 
unlefs they put the tools into his hands. As things 
were approaching gradually but rapidly to this con- 
dition, the impertinent interference (for fo a French- 
man, fubjed of the Grand Monarch, miijl think it) 
of the advocates of the Parliament of Paris was popu- 
lar in the higheft degree ; and it m.uft be confelled, 
that in general it v/as patriotic, however inconfiftent 
with the conflitution. They fek themfelves plead- 
ing the caufe of humanity and natural juflice. This 
would embolden honefi: and worthy men to fpeak 
truth, however unwelcome to the court. In gene- 
ral, it mud alfo be granted that they fpoke with cau- 
tion and with refped to the fovereign powers ; and 
they had frequently the pleafure of being the means 
of mitigating the burdens of the people. The Par- 
liament of Paris, by this condud, came to be, looked 
up to as a fort of mediator between the King and his 
fubjeds ; and as the avocats faw this, they naturally 
rofe in their own eflimation far above the rank in 
which the conftitution of their government had pla- 
ced them. For it mull: always be kept in mind, that 
the robe v/as never coniidered as the drefs of a No- 
bleman, although the cafTock was. An advocate was 
merely not a rotourier ; and though we can hardly 
conceive a profeflion more truly honourable than 
the difpenfmg of diflributive juftice, nor any Ikili 
more congenial to a rational mind than that of the 
praclical morality which v/e, in theory, confider as 
the light by which they are always conducted ; and 
although even the artificial conititution of France 
had long been obliged to bow to the didates of na- 
ture and humanity, and confer nobility, and even 

title. 



tSG THE FRENCH REVOLUTIONT. GHA?. ItT. 

title, on fuch of the profeflTors of the municipal law 
as had, by their (kill and their honourable charader, 
rifen to the firil: offices of their profefTion, yet the 
Nobleile de la Robe never could incorporate with 
the NobleiTe du Sang, nor even with the Noblefle de 
I'Epee. The defcendants of a Marquis de la Robe 
never could rife to certain dignities in the church 
and at court. The avocats de la parlement felt this, 
and fmarted under the exclulion from court- 
honours ; and though they eagerly courted fuch no- 
bility as they could attain, they feldom omitted any 
opportunity that occurred during their junior prac- 
tice, of expofing the arrogance of the NoblefTe, and 
the dominion of the court. This increafed their 
popularity, and in the prefent fituation of things, 
being certain of fupport, they went beyond their 
former cautious bounds, and introduced in their 
pleadings, and particularly in their joint remon- 
Frances againft the regiftration of edids, ail the wire- 
drawn morality, and cofmo-political jurifprudencc, 
w4iich they had fo often rehearfed in the Lodges, 
and which had of late been openly preached by the 
economifls and philofophers. 

A fignal was given to the nation for engaging " eH 
maffe" in political difculTion. The Notables were 
called upon to come and advife the King ; and the 
points were laid before them, in which his Majefty, 
(infallible till now)acknowledgedhis ignoranceorhis 
doubts. Biitwhovvere the Notables? Were they more 
knowing than the King, or lefs in need of inflrudion? 
The nation thought otherwife; nay, the court thought 
otherv^ife; for in fome of the royal proclamations on 
this occaiion, men of letters were invited to affifl; with 
theircounfels, and togive what information their read- 
ing and experience fhould fuggeft as to the befl me- 
thod of convoking the States General, and of con- 
dueling their deliberations. When a Minifler thus 

folic^ts 



^HAP. IV. THE FRENCH KEVOLUtlONi ^gy. 

folicits advice from all the world how to govern, he 
moil: aflTuredly declares his own incapacity, and tells 
the people that now they muft govern themfelves. 
This however was done, and the Minifler, IN'eckar 
the Philofopher and Philanthropifl: of Geneva, fet 
the example, by fending in his opinion, to be laid on 
the council-table with the reft. On this fignal, coun- 
fel poured in from every garret, and the prefs 
groaned with advice in every ftiape. Ponderous 
volumes were written for the Bifhop or the Duke ; 
a handfome 8vo for the Notable Officer of eigh- 
teen ; pamphlets and fingle (lieets for the loungers 
in the Palais' Royal, The fermentation was afto- 
nifliing ; but it was no rnorc than fliould have been 
expected from the moll cultivated, the moft inge- 
liious, and the lead baQiful nation on earth. All 
wrote, and all read. Not contented with bringing 
forth all the fruits which the Illumination of theic 
bright days of reafon had raifed in fuch abund^ 
ance in the coniervatories of the Pliilahthes^ and 
which had been gathered from the writings of 
Voltaire, Diderot, Koulieau, Tlajnah &c. the pa- 
triotic counfellors of the Notables had ranfacked 
all the writings of former ages. They difcovered 
THAT France had alv/ays been free ! One 
would have thought, that they had travelled with 
Sir John Mandeviile in that country v^^here even 
the fpeechesof former times had been frozen, and 
were now thawing apace under the beams of the 
fun of Reafon. For maiiv of thefe eilavs v/ere as 
incongruous and mai a-propos as the broken fen* 
tences recorded by Mr. Addifon in the Spectator. 
A gentleman who was in Paris at this time, a per- 
fon of great judgment, and well informed in every 
thing reipedting the conftitutlon and prefent con- 
dition of his country, aiTured me that this in vita- 
tionj followed by the memorial of Mr. Neckar, 



operated 



268 THE FRENCH REVOLUTIO?:. CHAP. W. 

operated like an electrical (liock. In the courfe of 
four or five days, the appearance of Paris was 
completely changed. Every where one faw crowds 
ftaring at papers palled on the walls — breaking 
into little parties — walking up and down the flreets 
in eager converiation — adjourning to cofFee-houfes 
-—and the converfation in all companies turned to 
politics alone ; and in all thele converfations a new 
vocabulary, where every fecond word was Moral i- 
ty, Philanthropy, Toleration, Freedom^ and Equali- 
fation of property. Even at this early period per- 
fons were liftened to without cenfure, or even 
furprife, who faid that it v/as nonfenfe to think 
of reforming their government, and that it mufl be 
completely changed. In ihort, in the courfe of a 
month, a fpirit of licentioufnefs and a rage for in- 
novation had completely pervaded the minds of 
the Pariflans. The moil confpicuous proof of this 
was the unexpected fate of the Parliament. It met 
earlier than ufual, and to give greater eclat to its 
patriotic efforts, and completely to fecure the gra- 
titude of the people, it itTued an arret on the pre- 
fent ft ate of the nation, containing a number of 
refolutions on the different leading points of na= 
tional liberty. A few months ago thefe would 
have been joyfully received as the Magna Charts 
of Freedom, and really contained all that a wife 
people Pnould defire; but becaufe the Parliament 
had fometime before given it as their opinion as 
the conftitutional counfel of the Crown, that the 
States fnouldbe convoked on the principles of their 
iaft meeting in 1614, which preferved the diftinc- 
tionsof rank, all their pad fervices were forgotten 
• — all tlieir hard ilruggle with the former adrai- 
niftration, and their unconquerable courage and 
perfeverance, which ended only with their down- 
fal, all were forgotten ; and thofe diftinguifhed 

members 



CHAP. iv. THE FRENCH REVOLUTION, t6g 

members whofe zeal and fufFerings ranked them 
with the mod renewed heroes and martyrs of pa- 
triotiiiii, were now regarded as the contemptible 
tools of Ariilocracy. The Parliament now let, in 
a fiery troubled (ley — to rile no more. 

Of all the barrillers in the Parliament of Paris, 
the mod confpicuous for the difplay of the en- 
chanting doctrines of Liberty and Equality was 
Mr. Duval, fon of aft Avocat in the faixie court, 
and ennobled about this time under the name of 
Defpt-ernienil. He was member of a Lodge of the 
^w/V Reunis at Paris, called the Contract Social ^ 
and of the Lodge of Chevaliers Bienfaifants at 
Lyons. His reputation as a barrifter had been pro- 
digioufly increafed about this time by his manage- 
ment of a caufe, where the defceitdant of the un- 
fortunate General Laily, after having obtained 
the reftoration of the family honours, was flriv- 
ing to get back fome of the eftates. Mr. Lally 
Tollendahl had even trained himfeir to the pro- 
feffion, and pleaded his own caufe with aftonifli* 
ing abilities. But Defprefmenil had near connec- 
tions with the family which was in pofleffion of 
the ePjates, and oppofed him with equal powers, 
and more addrefs. He was on the fide whicii was 
moft agreeable to his favourite topics of declama- 
tion, and his pleadings attracted much notice both 
in Paris and in fome of the provincial Parliaments, 
I mention thefe things with fome intereil, becaufe 
this was the beginning of that marked rivalfaip 
betv/een Lally Tollendahl and Defprefmenil, which 
made fuch a {ignre in the Journals of ihe National 
Affembly. It ended fatally for both. Lally Tol- 
lendahl was obliged to quit the Affembly, when 
he faw it determined on the deitru(fdon of the 
monarchy and of all civil order, and at lail to 
emigrate from his country with the lofs of all his 

1 L property, 



27b THE FRENCH t^EVOLUTIOM. CHAP. IT* 

property, and to fablift on the kindnefs of Eng- 
land. Dfeprefmenil attained his meridian of po- 
pularity by his difcovery of the fecret plan of the 
Court to eftabliih the Cour p/em'ere, and ever after 
this took the lead in all the (Irong meafures of the 
Parliament of Paris, which was now ovcrftepping 
all bounds of moderation or propriety, in hopes 
of preferving its influence after it had rendered 
itfelf impotent by an unguarded ilroke. Dcfpref- 
menil was the lirll martyr of that Liberty and 
Equality w^iich it was now boldly preaching,, 
having voluntarily furrendered himfelf a prifoncr 
to the officer fent to demand him from the Par- 
liament. He was alfo a martyr to any thing that 
remained of the very (liadow of liberty after the 
Revolution, being guillotined by Robefpierre, 

I have already mentioned the intrigues of Count 
Mirabeau at the Court of Berlin, and his fedi- 
tious preface and notes on the anonymous letters 
on the Fvights of the Pruffian States. He alfo, 
while at Berlin, publiflied an EJjai fur la SeCie des 
Illumines^ one of the ftrangelt and moft impu- 
dent performances that ever appeared. He there 
defcribes a feft exifting in Germany, called the 
Illuminated^ and fays, that they are the mod ab- 
furd and grofs fanatics imaginable, waging war 
with every appearance of Reafon, and maintain^ 
ing the moft ridiculous fuperftitions. He gives 
fome account of thefe, and of their rituals, cere- 
monies, Scz, as if he had feen them all. His fedl 
is a Gonfufed mixture of Chriftian fnperflitions, 
Rofycrucian nonfenfe, and every thing that can 
raile contempt and hatred. But no ibch Society 
ever exifted, and Mirabeau confided in his own 
powers of deception, in order to icreen from ob- 
lervation thofe who were known to be Uluminati, 
and to hinder the rulers from attending to their 

real 



CHAP. iv. THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. ^^1 

real machinations, by means of this Ignis fatuus 
of his own brain. He knew perfecliy that the II- 
luminati were of a ftamp diametrically oppofite ; 
for he was ilkuninated by Mauvillon long before. 
He gained his point in fome meafare, for Nicho- 
Jai and others of the junto immediately adopted 
the whim, and called them Ohjcurantem^ and 
joined with Mirabeau in placing on the lift oiOh- 
fcuraiiiem feveral perfons whom they wilhed to 
make ridiculous. 

Mirabeau was not more difcontentcd with the 
Court of Berlin for the fmail regard it had teftifi- 
ed for his eminent talents, than he was with his 
own Court, or rather with the minifter Calonne, 
who had fent him thither, Calonne had been 
greatly diffatisfied with his condudt at Berlin, 
where his felf-conceit, and his private proje(Sts, 
had made him adl in a way almoft contrary to the 
purpofes of his miffion. Mirabeau was therefore 
in a rage at the minifter, and publilbed a pam- 
phlet, in which his celebrated memorial on the 
ftate of the nation, and the means of relieving it, 
was treated with the utmoft leverity of reproach; 
and in this conteft his mind was wrought up to 
that violent pitch of oppofition which he ever af- 
ter maintained. To be noticed, and to lead, were 
hisfole objcfts — and he found, that taking the fide 
of the difcontentcd was the beft field for his elo« 
quencc and reftlefs ambition. — Yet there was no 
man that was more devoted to the principles of a 
court than count Mirabeau, provided he had a 
fhare in the adminiftration ; and he would have 
obtained it, if any thing moderate would have 
fatisfied him — but he thought nothing worthy of 
him but a place of aftive truft, and a high de- 
partment. For fuch offices all knew him to be to- 
tally unfit. He wanted knowledge of great things, 

and 



»;, 



%■ 



^72 THE FRENCH KEVOEUTION; . CHAP. Ivv 

and v/as learned only in the buflling detail of in- 
trigue, and at any time would facrifice every 
thing to have an opportunity of exercifmg his 
brilliant eloquence, and indulging his pallion for 
fatire and reproach,— The greateit obftacle to his 
advancement was the abject worthleiTnefs of his 
character. What we uiually call profligacy, viz. 
debauchery, gaming, impiety, and every kind of 
fenluality, were not enough— he was deftitute of 
decency in his vices- — tricks which would difgrace 
a thief-catcher, were never boggled at in order to 
fupply his expences. For inftance, — His father and 
mother had a procefs of feparation— Mirabeau had 
juft been liberated from prifon for a grofs mifde- 
meanour, and was in want of money— He went 
to his father, fidcd with him in invectives againll 
his mother, and, for loo guineas, wrote his fa- 
ther's memorial for the court. — He then went to 
his mother, and by a fimilar conduCI got the ftm.e 
fum from her — and both memorials were prefent- 
ed. Drinking was the only vice in which he did 
not indulge — his exhaufted conititution did not 
permit it. His brother, the Vifcount, on the con- 
trary, was apt to exceed in jollity. One day the 
Count fald to him, " How can you, Brother, fo 
" expofe yourfelf ?'' *« What !'* lays the Vif- 
count, '' ho\v inlatiable you are Nature has 

" given you every vice, and having left me only 
*' this one, you grudge it me." — When the elec- 
tions were making for the States-General, he of- 
fered himieit a candidate in his own order at Aix 
— But he was fo abhorred by the Nobleflb, that 
they not only rejected him but even drove him 
from their meetings. This affront fettled his mea- 
fures, and he detrrmined on their ruin. He went 
to the Commons, diiclaimed his being a gentle- 
man, fat up a little fliop in the market place of 

Aix 



CHAP. iv. THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. 273 

Aix, and fold trifles — and now, fully refolved what 
line he (hould purfue, he courted the Commons, 
by joining in all their cxccfTes againfh the No- 
blefle, and was at laft returned a member of tke 
Ail'embiy. 

From this account of Mirabeau we can eafily 
forctel the ufe he v/ould make of the Illumination 
which he had received in Germanv. Its p-rand 
truths and jull morality feem to have had the 
fame effe6ls on his mind as on that of Weifnaupt 
or Bahrdt. 

In the year 1*^68, Mirabeau, in conjunction 
with the duke de Lauzun and the Abbe Perigord^ 
afterwards Bifhop of Autun (the man ib puffed in 
the National AiTemblies as the brighteft pattern of 
humanity) reformed a Lodge of Philalethes in 
Paris, which met in the Jacobin College or Con- 
vent. It was one of the Amis Reunis^ which had 
now rid itfelf of all the inlignilicant myiHcifm of 
the fedt. This was now become troublefome, and 
took up the time which would be much better 
employed by the Chevaliers du Soliel^ and other 
flill more refined champions of reafon and uni- 
verfal citizenfliip, Mirabeau had imparted to it 
fbme of that Illumination which had beamed up- 
on him when he was in Berlin. In 1788, he and 
the Abbe were wardens of the lodge. 1 hey found 
that they had not acquired all the dexterity of 
management that he underftood was pradtifed by 
his Brethren in Germany, for keeping up their 
connedtion, and conducing their corefpondence. 
A letter was therefore fent from this Lodge, lign- 
ed by thefe two gentlemen, to the Brethren in 
Germany, requefting their ailiilance and infcruc- 
tion. In the courfe of this year, and during the 
fitting of the Notables, a deputation was sent 
from the German Illuminati to catch this gloria 

ous 



274 THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. CHAP, iv^ 

ous opportunity of carrying their plan into fall 
execution with the greatefl eclat. 

Nothing can more convincingly demonftratc 
the early intentions of a party, and this a great 
party, in France to overturn the conftitution com- 
pletely, and plant a democracy or oligarchy on 
its ruins. The Illuminati had no other objed:. — - 
They accounted all Princes ufurpers and tyrants, 
and all privileged orders their abettors. They in- 
tended to ellabliih a government of Morality, as 
they called it, ( Sitte?iregiment ) where talents and 
character (to be eflimated by their own fcalc, and 
by themfeives) fliould alone lead to preferment. 
They meant to abolidi the laws which protected 
property accumulated by long continued and fuc- 
cefsful induftry, and to prevent for the future any 
fuch accumulation. They intended to eftabliOi 
univerfal Liberty and Equality, the imprefcripti- 
ble Rights of Man, (at lead they pretended all 
this to thofe who were neither Magi or Kegentes.) 
And, as neceifary preparations for all this, they 
intended to root out all religion and ordinary mo- 
rality, and even to break the bonds of domeftic 
life, by deftroying the veneration for marriage- 
vows, and by taking the education of children 
out of the hands of the parents. Tkis was all that 
the Illuminati could teach^ and this was pre- 
cisely WHAT FRANCE HAS DONE. 

I cannot proceed in the narration without de- 
filing the page with the detelled name of Orleans^ 
ftained with every thing that can degrade or difgrace 
human nature. He only wanted Illumination, to 
(hew him in a fyliem all the opinions, difpofitions, 
and principles which filled his own wicked heart. 
This contemptible being was ilhiminated by Mira- 
beau, and has (hown himfelt" the mod zealous dif- 
ciple of the Order. In his oath of allegiance he 

declares 



CiiAP. iv. THE FRENCH REVOLUTION, 275 

declares, " That the interefls and the objed of the 
" Order (hall be rated bv him above all other reia- 
*' tions, and that he will ferve it with his hoiiour, 
'* his fortune, and his blood. "< — He has kept his 
word, and has facrificed them all — And he has been 
treated in the true ipirit of the Order — uled as a 
mere tool, cheated and ruined. — For I mult now 
add, that the French borrowed from the Illuminati a 
maxim, unheard of in any other alTociation of ban- 
ditti, viz. that of cheating each other. As the ma- 
nagers had the foie poiTeiTion of the higher myfte- 
ries, and led the reil by principles which they held 
to be falfe, and which they employed only for the 
purpofe of fecuring the co-operation of the inferior 
Brethren, fo Mirabeau, Sieyes, Pethicn, and others, 
led the Duke of Orleans at firft by his wicked am- 
bition, and the expectation of obtaining that crown 
which they intended to break in pieces, that they 
might get the ufe of his immenfe fortune, and of 
his influence on the thoufands of his depending 
fycophants, who ate his bread and pandered to his 
grofs appetites. Although we very foon find him 
ading as an Illuminatus^ we cannot fuppofe him fo 
loll to common fenfe as to contribute his fortune, and 
rifk his life, merely in order that the one fhouid be 
afterwards taken from him by law, and the other 
put on a level with that of his groom or his pimp. 
He furely hoped to obtain the crown of his indolent 
relation. And indeed Mirabeau faid to BergalTe, 
that '*" when the projed was mentioned to the Duke 
** of Orleans, he received it with all poffible gra- 
*' cioufnefs," {^avec toute la grace imaginable,^ Dur- 
ing the conteds between the Court and the Parlia- 
ment of Paris, he courted popularity with an inde- 
cency and folly that nothing can explain but a mad 
and fiery ambition which blinded his eyes to all con- 
sequences. This is put out of doubt by his behavi- 
our 



276 THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. CHAP, Wt 

our at Verfailles on the dreadful ^th and 6th of Oc- 
tober, 1789. The depoiiiions at the Chatelet prove 
in the moit inconteilible manner^ that during the 
horrojs of thofe two days he was repeatedly feen, 
and that whenever he was recognized bv the crowd, 
he was huzzaed with Five Orleans^ Five notre Rot 
Orleans^ ^^c, — 'He then withdrew, and was feen in 
other places. While all about the unfortunate Roy- 
al Family were in the utmofl concern for their fate, 
he was in gay humour, chatting on indifferent fub- 
jeds. His lafl appearance in the evening of the 5th 
was about nine o'clock, converfing in a corner with ' 
men difguifed in mean drefs, and fome in women's 
clothes ; among whom were Mirabeau, Barnave, 
Duport, and other deputies of the Republican party 
— and thefe men were feen immediately after, con- 
cealed among the lines of the regiment de Flandre, 
the corruption of which they had that day compleat- 
ed. He was feen again next morning, converfing 
with the fame perfons in women's drefs. And when 
the infulted Sovereign was dragged in triumph to 
Paris, Orleans was again feen (kuiking in a balcony 
behind his children, to view the pi-ocelTion of devils 
and furies ; anxioufly hoping all the while that fome 
difturbance would arife in which the King might 
perifh. — I fhould have added that he was feen in the 
morning at the top of the flairs, pointing the way 
with his hand to the mob, where they fhould go, 
while he went by another road to the King. In 
fhort, he went about trembling like a coward, wait- 
ing for the explofion which might render it fafe for 
him to fliew himfelf. Mirabeau faid of him, '' The 
fellow carries a loaded pillol in his bofom, but will 
never dare to pull the trigger." He was faved, not- 
withllanding his own folly, " by being joined in the 
^xuiation with Mirabeau, who could not refcue him- 
felf without (driving alfo for Orleans, whom he def- 

pifed, 



CHAPi IVo THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. 277. 

pifed, while he made ufe of his fortune. — In fhort, 
Orleans was but half iliuininaied at this time, and 
hoped to be King or Regent, 

Yet he was deeply verfed in the preparatory lef- 
fon- of Iliurniiiatiim, and well convinced of its fun- 
damental truths. He was well allured of the great 
influence of the women in ibciety, and he enjployed 
this influence like a true difciple of Weifhaupt. — 
Above three hundred nyuiphs from the purlieus of 
the Palais Royal were provided vv'ith ecus and Louis 
d'ors, by his grand procureur the Abbe Sieves, and 
w^ere fent to meet and to illuminate tlie two battalions 
of the Regiment de Fiandre, vv^ho were coming to 
Verfailles for the protedion of the Royal Family. 
The privates of one of thefe regiments cam.e and in- 
formed their officers of this attempt made on their 
loyalty, — -45,000!, livres were given them at St. De- 
nys, to make them difband themfelves— and the 
poor lads were at firll dazzled by the name of a fum 
that was not familiar to tbem~but Vv^hen fome think- 
ing head among them told them that it only amount- 
ed to two Louis d'ors a piece, they difclofed the bri- 
bery. They were then offered 90,000, but never 
faw it. (Depolitions at, the Chatelet No. 317.) 
Mademoifelle Therouane, the favonla of the day, 
at the Palais Royal, was the rnofl: adiveperfonof the 
armed mob from Paris, dreffed en Ama%onne^ with 
all the elegance of the opera, and turned many 
young heads that day which were afterwards taken 
off by the guillotine. The Duke of Orleans acknow- 
ledged, before his death, that he had expended above 
50,0001. fterling in corrupting the Gardes Francoifes. 
The armed mob which came from Paris to Verfailles 
on the 5th of OvTtober, importuning the King for 
bread, had their pockets filled with crown pieces — 
and Orleans was leen on that day by two gentlemen, 
with a bag of money fo h.eavy that it was faftened to 

^2 M ' his 



^yS THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. CHAP. iv. 

his clothes with a (Irap, to hinder it from being op- 
preflive, and to keep it in fuch a pofition that it 
Ihould be acceffible in an inilant. (See the Depoii*- 
tionsat the Chatelet, No. 177-) 

But fuch was the contempt into which his grofs 
profligacy, his cowardice, and his niggardly difpofi- 
tion, had brought him with all parties, that, if he 
had not been quite bHnded by his wicked ambition, 
and by his implacable refentment of fome bitter 
taunts he had gotten from the King and Qiieen, he 
mud have feen very early that he was to be facrificed 
as foon as he bad ferved the purpofes of the fadion. 
At prefent, his alTiftance was of the utmoft confe- 
quence. His immenfe fortune, much above three 
millions fterling, was almoil exhaufted during the 
three firft years of the Revolution. But (what was 
of more confequence) he had almoft unbounded 
authority among the Free Mafons. 

In this country we have no conception of the 
authority of a National Grand Mailer. When 
Prince Ferdinand of Brunfwick, by great exertions 
among the jarring feels in Germany, had got hira- 
feif eleded Grand Mailer of the Siri5i Obfervanz^ 
it gave ferious alarm to the Emperor, and to all the 
Princes of Germany, and contributed greatly to 
their connivance at the attempts of the Illumina- 
ti to difcredit that party. In the great cities of 
Germany, the inhabitants paid more refpe£i to the 
Grand Mafter of the Mafoj s than to their refpec- 
tive Princes. The authority of the D. of Orleans 
in France w^as ftill greater, in confequence of his 
employing his fortune to fupport it. About eight 
years before the Revolution he had (not vrithout 
much intrigue and many bribes and promifes) 
been elected Grand Mafter of France, having 
under hisdiredlions all the //;;/'roi;f^ Lodges. The 
whole AfFociation was called the Gra?id Oris?it de 

la 



«HAP. iv. THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. fj^ 

la France^ and in 1785 contained 266 of thefe 
Lodges ; (ice Freymaurerifche Zeitung^ Netiwied 
1787.) Thus he had the management of all thofe 
Secret Societies ; and the licentious and. irreligi- 
ous fentiments which were currently preached 
there, were fure of his hearty concurrence. The 
fame intrigue which procured him the fupreme 
chair, muft have filled the Lodges with his de- 
pendents and emiifaries, and thefe men could not 
bettei earn their pay, than by doing their utmofl 
to propagate inlidclicy, immorality, and impurity 
of manners. 

But Ibmething more was wanted ; Difrefpecfb 
for the higher Orders of the State, and difloyalty 
to the Sovereign. — -it is not fo eafy to conceive 
how thefe fentiments, and particularly the latter, 
could meet with toleration, and even encourage- 
ment, in a nation noted for its profcilions of vene- 
ration for its Monarch, and for the pride of its 
NoblefTe. Yet I am certain that fuch doftrines 
were habitually preached in the Lodges of Phila- 
lethes^ and jimis Reunis de la Verite, That they 
iliouid be very current in Lodges of low-born 
Literati, and other Brethren in inferior flations, 
is natural, and I have already faid enough on this 
head. Bat the French Lodges contained many 
gentlemen in eafy, and affl lent circumftances, I 
do not expedl fuch confideiice in my affertions, that 
even in thefe ^he fame opinions were very preva- 
lent. I was therefore much pleafed with a piece of 
information which I got while thefe fheets were 
printing otf, which corroborates my affertions. 

This is a performance called La voile retiree^ ou le 
Secret de la Revolution expHqtie par la Franc Macon^ 
nerie. It was written bv a Mr. Lefranc, Prefident 
of the Seminary of the Eudijis at Caen in Norman- 
dy, and a fecond edition was publilhed at Paris in 

1792. 



aSo THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. CHAF. iv. 

1 yg2. The author was butchered in the maiTacre of 
September. He fays, that on the death of a friend, 
who had been a very zealous Mafon, and many years 
Mafter of a refpedable Lodge, he found among his 
papers a colle6iion of Maionic writings, containing 
the rituals, catechifms, and fymbols of every kind, 
belonging to a long train of degrees of Free Mafon- 
ry, together with many difcourfes delivered in dif- 
ferent Ledges, and minutes of their proceedings. 
The perufai filled himvyith ailoniihment and anxiety. 
For he found that doctrines were taughc, and maxims 
of conduct were inculcated, which were fubverlive , 
of religion and of all good order in the Hate ; and 
whfch not only countenanced difloyaky and fedition, 
but even invited to it. Lie thoueht them fo danee- 
rous to the Hate, that he lent an account of them to 
the Archbifhop of Paris long before the Revolution, 
and ahvays hoped that that Reverend Prelate Vv^ould 
reprefent the matter to his Majefly's Minjfters, and 
that they would put an end to the meetings of this 
dangerous Societ}^ or would at leail reilrain them 
from fuch excefles. But he v^as difappointed, and 
therefore thought it his duty to lay them before the 
public*. 

Mr, Lefranc fays ervpreisly, that this fnocking 
perverfion of Free Mafonry to fed itious purpoles 

* Had the good man been fpared but a few montlis, his fur- 
prife at this negle6l would have ceafed. For, on the igtU of 
November i 793, the Archbifhop of Paris came to the Bar of the 
Alfembly, accomipanied by his Vicar and eleven other Clergymen, 
who there renounced their Chriltianlty and their clerical vows ; 
acknowledging that they had played the villain for many years 
againft their confclences, teaching what they knew to be a lie, and 
were now refolved to be honeft men. The Vicar indeed had be- 
haved like a true Illuminatus feme time before, by runninof off with 
another man's wife and his ftrong box. — None of them, however, 
feem to have attained the higher myileries, for they were all guil- 
lotined not long after. 

was. 



CHAP. iv. THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. ^8l 

was, in a great meafure, but a late thing, and was 
chiefly brought about by the agents of the Grand 
Mailer, the Duke of Orleans. He was, however, 
of opinion that the v/hole Mafonic Fraternity was 
hoftile to Chriftianity and to good morals, and 
that it was the contrivance of the great ichifmatic 
Fauftus Socinus, w^ho being terrified by the fate of 
Servetus, at Geneva, fell on this method of pro- 
mulgating his doctrines among the great in fecret. 
This opinion is but ill fupported, and is incompa- 
tible vv ith itiany circumliances in Free Mafonry — 
But it is out of our way at prefent. Mr. Lefranc 
then takes particular notice of the many degrees 
of Chivalry cultivated in the Lodges, and iliows 
how, by artful changes in tlie fucceflive explana- 
tions of the fame fymbols, the doctrines of Chrif- 
tianity, and of all revealed religion, are com- 
pletely exploded, and the Philofophe Inconnu be- 
comes at lad a profcfTed Atheiil» — He then takes 
notice of the political doctrines which are in like 
manner gradually unfolded, by which " patriot- 
^' ifm and loyalty to the prince are declared to be 
" narrow principles, inconfiftcnt with univerfal 
*' benevolence, and with the native and impre- 
fcriptible I'ights of man ; civil fubordination is 
a£tuai oppreilion, and Princes are ex officio ufur- 
pers and tyrants.'' Thefe principles he fairly 
deduces from the Catechifms of the Chevalitr du 
Soliel^ and of the Philofophe Inconnu, He then 
proceeds to notice m^ore particularly the intrigues 
of the Duke of Orleans. From thefe it appears evi- 
dent that his ambitious views and hopes had been 
of long Handing, and that it v.^as entirely by his 
fupport and encouragement that feditious doc- 
trines were permitted in the Lodges. Many no- 
blemen and gentlemen were difgupLcd and left 
theie Lodges, and advantage was taken of their 

ablencG 



it, 



282 THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. CHAP, iv.^ 

abfence to improve the Lodges flill more, that is 
to make them ftili more anarchical and feditious. 
Numbers of paltry fcribblers who haunted the 
Palace Royal, were admitted into the Lodges, and 
there vented their poiibnous doctrines. The Duke 
turned his chief attention to the Frencli guards, 
introducing many of the privates and inferior of- 
ficers into the obfcure and even the more refpec- 
table Lodges, fo that the officers were frequently 
difgufted in the Lodges by the infolent behaviour 
of their own foldicrs under the maik'of Mafonic 
Brotherhood and Equality — and this behaviour be- 
came not unfrequenteven out of doors. He afferts 
with great confidence that the troops were much 
corrupted by thefe intrigues — and that when they 
fometimes declared, on fervice, that they would 
not fire on their Brethren^ the phrafe had a parti- 
cular reference to their Mafonic Fraternitv, be- 
caufe they recognifed many of their Brother Ma- 
fons in every crov/d. — And the corruption was by 
BO means confined to Paris and its neighbourhood, 
but extended to every place in the kingdom 
where there was a Municipality and a Mafoa 
Lodge. 

Mr. Lefranc then turns our attention to many 
peculiarities in the Revolution, which have a re- 
femblance to the practices in Free Maionry, Not 
only w^as the arch rebel the Duke of Orleans, the 
Grand Mafter, but the chief actors in the Revolu- 
tion, Mirabean, Condorcct, Rochefoucauit, and 
others, were diftinguilhed office-bearers in the 
great Lodges. He fays that the diilribution of 
France into departments, difl:ri£ls, circles, can- 
tons, &c. is perfectly fimilar, with the fame de- 
nominations, to a diftribution which he had re- 
marked in the correfpondencc of the Grand Ori- 
ent*. 



CHAF. iv. THE FRENCH REVOLUTION* tSj 

cnt*. The Prefident's hat in the National AlTem- 
biy is copied from that of a Trcs Venerable Grand 
Maitre. — The fcarf of a Municipal Officer is the 
fame with that of a Brother Apprentice. — When 
the Alfembly celebrated the Hevohition in the 
Cathedral, they accepted of the highefl honours 
of Mafonry by pafling under the Arch of Steely 
formed by the drawn fwords of two ranks of Bre- 
thren, — Alfo it is worthy of remark, that the Na* 
tionai AiTcmbly protected the meetings of Free 
Mafons, while it preremptorily prohibited every 
other private meeting. The obligation of laying 
afide all (lars, ribbands, crofTes, and other honour- 
able diiUndlions, under Xhc pretext of Fraternal 
Equality, was not merely a prelude, but was in- 
tended as a preparation for the deltrudlion of all 
civil difiin^tions, w'hich took place aimoil at the 
beginning of the Revolution, — and the fir Jl pro- 
pofal of a furrender^ fays Mr. Lcfranc, was made 
by a zealous Majon, — Re farther obferves, that 
the horrible and fanguinary oaths, the daggers, 
death-heads, crofs-bones, the imaginary combats 
with the murderers of Hiram, and many other 
gloomy ceremonies, have a natural tendency to 
harden the heart, to remove its natural <iirgufl: at 
deeds of horror, and have paved the way for thofe 
fliocking barbarities which have made the name 
of Frenchmen abhorred over all Europe, Thefe 
deeds were indeed perpetrated by a mob of fana- 
• tics ; but the principles were promulgated and 
foftered by perions who ilyle themfelves philo- 
(bphers. 

I fee more evidence of tbefe important faifts in 
another book juft publifhed by an emigrant gen- 

* I cannot help obferving, that it is perfeclly fitnilar to the ar- 
tangement and denominations which appear in the fecret corref- 
pondence of the Bavarian Illuminati, 

tleman 



284 THE FRENCFi REVOLUTION* CHAP. Iv. 

tieman (Mr. Latocnayc). He confirms my repeat-* 
ed afTertions, that all the irreligious and feditious 
dodrines were the fubjedts of repeated harangues 
in the Mafon Lodges, and that all the principles 
of the Revolution, by vvhich the public mind was 
as it were fet on fire, were nothing but enthufiaf- 
tic amplifications of the common-place cant of 
Free Mafonry, and arofe naturally out of it. He 
even thinks " that this mujl cfnecejfity be the cafe 
" in every country where the minds of the lower 
*' clafTesof the State are in any way coniiderably 
*' fretted or irritated ; it is almolt impoilable to 
" avoid being drawn into this vortex, whenever 
*' a difcontented mind enters into a Mafon Lodge. 
*' The fcale (lory of brotherly love, which at an- 
^' other time would only lull the hearer afleep, 
*' now makes him prick up his ears, and iiflen 
" with avidity to the filly tale, and he cannot 
*' hinder fretting thoughts from continually rank- 
" ling in his mind." 

Mr. Latocnaye fays exprefsly, *• That notwith- 
'^ (landing the general contempt of the public for 
" the Duke of Orleans, his authority as Grand 
" Mailer of the Mafoiis gave him the greateil 
" opportunity that a feditious m.ind could defire 
" for helping forward the Revolution. He had 
" ready to his hand a connected fyftem of hidden 
Societies, protedled by the State, habituated to 
fecrecy and artifice, and already tinged with 
the very enthufiafm he w^iflied to infpire. in 
" thefe he formed political committees, into which 
" only his agents were admitted. He filled the 
Lodges with the French guards, whom he cor- 
rupted with money and hopes of preferment; 
and by means of the Abbe Sieyes, and other 
emilfaries, they were harangued with all the fo- 
phiflical declamation, or cant of Mafonry.'* 

Mr. 









CHAP. iv. THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. 285 

Mr. Latocnaye fays, that all this was peculiar 
to the Lodges of the Grand Orient ; bat that 
there were m?My (not very many, if we judge by 
the Ncuwied almansc, which reckons only 289 in 
all France in 1784, of which 266 were of the 
Grand Orient) Lodges vv ho continued on the old 
plan of anufing themielves with a little foleran trif- 
ling. He coincides wiih Mr* Lefranc in the opinion 
that the awful and gloomy rituals of Mafonry, and 
particularly the ievere trials of confidence and fub- 
miilion, mull have a great tendency to harden the 
heart, an<l fit a man for attrocious aclions. No one 
can doubt of thisv/ho reads the foUowinginrtance : 
*' A candidate for reception into one of the 
'* higheil Orders, after having heard many threat- 
*' enings denounced againil all who Ihould betray 
*' the Secrets of the Order, was conducS^ed to a 
" place where he faw the dead bodies of feveral 
" who were faid to have fuiFered for their trea- 
" chery. He then faw his own brother tied hand 
*' and foot, begging his mercy and intercellion, 
*' He was uiformed that this perfon was about to 
*' fuffer the punifhment due to this oifence, and 
" that it was referved for him (the candidate) to 
" be the inllrument of this juft vengeance, and 
" that this gave him an opportunity of manifeil- 
" ing that he was completely devoted to the Or- 
" der. It being obferved that his countenance 
gave figns of inward horror, (the perfon in 
bonds imploring his mercy all the while) he 
was told that in order to fpare his feelings, a 
bandage fhould be put over his eyes. A dagger 
was then put into his right hand, and being 
hood-winked, his left hand was laid upon the 
palpitating heart of the criminal, and he was 
*' then ordered to (Irike, He inftantly obeyed ; 
" and when the bandage was taken from his eyes, 

2 N 'he 



il 



Kfe 



286 THE FRENCH HfiVOLUflON. CHAP. iV« 

*' he faw that it was a lamb that he had {tabbed. 
*' Surely fiicli trials and fiich wanton cruelty are 
'' fit only for training conipirators." 

Mr. Latocnaye adds, that '' when he had been 
*' initiated, an old gentleman aiked him what lie 
'' thought of the whole ?" He anfwered, *' A great 
'* deal of noife, and much nonfenfe." '' Nonfenfe." 
faid the other, *' don't judge foraflily, young man ; 
'' I have worked theie twenty-five years, and the 
'^ farther I advanced, it intereRed me the more ; 
" but I ilopped fliort, and nothing (hall prevail on 
" m.e to advance a ftep farther." In another con- 
verfation the gentleman faid, *' I imagine that my 
'' (loppage was owing to my refufai about nine years 
ago, to lift en to fome perfons who made to me, 
out of the Lodge, propofals which were feditious 
" and horrible; for ever fmce that time I have re- 
marked, that my higher Brethren treat me vvi h a 
much greater referve than they had done before, 
and that, under the pretext of further inflruction; 
'' thev have laboured to confute the notions which 
I had already acquired, by giving fome of the 
mod delicate fubjeds a different turn. I faw 
that they v^-anted to remove fome fufpicions which 
I was beginning to form concerning the ultimate 
fcope of the whole." 
I iaiagine that thefe obfervaticns will leave no 
doubt in the mind of the reader vi'ith refpecl to the 
iniiuenceof the fecret Fraternity of Free Mafonry 
in the French Revolution, and that he will allov.7 it 
to be highly probable that the infamous Duke of Or- 
leans had, from the beginning, entertained hopes of 
mounting the throne of France. It is not my pro- 
vince to prove or difprove this point, only I think 
it no \eis evident, from n^any circumftances in the 
tranfadions of thole tumultuous days, that the 
adive leaders liad quite different views, and were 

impelled 



CI 






il 
(I 



CHAP. iv. THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. 287 

impelled by fanatical notions of democratic felicity^ 
or, more probabiv, by their own ambition to be the 
movers of this vail: machine, to overturn the ancient 
government, and ered a republic, of v/hich they 
hoped to be the manageris*. Mirabeau had learned 
when in Germany that the principles of anarchy 
had been well digeiled into a fyllem, and therefore 
wifhed for fome inftruclionas to the fubordinate de- 
tail of the buhnefs, and for this purpofe requeded a 
deputation fvoixn the lHnmiNalL 

In fuch a caufe as this, we m.ay be certain that no 
ordinary perfon would be fent. One of I he depu- 
ties was Amelius, the next perfon in the order to 
Spartacus and Ph lo. His worldly nan:e was johann. 
J. C. Bode, at Weimar, privy-counfellor to the 
Prince of Heire-Darmfiadt. (See Fra^mente der 
Biographie des verftorbenes Firyherr Bode in Weimar^ 
mit ziLverlaJJigen Urkunder, ?>vo. Riom. 1795. See 
2.\{o Endliche Shickfall der Freymaiirer€\\ 1794 ; alfo 
IViener Zeitfchrift fur 1793-) — This perfon has 
played a principal part in the whole fcheme of Illu- 
mination. He vw'as a perfon of confiderable and 
ihowy talents as a Vv'riier. He had great talents for 
converfation, and had kept good company. With 

* The depofitlons at the Chatelet, which I have ah*eady quoted, 
give repeated and unequivocal proofs, that he, with a confiderable 
number of the deputies of the National Afiembly, had formed 
this plot before the 5th of Odlober 1789. That trial was con- 
dutled in a ftrange manner, partly out of refpedl for the Royal 
Family, which ftill had fome hearts affedlonately attached to it, 
and to the monarchy, and partly by reafon of the fears of 
the members of this court. There was now no fafety for any 
pei'fon WHO differed from the opinion of the frantic populace of 
Pans. The chief points of accufat.'on were written In a fchedule 
which is not publlOKd, and the witnefles were ordered to depofe 
on thefe in one general Yes or No ; fo that It Is only the leafl im- 
portant part of the evidence that has been printed. I am well 
Informed that the whole of It Is carefully preferved, and will one 
day appear. 

refped 



288 THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. CHAP. IV. 

refpefi: to his myilical cbarader, his experience was 
gr^at. He was one of the Templar Mafons, and a- 
mong them was E^ws a Ltliis ConvaUiiim. He had 
fpeculaiedmuch about tlie origin and hillory of Ma- 
fonry, and when at the Wiliemfbad convention, 
was converted to liluminatirm. He was the great 
inftigator of Nicholai, Gedicke, and Bieller, to the 
hunt after Jefuits which fo much occupied them, and 
fuggeiied to Nicholai his journey through Germany. 
Leuchtfenring whom I mentioned before, was only 
the letter-carrier between Bode and thefe three au- 
thors. He was juR fuch a man as Weifhaupt wifh- 
ed for ; his head filled with Mafonic fanaticifm, at- 
taching infinite importance to the frivolities of Ma- 
Ibnry, and engaged in an enthufiaiiic and fiuitlefs 
refearch after its origin and hiiiory. He had col- 
leded, however, fuch a number of archives (as tliey 
were called) of Free Mafonry, that he fold his manu- 
fcripr to the Duke of Saxe Gotha, (into whofe fer- 
vice Weifhaupt engaged himfelf when he was driven 
from Bavaria), for 150 dahleis. This little anec- 
dote fhows the high importance attributed to thofe 
matters by perfons of whom we fliould exped better 
things. Bode was alfo a moil determined and vio- 
lent materialift. Belidesali thefe qualities, foaccepta- 
ble to the liluminati, he was a diicontenred Tera.plar 
Mafon, having been repeatedly difappointed of the 
preferment which he thought hiraieif entitled to. 
When he learned that the hrfl operations of the li- 
luminati were to be the obtaining the fole direction 
of the Mafon Lodges, and of the whole Fraternity, 
his hopes revived of riling to ibme of the Corii- 
manderies, vvhich his e'nthufiafm, or rather fanati- 
cifm, had made him hope to fee one day regained 
by the Order : — but when he found that the next and 
favourite objed was to root out the Siri^ Qbfervan% 
altogether, he ilarted back. But Philo favv^ that the 

underflanding 



CHAP. iv. THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. '28q 

underflaiiding (HvAl we call it ?) that can be dazzled 
vvitli one whini, may be dazzled wiih another, and 
he now attached him to Iliuminatifm, by a magni- 
ficent difpiay of a world ruled by the Order, and 
conduced to happinefs by means of Liberty and 
Equality. This did the bufinefs, as we iee by the 
private correfpondence, where Philo informs Spar- 
tacus of his lirli diiiiculties with Amelius. Ameli- 
us was gained over in AuguH: 1782, and we fee by 
the fame correfpondence, that the greateit affairs 
were foon entruiled to him — he was generally em- 
ployed to deal with the great. When a Graf or a 
Baron was to be wheedled into tlie Order, Amelius 
was the agent. — He was alfo the chief operator 
in all their contefts with the Jeluits and the Kofy- 
crucians. It was alfo Bode that procured the im- 
portant acceuion of Nicholai to the Order. This 
he brought about through Leuchtfenring ; and laft- 
iy, his numerous connexions among the Free Ma- 
fons, together with Knigge's influence among them, 
enabled the Ilium inati to worm themfelves into 
every Lodge, and at lail gave them almofl: the entire 
command of the Fraternity. 

Such was the firft of the deputies to France. The 
other was a Mr. BuiTche, called in the Order Bay- 
ard ; therefore probably a man of refpedabie cha- 
rader ; for molt of Spartacus's names were fignifi- 
cant like his own. He was a military man, Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel in the fervice of tielTe Darmlladt. — 
This man alfo was a difcontented Templar Mafon, 
and his name in that Fraternity had been Eques a 
Fontihiis Eremi. He was illuminated by Knigge. 
He had alfo been unfuccefsful both at court and in 
the field, in both of which ficnations he had been at- 
tempting to make a difiinguifhed figure. He, as well 
^ as Bode, were immerfed in deDts. They were there- 
fore 



-2gO THt filENCH REVOLUTION. CHAP. IW 

fore juQ: in the proper temper for Cofmo-politicai 
enterprife. 

They went to Paris in the end of 1788, while the 
Notables were futing, and all Paris was giving ad- 
vice. The alarm that was raifed about Animal Mag- 
nerifm, which W'as indeed making much noife at that 
time, and panicnlarly at Paris, was alTigned by them 
as the great motive of the journey. Bode alfo faid 
that he was anxious to learn what were the correc- 
tions made on the fyftem of the Chevaliers Bienfai- 
fants. They had taken that name at fird, to icreen 
themfelves from the charges againil them under the 
name of Templars. They had correded fomething 
in their fyftem when they took the name Philalethes, 
And now when the Schifms of the Philaleihcs were 
healed, and the Brethren again united under the 
name of Amis Reunis, be fufpeded that Jefuits had 
interfered ; and becaufe he had heard that the prin- 
ciples of the Amis Reunis were very noble, he wifh- 
ed to be more certain that they were purged of eve- 
ry thing Jefuitical. 

The deputies accordingly arrived at Paris, and 
immediately obtained admifiion into thefe two Fra- 
ternities*. " ITiey found both of them in the ripell 

* To prevent interruptions, I mayjuft mention here the autho- 
rities for this journey and co-operation of the two deputies. 

1. Eln iv'ic h tiger Aujfchhifs uht^r en noch nvenig Lekannte Veran- 
'lajfung der Franzofchen Revolution, iii the Vienna Zeitfchrift for 

2. Endliche Shickfall des Freymaurer Ordens, 1794, p- 19. 

3. Neuejh Arheitimg des Sbaitacus and Philo, Munich, 1793* P' 
151—54. 

4. Hyionfche Nachrichten uher die Franc Revolution 1792, von 
Girtanrifr, var. loc. 

5. Re'vnlulions Almanach fur 1792 — 4, Gottingen, var. loc. 

6. Beytrage x.nr Biograpble des verjlorhenes Frey-Herr v. Bodcy 
-.1794. 

7. Magaz'm des Ltteratur et Kunjl, {or 1792, 3, 4? Iffc- tfc. 

flate 



CHAP. IV. THE FRENCH REVOLUTICN. 2gl 

flate for Illumination, having fhaken ofFallthe caba-^ 
liflical, chemical, and myilicai whims that had for- 
merly dillurbed them, and Vvouid now take up too 
much of their time. 1 hey were now cultivating 
with great zeal the philofophico poiiiical do6irines 
of univerfai citizenihip. Their leaders, to the 
number of tu'enty, are mentioned by name in the 
Berlin Monatfchrift for 1785, and among them are 
feveral of the firfl: adois m the French Revolution. 
But this is nothing diilinciive, becaufe peifons of all 
opinions were Mafons. 

7"he Amis Reunis were liftle behind the lilumi- 
nati in every thin? that was irreiieious and anarchi- 
ca], and had no inclination for any of the formali- 
ties of ritual, &c. They were ailready fit for the 
higher myfieries, and only vvanted ro learn the rr.e- 
thods of bulinefs which had fucceeded fo well in 
fpreading their dodrines and maxims over Germa- 
ny. Belides, their doctrines had not been digefted 
into a fyllem, nor had the artful methods of leading 
on the pupils from bad to Vw'orle been praclifed. For 
hitherto, each individual had vented in the Lodges 
his own opinions, to unburden his own mind, and 
the Brethren liftened for inRruction andm.utual en- 
couragement. Therefore, when Spartacus's plan 
was communicated to them, they flnvat once its im- 
portance, in all its branches, fuch as the ule of the 
Mafon Lodges, to fifh forMinervals — ^the rituals and 
ranks to entice the ycune, and to lead them by de- 
grees to opinions and meafures vv^hich, at firft (ight, 
would have (hocked them. The firm hold which is 
gotten of the pupils, and indeed of all the inferior 
clalTes, bv their reports in the courfe of their pre- 
tended training in the knowledge of themfelves and 
ofothermen — and, above all, the provincial arrange- 
ment of the order, and the clever fubordi nation and en- 
tire dependence on a felecl band orPandaemcnium at 

Paris, 



292 THE fUlnch revolution. chAp. iv. 

Paris, which fhould infpire and direct the whole. — I . 
think (aitho' I have not exprefs afi'ertions of the fad) 
from the fubfequent condud of the French revoiters, 
that even at this early period, there were raany in 
thofe Ibcieties who were ready to go every length pro- 
pofed to them b; the Ilium inati, fuch as the aboli- 
tion of royalty, and of all privileged orders, as ty- 
rants by nature, the annihilation and robbery of the 
priefihood, the rooting out of Chriflianity, and the 
introdudion of Atheiim, or a phiiofuphical chimera 
which they were to call Religion. Mirabeau had 
often fpoken of the iail: branch of the Illuminated 
principles, and the converfations held al Verfailles 
during the awful paufes of the 5th of Odober, 
(which are to be feen in the evidence before the 
Chatelet in the Orleans procefs,) can hardly be 
fuppofed to be the fancies of an accidental mob. 

Mirabeau was, as I have faid, at the head of 
this democratic party, and had repeatedly faid, 
that the only ufe of a King was to ferve as a pa- 
geant, in order to give weight to public meafures 
in the opinion of- the populace. — And Mr. Latoc- 
naye fays, that this party was very numerous^ and 
that immediately after the imprudent or madlike 
invitation of every fcribbler in a garret to give his 
advice, the party did not fcruple to fpeak their 
fentiments in public, and that they were encou- 
raged in their encomiums on the advantages of a 
virtuous republican government by Mr. Neckar, 
who had a moft extravagant and childifli predi- 
ledion for the conflitutioii of Geneva, the place 
of his nativity, and was alfo much tinged with 
the Cofmo'political philofophv of the times. The 
King's brothers, and the Piinccs of the blood, 
prefented a memorial to his Majeily, which con- 
cluded by laying, that *' the eii'ervefence of the 
*' public opinions had come to fuch a height that 

** the 



CHAP.lv. THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. SQg 

" the mod dangerous principles, imported from 
*' foreign parts, were avowed in print witli per- 
' fed impunity — that his majefly had unwarily 
" encouraged every fanatic to di£late to him, 
" and to fpread his poifonous fentiments, in v^hich 
" the rights of the throne were not only difre- 
*' fpecled, but were even difputed — that the rights 
*' of the higher ciaiTes in the Hate ran a great rifk 
" of being fpeedily fupprelTed, and that nothing 
" would hinder the facred right of property from 
^' being ere long invaded, and the unequal diftri- 
*'^bution of v/ealth from being thought a proper 
"*^fubje£l of reform.'* 

When fuch was the (late of things in Paris; it 
is plain that the buiinefs of the German deputies 
would be eafily tranfadled. They were received 
with open arms by the Philalethes^ the Amis de 
la Verite^ the Social Contrad^ Sec. and in the 
courfc of a very few weeks in the end of 1788, 
and the beginning of 1789, (that is, before the 
end of March) the whole of the Grand Orient, 
including the Philalethes^ Amis Reuiiis^ Martinif- 
tes^ &c. had the fecrets of Illumination commu- 
nicated to them. The operation naturally began 
with the Great National Lodge of Paris, and thoie 
in immediate dependence on it. It would alio {Qtxx\^ 
from many circumftances that occurred to my ol;)- 
fervation, that the Lodges in Alface and Lorraine 
were Illuminated at this time, and not long before 
as I had imagined. Strafburg I know had been 
Illuminated long ago, while Philo v/as in the Or- 
der. A circunidance (Irikes me here as of fonie 
moment. The fe6ts of Philaletkes^ and Amis 
Reunis were refinemxcnts engrafted on the fyflem 
of the Ckevaliers Beinfaiiants at Lyons. Such re- 
finements never fail to be conlidercd as a fort of 
herefy, and the profelTors will be held with a jea- 

2 O lous 



294 "^^^^ FRENCH Revolution. chap. iv. 

lous and unfriendly eye by feme, who will pride 
th^^^mfelves on adhering to the old faith. And 
the greater the luccefs of the herefy, the greater 
will be the animofity between the parties. — May 
not this help to explain the mutual hatred of the 
Parifians and the Lyonnois, which produced the 
moil dreadful attrocitics ever perpetrated on the 
face of the earth, and made a (hambles and a de- 
•fert of the fineft city of France ? 

The firfl proceeding by the advice of the de- 
puties was the formation of a political committee 
in every Lodge. This committee correfponded 
with the diftant Lodges, and in it were difcuf^d 
and fettled all the political principles which were 
to be inculcated on the members. The author of 
the Neuefte Arheitiing fays exprelsly, that "he 
was thoroughly inllru£ted in this; that it was 
given in charge to thefe committees to frame 
general rules, and to carry through the great 
plan (grand auvre ) of a general overturning 
of religion and government." The principal 
leaders of the fubfequent Revolution were mem- 
bers of thefe committees. Here were the plans 
laid, and they were tranilnitted through the king- 
dom b}/ the Correfponding Committees. 

Thus were the ftupid Bavarians (as the French 
were once pleafed to call them) their inftruclors 
in the art of overturning the world. The French 
were indeed the firfl who put it in pra£lice. Thefe 
committees arofe from the Illuminati in Bavaria, 
wdio had by no means given over working ; and 
thefe committees produced the Jacobin Club. It 
is not a frivolous remark, that the Mafonic phrale 
of the peribns who Vv^ifh to addrefs the Brethren, 
( F, S, je demande la parole^ which the F. S. re- 
ports to the V. G. M. and which he announces 
to the Brethren thus, " Mes freres^ frere tel 

" demande 









CHAP. iv. THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. 2Q5 

'* demande la parole^ la parole lui ejl accordee^^ ) 
is exadly copied by the jacobin Club. Tliere is 
fiirely no natural connection between Free Ma- 
fonry and Jacobinifm — but we feek the link — 11- 
luminatifm. — 

The office-bearers of one of the Lodges of Phi- 
lalethes in Paris were Martin^ JVillermooz ^ (who 
had been deputy from Xht Chevaliers Beinfaifants 
to the Willcmfbad Convention) Chappe^ Mlnet^^ 
de la Henriere^ and Savatkr de VAnge, In an- 
other (the Coyitra5l Social) the Political Gommit- 
tee confiiled of La Fayette, Condorcet, PethioUy 
d'Orleans, Abbe Bartbolis, d'Aigiiillon, Bailly^ 
Marq. de la Salle, DejpreJmeniL This particular 
Lodjre had been founded and coudu£i;ed by one 
De Leutre, ^n adventurer and cheat of the firfl 
magnitude, who fometimes made a figure, and at 
other times was without a Ihilling. At this very 
time he was a fpy attached to the office of the po- 
lice of Parisf. The Duke of Orleans v/as Warden 

* Minet was, I think, at this time a player. He was fon of 
a furgeon at Nantes — rob ed his father and fled- — enlifted in 
Holland — deferted and became fmucrecler — was taken and burnt 
in the hand — became player and married an aclrefs — then became 
prieft — a d was made Bifhop of Nantes by Couftard in difcharge 
of a debt of 500I. Mr. Latocnaye often faw Couflard kneel to 
him for benediction. It cannot be fuppo'ed that he was much ve- 
nerated in his pontificals in his native city. — It feems Minet, 
Minet, is the call of the children to a kitten — This was prohibit- 
ed at Nantes, and many perfons whipped for the freedom ufed 
with his name. 

f I am told that he now (or very lately) keeps the beft com- 
pany, and lives in elegance and affluence in London. 

jiugur, fcbanobates,, msdiciis^ magus omnia novii 
Graculus ejiirlens ; in cccium jujfot'is^ ibit\, 
Ingenium volex audacia perdita, fermo 
Promptus. 

:}: All fciences a hungry Frenchman knows. 
And bid him go to hell — to hell he goes. 

Johnjon^s Tranjlation, 



29^ THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. CHAP, iv, 

of the Lodge. The Abhe Sieyes was a Brother 
Orator, but not of this Lodge, nor, I think, of 
the former. It was probably of the one conduclt- 
ed by Mirabeau and the Abbe Perigord. But it ap- 
pearsfrom the piece from which I am at prefent bor- 
rowing, that Sieyes was prefent in the meetings of 
both Lodges, probably as vifiting Brother, employ- 
ed in bringing them to common m.eafiires. I mufl 
obferve, that the fubfcqaent condiift of fome of 
thefe men does not juil accord with my conjec- 
ture, that the principles of the Illuminati vvcre 
adopted in their full extent. But we know that 
all the Bavarian Brethren were not equally Illu- 
minated, and it would be only copying their 
teachej-s if the clevereil of theic their ichoiai s 
fhould hold a JanCiiun Jandorum among tliem- 
feivcs, without inviting all to the conference. Ob- 
ferve too that the chief lefion which they were 
now taking from the Germans was tlie method of 
doing bujintfs^ of managing their correfpondence, 
and of procuring and training pupils. A French- 
man does not think that he needs inftrudion in any 
thing like principle or fcience. He is ready ^on all 
occaiions to be the inilructor. 

Thus were the Lodges of France converted in 
a very fiiort time into a fet of fecret afiiiiatf d {o- 
cieties, correfponding with the mother Lodges of 
Paris, receiving from thence their principles and 
inftruclions, and ready to rife up at once when 
called upon to carry on the great work of over- 
turning the (late. 

Hence it has arifen that the French aimed, in 
the very beginning, at overturning the wliole 
woild. In all the revolutions of other countries, 
the fchemes and plots have extended no farther 
than the nation where they took their riie. liut 
here we have feen that they take in the whole 

world 



GHAP. iv. THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. 2Q7 

world. They have repeatedly declared this in 
their manifeiros, and they have declared it by 
their conduct — This is the very aim of the IIlu- 
minati. Hence too may be explained how the re- 
volution took place in a moment in every part of 
France. The revolutionary focieties were early 
formed, and were v/oriiing in fecret before the 
opening of the National AiTembly, and the whole 
nation changed, and changed again, and again, as 
if by beat of , drum. Thofe duly initiated in this 
myilery of iniquity were ready every where at a 
call. And we fee Weifnaupt's wiili accomplillied ^ 

in an unexpected degree, and the debates in a 
club giving laws to folemn airembiies of the na- 
tion, and all France bending the neck to the city 
of Paris, The members of the club are llluminati, 
and fo are a great part of their correfpondents. — 
Each operates in the (late as a Minerval would do 
in the Order^ and the whole goes on with fylle- 
matic regularity. The famous Jacobin Club was 
jud one of thofe Lodges, as has been already ob- 
ferved ; and as, among individuals one commonly 
takes the lead, and contrives for the refb, fo it has 
happened on the prefent occafion, that this Lodge, 
fupported by Orleans and Mirabeau, was the one 
that (lepped forth and diewed itfelf to the world 
and thus became the oracle of the party ; and all 
the reft only echoed its dlicourfcs, and at iail al- 
lowed it to give law to the whole, and even to 
rule the kingdom. It is to be remarked too that 
the founders of the club at Mentz wert lliumi- 
nati, ( Relig, BegeLenh, 1703. p. 448.) before the 
Revolution, and correfponded with another Lodge 
at Strafburg ; and thefe two produced mighty ef- 
fedls during the year 1790. In a performance call- 
€»] Memoires Pojlhiimes de Ciifline it is faid, that 
when that general v/as bending his courfe to Hol- 
land, 




'^gS THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. CHAP, i\% 

land, the Illuminati at Straiburg, Worms, and 
Spire, immediately formed clubs, and invited him 
into that quarter, and, by going to Mentz and en- 
couraging their brethren in that city, they railed 
a party againft the garrifon, and actually deliver- 
ed up the place to the French army. 

A little book, juil now printed with the title 
Paragraphan^ ^'^ys, that Zimmerman, of whom I 
have fpoken more than once, went to France to • 
preach liberty. He was employed as a miffionary 
of Revolution in Alface, where he had formerly 
been a mod fuccefsfui miilionary of llluminatifm. 
Of his former proceedings the following is a curi- 
ous anecdote. He connected himfelf with a highly 
accompliflied and beautiful woman, whofe con- 
verfation had fuch charms, that he fays (he gained 
him near a hundred converts in Spire alone. Some 
perfons of high rank, and great exterior dignity 
of charadler, had felt more tender impreffions — 
and when the lady informed them of certain con- 
fequences to their reputation, they were glad to 
compound matters with her friend Mr. Zimmer- 
man, who either paffed for her hufoand or took 
the fcandal on himfeif. He made above 1500 
Louis d'ors in this way. When he returned, as a 
preacher of Revolution, he u(cd to mount the 
pulpit with a fabre in his hand, and bawl out, 
'^ Behold, Frenchmen, this is your God. This 
'^ alone can fave you.'* The author adds, that 
when Cuiiine broke into Germany, Zimmerman 
got adm!iiion to him, and engaged to deliver 
Manheim into his hands. To gain this purpofe, 
he oiVered to fet ibme corners of the city on fire, 
and affurcd him of fupport. Guiline declined the 
offer. — Zimmerman appeared againft him before 
the F^evolutionary Tribunal, and accuicd him of 
treachery to his caufe. — Cuilinc's anfv^er is ra- 
re mark able. 



CHAP. iv. THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. ^p<) 

markable. *' Hardly," faid he, " had I let my 
" foot in Germany, when this man, and all the 
" fools of his country, befieged me, and would 
" have delivered up to me their towns and vil- 
" lages — What occaiion had I to do any thing to 
" Manheim, when the Prince was neutral ?" Zim- 
merman found his full account in Robefpierre's 
bloody fway — but the lliort term of his attrocities 
v/as alfo the whole of Zimmerman's carreer. He 
was arrefled, but again liberated, and foon after 
again imprifoned, after which 1 can learn no more 
of him. The fame thing is pofitively aflerted in 
another performance, called Cri de la FMifon^ and 
in a third, called Les Majques Arrachees, Ob- 
ferve too, that it is not the clubs merely that are 
accufed of this treachery, but the Illuminati. De 
la Metherje alfo, in his preface to the Journal de 
Phyjiqueiox 1790, fays exprefsly, that " the caufe 
" and arms of France were powerfully fupported 
*• in Germany by a fe£t of philofophers called tiie 

Illuminated." In the preface to the Journal for 
1792, he fays, that '• Letters and deputations were 

received by the AlTembly from feveral Correi- 
*' ponding Societies in England, felicitating them 
" on the triumph of Reafbn and Humanity, and 

*f promifing them their cordial affiflance." 

He read fome of thefe manifeftos, and fays, 
that " one of tliem recommended (Irongly the 
" political education of the children, who (liould 
" be taken from the parents and trained up 
" for the fhate." Another lamented the bale- 
ful influence of property, faying, that " the ef- 
" forts of the Affembly would be fruitlefs, till the 
" fence was removed with which the laws {o 
*' anxiouily fecured inordinate wealth. They 
*' (hould rather be directed to the fupport of ta- 
" lents and virtue; hecaufe property would al- 

" ways 



<c 



CI 



30O -THE FRENCH REVOLUTION^ CHAP. 1V» 

" ways fiipport itfelf by the too great inflaence 
" which it had in every corrupted (late. The 
" Jaws (hoLild prevent the too great accumulation 

" of it in Particular families.'' In fnort, the 

counfcl was almoft verbatim what the Abbe Cof- 
fandey declared to have been preached in the 
meetiffgs of the Illuminali, which terrified him 
and his colleagues, and made them quit the aifo- 
ciation. Anarcharfis Cloots, born in Prufiian Weft- 
phaiia, a keen llluminatus, carne to Paris for the 
cxprefs purpofe of forwarding the great work, and 
by intriguing in the (lyie of the Order, he got 
himfelf made one of the Reprefentatives of the 
Nation. He feems to have been one of the com- 
pleted fanatics in Cofmo-politifm, and jull fuch a 
tool as Weifnaupt would choofe to employ for a 
coarie and arduous job. He broke out at once in- 
to all the filly extravagance of the unthinking 
herd, and his whole language is juft the jargon of 
Illumination. Citizen of the world — Liberty and 

Equality, the imprefcripitible Rights of Man 

Morality, dear Morality — Kings and Priefls are 
ufelefs things — they are Defpots and Corrupters, 
Sec. — ^He declared himfelf an ath^ilf , and zealouf- 
ly laboured to have atheifm eflablifhed by law. 
He condu£lcd that farcical procedion in the true 
ftyle of the moil childifh ritual of Philo, where 
counterfeited deputies from all quarters of the 
world, in the dreiTcs of their countries, came to 
congratulate the nation for its vi£lory over Kings 
and Priefls. It is alfo worthy of remark, that by 
this time Leuchtfenring, whom we have feen (b 
zealous an llluminatus, after having been as zea- 
'lous a Protedant, tutor of Princes, Hofrath and 
Hofmeiilcr, was p,ow a fecretarv or clerk in one 
of the Bureaus of the National Aflembly of 
France. 

I may 



CHAP. iV. THE FRENCH REVm-UTIO^^ 301 

I may add as a finifliing touch, that the National 
Aflembly of France was the only body of men that 
I have ever heard of u'ho openly and fyftematically 
propofed to employ affaiTination, and to inftitute a 
band of patriots, who fliould exercife this profeflion 
either l)y fword, piilol, or poifon ; — and though the 
propofal was not carried into execution, it might be 
conlidered as 'he fentiments of the m.eeting ; for it 
was only delayed till it fhouid be conndered how far 
it might not be imprudent, becaufe they might ex- 
ped reprifals. The Abbe Dubois engaged to poifon 
the Comte d'Artois ; but was himfelf robbed and 
poifoned by his accomplices. — There v;ere flrong 
reafons for thinking that the Emperor of Germany 
was poifoned- — and that Mirabeau was thus treated 
by his pupil Orleans, — alfo Madame de Favras and 
her fon. — This was copying the Illuminati very 
carefully. 

After all thefe particulars, can any perfon have a 
doubt that the Order of Illuminati formally inter- 
fered in the French Revolution, and contributed 
greatly to its progrefs? There is no denying the in- 
folence and opprefTion of the Crown and the Nobles, 
nor the mifery and flavery of the people, nor that 
there were fufficient provocation and caufe for a to- 
tal change of meafures and of principles. But the 
rapidity with which one opinion was declared in 
every corner, and that opinion as quickly changed, 
and the change announced every where, and the 
perfed conformity of the principles, and famenefs 
of the language, even in arbitrary trifles, can hard- 
ly be explained in any other v/ay. It may indeed 
be faid ^' que les beaux genies fe rencontrent^ — that 
** wits jump. The principles are the fame, and 
*' the condud of the French has been fuch as the 
*' Illuminati would have exhibited ; but this is all 
*' «— the Illuminati no longer e.xiiled," En®ugh has 

2 P been 



302 THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. CHAP. IV. 

been faid on this point already. — The fads are as 
have been narrated. The Ilkiminati continued as 
an Order, and even held aflemblies, though not fo 
frequently nor fo formally as before, and though 
their Areopagus was no longer at Munich. But lei us 
hearwhat the French themfeivesthoughtof the matter. 
In 1789, or the beginning of 1790, a manifejl^ 
was fejit from the G^AND National Lodge of Free 
Mafons (fo it is entitled) at Paris, figned by the 
Dtike of Orleans as Grand Majfer, addreffedand fent 
to the Lodges in all the refpe£lable cities of Europe, 
exhorting them to unite for the fupport of the French 
Revolution, to gain it friends, defenders, and dependents - 
and according to their opportunities, and the pra6iica- 
hiiity of the thing, to kindle and propagate the fpirit 
of revolution through all lands. This is a moft im- 
portant article, and deferves a very ferious attention. 
I got it firil of all in a work called, Hochjle wichtige 
Erinnerungen "zur rechten Zeit uber einige der aller- 
ernfihafteften Angelegenheiten diefes Zeitalters^ vqu 
L, A. Hoffmann, Vienna, 1795*- 

The author of this work fays, " That every thing 
*' he advances in thefe memorandums is conliflent 
with his own perfonal knowledge, and that he is 
ready to give convincing proofs of them to an)? 
refpedabie perfon who will apply to him perfon- 
ally. He has already given fuch convincing do- 
cuments to the Emperor, and to feveral Princes, 
that many of the machinations occafioned by this 
manifeiio have been deteded and (lopped ; and 
be would hzv^ no fcruple at laying the whole be- 
fore the public, did. it not unavoidably involve 
feverai worthy perfon s who had fuifered them- 
feives to be milled, and heartily repented of their 



41 
«* 

41 



* M-aH important Memoraadumss i» proptr Se?ifon, eonccrn- 
iag SfU€, of the islo^ fenoys Occurreaces of tlic prefent Age, by L, 

iL. HoSTasaaa, Yieaaa, 1795. / 



*•' errors/' 



CHAP. IV. THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. 009 

*' errors." He^s naturally (being a Catholic) very 
fevere on the Froteftants, (and indeed he has much 
reafon,) and by this has drawn on himfelf many 
bitter retorts. He has however defended himfelf 
againil all that are of anv confequence to his good 
name and veracity, in a manner that fully convinces 
any impartial reader, and turns to the confufion of 
tjie flanderers. 

Hoffmann fays, that *' he faw fome of thofe mani- 
" feflos ; that they were not all of one tenor, fome 
''• being addrelTed to friends, of whofe fuppcrt they 
*' were already aflured." One very important arti- 
cle of their contents is Earnejl exhortations to eflahlijh 
in every quarter ft'cret Jchools of political education^ 
and fchools for the public education of the children cf 
the people^ under the direction of well-principled inaf- 
ters ; and offers of pecuniary affiftance for this purpofe^ 
and for the encouragement of writers in favour cf the 
Revolution^ and for indemnifying the patriotic hookfel 
lers who Juffer by their endeavours to fupprefs publi- 
cations which have an eppofite tendency. We know 
very well that the iramenfe revenue ot the Duke of 
Orleans was fcattered among ail the rabble of the 
Palais Royal, Can we doubt of its being employed 
in this manner? Our doubts muft vanifh, when 
we fee that not long after this was publicly faid in 
the National AfTembly, '' that this method was the 
moft effedual for accomplilhing their purpofe of 
fetting Europe in a flame." *' But much expence," 
iays the fpeaker, '' will attend it, and much has al- 
'' ready been employed, which cannot be named 
" becaufe it is given in fecret." The Affembly' 
had given the Illumination war-hoop — '' Peace with 
'' cottages^ but war voith palaces' — A pouvoir revolu- 
iionnaire is mentioned, which fuperfedes all narrow 
thoughts, all ties of morality. Lequinio publifiies 
the moll dete liable book that ever itlued from g 

printip^ 



^04 T"^2 FRENCH REVOLUTION. CHAP. IV. 

•printing prefs, Les Prejuges vaincus^ comaining ail 
the principles, and expveded in the very words of 
liluroinatifni. 

iloiTmann lays, that the French Ptvpaganda had 
many erniliarics in Vienna, and many friends 
whom he could point oat. Mirabeau in particu- 
lar had many connc^lions in Vienna, and to the 
certain knowledge of Hoffmann, carried on a 
great correfpondence in cyphers. The progrei? of 
Illumination had been very great in the Aullrian 
States, and a llatefman gave him an account of 
their proceedings, ( qui font redrcfjer Its cheveux ) 
which makes one's hair ftand on end. *' I no lon- 
'• ger wonder," fays he, " that the Neuefts Arhei- 
*' tung des Spartacus und Philo was forbidden. 
'' O ye almighty Illumiuati^ what can you net 
" accomplifn by your ferpent like infinnation and 
«' cunning !" Your leaders fay, " This book is 
" dangerous, becaufe it will teach wicked men 
" the mofl: refined methods of rebellion, and it 
" mud never get into the hands of the common 
" people. They have faid v/ith the moil impu- 
<• dent face to fome Princes, who did not per- 
" ceive the deeper-laid reaibn for fuppreliing the 
" book. The leaders of the Illuminati are, not 
** without reafon, in anxiety, left the inferior 
<« clalTes of their own Society Hiould make juft 
*' reprifals for having been fo bafely tricked, by 
" keeping them back and in profound ignorance 
••^ of their real defigns ; and for working on 
'* them by the very goodnei's of their hearts, to 
'* their final ruin ; and left the Free Mafons, 
•' whom they have alfo abiifed, ihoukl think of 
" revenp-inp- themfelves, when the matchlcfs vil- 
'' lainy of their deceivers has been fb clearly ex- 
*' pofed. It is in vain for them to talk of the danger 
^' of inftrucling the people in the methods of fo- 

■* menting 






CHAf. IV. THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. 305 

** meriting rebellion by this book. The aims are 
" too apparent, and even in the neighbourhood of 
*' Regeniburg, where the ilrength of the Illumi' 
*' nati lay, every pcrfon faid aloud, that the IHu- 
*' minatifni difcovered by this book was High 
Treafon, and the mod unheard of attempt to 
annihilate every religion and every civil go- 
vernment.'' He goes on: '' In 1790 I was as 
'* well acquainted with the fpiritof the IHumina- 
*' tion-fNilem as at prefent, but only not fo docu- 
" mented by their conflitutional acts, as it is now 
'' by tlic Neiiejle Arheitiing des Spartacus iind 
" Philo^ My Mafonic connections were formerly 
*' extenfive, and my publication entitled Eighteen 
" Paragraphs Concerning Free Mafonry^ procured 
*' me more acquaintance with Free Mafons of 
*' the greatefl v/orth, and of Illuminati equally 
'• upright, perfons of refpeclability and knovv- 
'' ledge, who had difcovered and repented the 
" trick and inveigling condu£l of the Order. All 
" of us jointly fwore oppofition to the Illuminati^ 
*' and my friends conhdered me as a proper in- 
*' ftrument for this purpofe. To whet my zeal, 
" they put papers into my hands which made me 
*' fhudder, and raifed my difiike to the higheft 
" pitch. I received from them lifts of the mem- 
" berSj and among them faw names which I la- 
'' mented exceedingly. Thus ftood matters in 
^* 1790, when the French Revolution began to 
*' take a ferious turn» The intelligent faw in the 
'' open fyflem of the Jacobins the complete hid- 
den fyftcm of the illuminati. Wc knew that 
this fyftem included the whole world in its 
alms, and France was only the place of its firll 
explofion. The Propaganda works in every 
corner to this hour, and its emiffaries run about 
in all the four quarters of the world, and are to 

*' be 



u 



305 THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. CHAP. iVi 

be found in numbers in every city that is a feat 
of government. '^ 

" He farther relates how they in Vienna want- 
ed to enhfl; him, and, as this failed, how they 
have abufed him even in the foreign nevvf- 
papcrs. 

" 1 have perfonal knowledge (continues he) 
that in Germany a {Ixond Mirabcau, Mauvil- 
Ion, had propofed in detail a planof revohition, 
entirely and precifely fuited to the prefent n:at(!j 
of Germany. This he circulated among feve- 
ral Free Mafon Lodges, among all the Illumi- 
nated Lodges which flill remained in Germany, 
and through the hands of all the emifTaries of 
the Propaganda, who had been already dif- 
patched to the frontiers (vorpojlen) of evt-ry 
didridt of the empire, with means for ftirring 
up the people.'* (N. B. In 1792, Mauvillon, 
finding abundant fnpport and encouragement in 
the appearance of things round him, when the 
French arms had penetrated every where, and 
their invitations to revolt had met with fo hearty 
a reception from the difcontented in every flate, 
came boldly forward, and, in the Brunfwick Jour- 
nal for March 1792, declared that *' he heartily 
*' rejoiced in the French Fvevolution, widied it all 
" fuccefs, and thought himfelf liable to no re- 
*' proach when he declared his hopes that a fimi- 
*' lar Revolution would fpeedily take place in 
" Germany.") 

In the Hamburgh Political Journal, Auguft, Sep- 
tember, and Os^ober 1790, there are many proofs 
of the machinations of emifTaries from the Ma- 
fon LGdocs of Paris among the German Free Ma- 
Tons — Sec pages 836, 963, 1087, c-'C. It appears 
that a cud:) luis taken the name of Propaganda* 
and meets once a week at Icaft, in the form of a 

Mafon 



GHAP. IV. THE FRENCH KlVOLUTlON. 307 

Mafon Lodge. It confiflsof perfons of all nations, 
and is under the diredlion of the Grand Mafter, 
the Duke of Orleans. De Lcii re is one of the 
Wardens, They have divided iiiirope into colo- 
nies, to which they give revoliiiionary names, 
llich as the Cap, the Pike^ the Lantern, Sec, They 
have minifters in thcfe colonies. (One is pointed 
out in Saxony, by marks which I prelume are well 
underftood.) A fecret preis was found in Saxe 
Gotha, furnidied with German types, which prior- 
ed a feditious work called the J our 7ml of Huma- 
nity, This journai w^as found in the mornings 
lying in the llreets and highways. The houfe be- 
longed to an Illimiinatus of the name of Duport, 
a poor fchoolmafter — -he w^as alTociated with an- 
other in Straibiiro-, who was alfo an lUuminatus. — 



tj J 



His name was Meyer, the winter of the Strafom-^^ 
Newfpaper. He had been fomc time a teacher in 
Salzmann's accademy, who we fee was aifo an II- 
luminattis ^ but difpieafed with their proceedings 
almoil at fArft, (Private Correfpondence.) 

I have perfonal knowledge (continues Pro- 
feflbr Hoffman) that in 1791, during the tem- 
^' porary dearth at Vienna, ieveral of thefe emil- 
faries wxrc bufy in corrupting the minds of the 
*' poor, by telling them that in like manner the 
court had produced a famine in Paris in i^Sp, 
I dete£i:ed fome of them, and expofed them in 
my Patriotic R€77iarhs on the Prtfent Dearth^ 
** and had the fatisfadion of feeing my cndea- 
*' voors of confiderable efle<n:," 

Surely thefe fa^tS (liow that the Anarchifts of 
France knew of the German Illuminati, and con- 
fided in their fupport. They alfo knew to what 
particular Lodges thty could addrefs themfelvcs 
with fafcty and confidence. — But what need is 
there of more argument^ when we know the zeal 

of 






3o8 THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. CHAP* iv« 

of the niuminati, and the unhoped for opportu- 
nity that the Revolution had given them of ail- 
ing v^ith immediate effed: in carrying on their 
great and darling work? Can vv^e doubt that they 
would eagerly put their hand to the Plough ? And, 
to complete the proof, do we not know from the 
lifts found in the fecret correfpondence of the Or- 
der, that they already had Lodges in France, and 
that in 1790 and 1791 many Illuminated Lodges 
in Germany, viz. Mentz, Worms, Spire, Frank- 
fort, actually interfered, and produced great ef- 
fe£ls. In Switzerland too they were no Icfs adlive. 
They had Lodges at Geneva and at Bern, At 
Bern two Jacobins were fentenced to feveral years 
imprifonment, and among their papers were found 
their patents of Illumination. I alio fee the fate of 
Geneva afcribed to the operations of Illuminati 
refiding there, by feveral writers — particularly 
by Girtanner, and by the Gottingen editor of the 
Revolution Almanac. 

I conclude this article with an extra£t or two 
from the proceedings of the National AfTembly 
and Convention, which make it evident that their 
principles and their pra£lice are precifely thofe of 
the Illuminati, on a great fcale. 

When the afTumption of the Duchy of Savoy as 
an 84th Department was debated, Danton faid to 
the Convention. 

" In the mom.ent that we fend freedom to a 
" nation on our frontier, we muft fay to them you 
" muft have no more Kings — for if we are fur- 
rounded by tyrants, their coalition puts our 
own freedom in danger. — When the French 
nation fent us hither, it created a great com- 
" mittce for the general infurrection of the peo- 
*' pie." 

On 






CHAP. IV. THE FRENCH lEVOLUTION, 309 

On the 19th of November 1792 it was de- 
creed, " That the Convention, in the name of 
*' the French nation, tenders help and fraternity 
'* to all people who would recover their liberty.'* 
On the 21(1 of November, the Prefident of the 
Convention faid to the pretended deputies of the 
Duchy of Savoy, " Reprefentatives of an hide- 
pendent people, important to mankind was the 
day when the National Convention of France 
pronounced its fentence. Royal dignity is abo^ 

lifJied, From that day many nations will, in 

future, reckon the era of their political exift- 
ence. — From the beginning of civil eftablifh- 
ments Kings have been in oppofition to their 
nations — but now they rife up to annihilate 
Kings. — Reafon, when (lie darts her rays into 

every corner, lays open eternal truths She 

alone enables us to pafs fentence on defpors, hi- 
thert© the fcare-crow of other nations." 
But the mod diftindl exhibition of principle is 
to be feen in a report from the diplomatic com- 
mittee, who were commiflioncd to deliberate on 
the condudt which France was to hold with other 
nations. On this report w&s founded the decree of 
the 15th of December 1793. The Reporter ad- 
dreffes the Convention as follows; 

*' The Committees of Finance and War aflc in 
the beginning — What is the obje£l: of the war 
which we have taken in hand ? Without all 
doubt the objed: is the annihilation of 

ALL PRIVILEGES, WAR WITH THE PALACES, 

PEACE WITH THE COTTAGES. Thcfc are the 
principles on which your declaration of war is 
founded. All tyranny, all privilege, muft be 
treated as an enemy in the countries where we 
fet our foot. This is the genuine refult of our 
" principles. — But it is not with Kings alone that 

2 Q^ '' we 



31 THE FRENCH REVOLUTION, CHAP. iv< 



" we are to wage war — were thefe our fole ene- 
** mies, we (hould only have to bring down ten 
'' or twelve heads. We have to light with all 
'' their accomplices, with the privileged orders, 
" who devour and have oppreiTed the people dur- 
" ing many centuries. 

" We rniifl therefore declare ourfelves for a 
" revolutionary power in all the countries into 
^' which we enter— r(Loud applaufes from the Af- 
*' (embly)— Nor need we put on the cloak of hu- 
" manity — we difdaln fuch little arts. — We muit 
*' clothe ourfelves with all the brilliancy of rea- 
*' fon, and all the force of the nation. We need 
'* not mafk our principles- — -the defpots know 
^' them already. The lirft thing we mull: do is to 
^* ring the alarum bell, for infurredion and up- 
*' roar.-^ — "We mufl, in a folemu manner, let the 
^* people fee the banilhment of their tyrants and 

*■ privileged cafts otherwife, the people, ac> 

^* cuflomed to their fetters, will not be able to 
" break their bonds. — -It will effect nothing, mere-? 
" ly to excite a rifmg of the people — this would 
'• only be giving them words inftead of (landing 
" by them, 

" And fince, in this manner, we ourfelves are 
^' the Revolutionary Adminillration, all that is 
" againfl: the rights of the people muil be over- 
*' thrown at our entry-r-We mult difplay our prln- 
" ciples by actually deftroying all tyranny ; and 
" our generals after having chafed away the ty- 
*' rants and their fatellites, mud proclaim to the 
^' people that they have brought them happinefs; 
^' and then, on the fpot, they mufi fupprefs tithes, 
^^ feudal rights, and every fpecies of fervitude," 

*' But we fhall have done nothing if we llop 
" here. Ariftocracy ftill domineers — we mufl 
^' therefore fupprefs all authorities exifting in the 

* ' hands 



CpUP. iV; THE FRENCH REVGLUTlOr^; 3II 

" hands of the upper clafTes^ — When the Revc- 
** lutionary Authority appears, there niafl: nothing 
'' of the old ertabli(lin:ient rc:main. — A popular 
'^' fyflem mull be iiitroclaced — every office mu(t 
^' be occupied by new functionaries-— and the 
" Sans Guliottes inuil every v^here have a iliare 
'' in the AdminiftraTion. 

" Still nothing is dont^, till we declare aloud 
" the prtcifion of our principles to luch as want 
" only half freedom,^ — We mufl: fay to them— If 
you think of compromihng with the privileged 
cads, wc cannot fuller fuch dealing with ty- 
rants—They are our enemies, and we mud treat 
" them as enemies, becaufe they are neither for 
*' Liberty nor Equality. — Show yourfclves dif- 
pofcd to receive a Ix^q conftitution— and the 
Convention will not only (land by you, but will 
give you permanent fupport; we will defend 
you againil the vengeance of your tyrants—* 
againfl their attacks, and againil their return. 
—Therefore aboliOi from among you the No- 
bles, and every ecclefialtical and military in- 
corporation. They arc incompatable with Equa- 
lity. — Henceforward you are citizens, all equal 
in rights — equally called upon to rule^ to de- 
fend, and to ferve your country.— The agents 






<e 
<( 
i( 
&c 

u 

u 

" of the French Republic will iniirudl and affill 
" you in forming a free conftitution, and afTare 
" you of happinefs and fraternity." 

This Report v^as loudly applauded, and a de- 
cree formed in precife conformity to its princi- 
ples. Both were ordered to be tranflated into 
all languages, and copies to be furnilhed to their 
generals, with orders to have them carefully dif- 
pcrfed in the countries which they invaded. 

And, in completion of thefc decrees, their ar- 
mies found it eafy to colledt as many difcontented 

or 



3l2 THE FBENGH KS volution. CHAP. iV. 

or worthlefs perfons in any country as fufliced for 
fetting up a tree of liberty. This they held as a 
fufficient call for their interference. — Sometimes 
they performed this ceremony themfelves — a re« 
prefentation was eafily made up in the fame way 
— and then, under the name of a free' conflitu- 
tion, the nation was forced to acquiefce in a form 
dictated at the point of the bayonet, in which 
they had not the fmallefl liberty to choofc — and 
they were phindered of all they had, by way of 
compenfating to France for the trouble (lie had 

taken. And this they call Liberty, — It needs no 

comment. — 

Thus have I attempted to prove that the pre- 
lent awful iituation of Europe, and the general 
fermentation of the public mind in ail nations, 
have not been altogether the natural operations of 
difcontent, opprellion, and moral corruption, al- 
though thefe have been great, and have operated 
with fatal energy; but that this political fever has 
been carefully and fyflematically heightened by 
bodies of men, who profeiled to be the phyficians 
of the State, and, while their open practice em- 
ployed cooling medicines, and a treatment which 
ail approved, adminifiered in fecret the mofl in- 
flammatory poifons, which they made up fo as to 
flatter the difeafed fancy of the patient. Al- 
though this was not a plan begun, carried on^ and 
completed by the fame perfons, it was undoubt- 
edly an uniform and confident fchemc, proceeding 
on the fame unvaried principle, and France un- 
doubtedly now fmarts under all the woes of Ger- 
man Illumination. 

I beg leave to fuggefl a few thoughts, which 
may enable us to draw fome advantage from this 
fhocking mafs of information. 

General 



GHAP. IV. THE FRENCH REVOLUTIO.V. OJ^^ 



General Reficdlions. 

I. I may obferve, in ihtfirji place, and I beg ic 
may be particularly attended to, that in all thole vil- 
lainous machinations againR the peace of the world, 
the attack has been firfl made on the principles of 
Morality and Religion. The confpirators faw that 
till thefe are extirpated, they have no chance of fuc- 
cefs ; and their manner of proceeding (hews that 
they confider Religion and Morality as infeparably 
conneded together. We learn much from this — Fas 
eft et ab hojie doceri. — They endeavour to deflroy 
our religious fentiments, by firil corrupting our mo- 
rals. They try to inflame our pafiions, that when 
the demands from this quarter become urgent, the 
reftraints of Religion may immediately come in fight, 
and ftand in the way. They are careful, on this oc- 
calion, to give fuch a view of thofe reftraints, tliat 
the real origin of them does not appear. — We are 
made to believe that they have been altogether the 
contrivance of Priefls and defpots, in ord^^r to get 
the command of us. They take care, to fupport thefe 
aflertions by fads, which, to our great (hame, and 
greater misfortune, are but too nunjerous. Having 
now the paffions on their fide, they find no difficuky 
in perfuading the voiuptuarv, or the diicontented, 
that tyranny, acluaily exerted, or refolved on in fu- 
ture, is the fole origin of religious reHraint. He 
feeks no further ars^ument, and e;ives liimfelf no 
trouble to find any. Had he examined the matter 
with any care, he would find himfeif juft brought 
back to thofe very feelings of moral excellence and 
moral depravity that he wifhes to get rid of altoge- 
ther; and thefe would tell him tljat pure Religion 

does 



•3 14 THE FREN'CFikEVOLUfrON, CtiAP. IV/' 

does not hy a fingle reflralnt on us that a noble na-- 
ture would not have laid on itfelf— -nor enjoins a 
iingle duty which an ingenuous 2nd warm heart 
would not be aChamed to find itfeif deficient in. He' 
would then lee that all the fandlions of Religion are 
fitted to his high rank in the fcale of exiflcnce.- And 
the more he contemplates his future profpecfls, the 
more they brighten upon his view, the more attainable 
they appear, and the more he is able to know what 
they may probably be. Having attained this happy 
fiate of mind, (an attainment in the power of any 
kind heart that is in earned in the enquiry) he will 
think that no punifhment is too great for the un- 
thankful and groveling foul which can forego fuch 
hopes, and rejed thefe noble proffers, for the com«^ 
paratively frivolous and tranfitory gratifications of 
life. He is not frightened into worthy and virtuous 
condud by fears of fuch merited punifliment ; but^ 
if not enticed into it by his high expedations, he is^ 
at leafl^i retained in the paths of virtue by a kind of 
manly fliame. 

But all this is overlooked, or is kept out of lights 
in the inflrudions of Illuminatifm. In thefe (heeyd 
mufl be kept always direded to the Defpot. This is 
the bugbear, and every thing is made to conned 

with pre fen t ©r future tyranny and oppreinon 

Therefore Religion is held out as a combination of 
terrors— the invention of the itate-tools, the prieils. 
But it is not eafy to ftifie the fuggeftions of Nature — • 
therefore no pains are fpared to keep them down^ 
by encreahng the uncertainty and doubts which arife 
in the courfe of all fpeculations on fuch fubjects* 
Such difficulties occur in all fcientific difcufTions.— ^ 
Heie they muit be numerous and embarraffing— - 
for in this enquiry we come near the firfl: principles 
of things, and the firft prnicipies of human know- 
ledge. The geometer does not wonder at mif- 

takcs 



(jUAF, iV. THE FRENCH REVOLUTION.^ Jiff 

takes even in his fcience, the mofl: fiinple of all 

others. Nor does the mechanic or the cheiuifl; 

rejed all his fcience, becaufe he cannot attain 
clear conceptions of iome of the natural reiations 
which operate in the phenomena under his confide- 
ration.^—Nor do any of thefe lludents of nature 
brand wirh the name of fool, or knave, or bigot, 
another perfon who has drawn a difi'erent concLu- 

fion from the phenomenon. In one point they 

all agree— they find themfelves poffeffed of faculties 
which enable them to fpeculate, and to difcover ; 
and they find, that the operation of thofe faculties is 
tjuite unlike the things which they contemplate by 
their means — and they feel a Jatisja&ion in the pqf- 

Jeffion of them^ and in this diftindion.^ But this 

feems a misfortune to our Illuminators. I have 
long been ftruck v^ith this. If by deep meditation 
I have folved a problem which has baffled the en- 
deavours of ethers, I (hould hardly thank the perfon 
.who convinced me that my fuccefs was entirely own- 
ing to the particular fiate of my health, by which 
my brain was kept free from many irritations to which 
other perfons are cxpofed. Yet this is the condud 
of the Illuminated — They are abundantly felf-con- 
ceited ; and yet they continually endeavour to de- 
firoy all grounds of felf-eflimaticn. — They rejoice 
in every difcovery that is reported to them of fome 
refembiance, unnoticed before, between mankind 
and the inferior creation, and would be happy to 
find that the refembiance is complete. It is very 
true, Mr. Pope's '' Poor Indian, with untutor'd 
*' mind," had no objedion to his dog's going to 
heaven with him : 



" And thinks, admitted to that equal flcy, 
" His faithful dog fhali bear him eompany.'' 



Thi. 



31 6 TME fRengh Revolution. chap. iv. 

This is Kot an abjed, but it is a modeft fentiment. 
But our high-minded philofophers, who, with Bea- 
trice in the play, '' cannot brook obedience to a 
*' wayward piece of marl," if it be in the fhape of 
a Prince, have far other notions of the matter. In- 
deed they are not yet agreed about it. Mr. de la 
Meiherie hopes, that before the enlightened Repub- 
lic of France has got into its teens, he fhall be able 
to tell his fellow-citizens, in his Journal de Phyfique^ 
that particular form of cryflallization which men have 
been accufremed to call God. — Dr. Prieftley again 
deduces all inteiligenee from eladic undulations, 
and will probably think, that his own great difcove- 
ries have been the quiverings of fome fiery marfli 
miafma. While Pope's poor Indian hopes to take 
his dog to heaven with him, thefe Illuminators hope 
to die like dogs, and that both foul and body fliall 
be as if they never had been. 

Is not this a melancholy refult of ail our Illumi- 
nation? It is of a piece with the termination of the 
ideal Phiiofophy, viz. profelTed and total ignorance. 
Should not this make us ftart back and helitate, before 
we pout like wayward children at the hardlhips of 
civil fubordination, and before we make a facrifice 
to our ill humour of all that we value ourfelves for ? 
Does it not carry ridicule and abfurdity in its fore- 
head ?-— Such alTertions of perfonal worth and dig- 
nity, (always excepting Princes and Prieds,) and 
fuch abjed acknowledgments of worthleiTnefs. — 
Does not this, of itfelf, ftiow that there is fome ra- 
dical fault in the whole ? It has all arifen from 
what they have called Illumination^ and this turns out 
to be worfe than darknefs— But we alfo know that it 
has all arifen from felf-conceited difcontent, and 
that it has been brought to its prefent ilate by the 
rage of ipeculation. We may venture to put the 
queliion to any man's confcience — -whether difcon- 
- tent 



CHAP. iv. THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. 317 

tent did not precede his doubts about his own nature 
and whether he has not encouraged the train of argu- 
ment that tended to degrade him ? '' Thy wifb 
'* was father, Harry, to that thought."— -Should not 
this make us diftruft, at leafl:, the operations of this 
faculty of our mind, and try to moderate and check 
this darling propeniity. — It feems a misfortune of 
the age — for we fee that it is a natural fource of dif- 
turbance and revolution. 

But here it will be immediately faid, '' What, 
** mufl: we give over thinking— -be no longer ration- 
'' ai creatures, and believe every lie that is told us?" 
By no means.— Let us be really rational creatures — 
and, taught by experience, let us, in all our fpecu- 
lations on fubjeds which engage the paffions, guard 
ourfeives with the mod anxious care againfl the rifk 
of having our judgments warped by our dehres. — 
There is no pvcpenfity of our nature of which the 
proper and modv-sft indulgence is not beneficial to 
man, and which is not huitful, when this indulgence 
is carried too far. — And if we candidly perufe the 
page of hiftory, we Tnaii be convinced that the abufe 
is great in proportion as the fubjecft is important. 
What has been fo ruinoufly perverted as the reli- 
gious principle ? — What horrid fuperflition has it 
nC' produced? The Reader will not, I hope, take 
it am lis that I prefume to diredl his attention to fome 
maxims which ought to condu(5t a prudent man in 
his indulgence of a fpeculative difpofition, and ap- 
ply them to the cafe in hand. 

Whoever will for a while call off his attention 
from the common affairs of life, the Curce hominum^ 
€t rerinn pondus inane^ and will but reflecl a little on 
that wonderful principle within him, which carries 
him over the whole univerfe, and (hows him its va- 
rious relations — Whoever alfo remarks how very 
fraall a proportion his own individual exillence bears 

2 R to 



^iS THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. CHAP, iv, 



O 



to this immeafurable fcene, cannot bat feel an inex- 
preflible pleafure in the contemplation of his own 
powers— He mult rife in his own eflimation, and be 
difpofed to cheriOi withfondnefs this principle which 
fo emniently raifes him above all around him. Of 
ail the fources of human vanity this is fureiy the 
mod maniv, the moft excufable, and the moii likely 
to be extravagantly indulged. ^ — Vv^e may be certain 
that it will be ip indulged, and that men will fre- 
quently fpecula^e for the fake of fpeculation alone, 
and that they will have too much confidence in the 
refults of this favourite occupation. — As there have 
been ages of indolent and abjed credulity and fuper- 
itition, it is next to certain that there are aifo times 
of wild and extravagant fpeculation— -and when we 
fee it becoming a fort of general paffion, we may be 
certain that this is a cafe in point. 

This can hardly be denied to be the characler 
of the prefent day. It is not denied. On the con- 
trary it is gloried in as the prerogative of the eigh- 
teenth century. All the fpecuiations of antiquity are 
conlidered as glimmerings (with the exceptions of a 
few brighter fiafhes) vvhen compared with our pre- 
fent meridian fplendor. We (liould therefore liften 
with caution to the inferences from this boafted 11-^ 
lumination. Alio when we reflect on what palfes in 
our own minds, and on what we obfeive in the 
world, of the mighty influence of our defires and 
pafTions on our judgments, we fhould carefully no- 
tice whether any fuch warping of the belief is pro- 
bable in the prefent cafe. That it is fo is almoil cer- 
tain—for the general and immediate effed of this 
Illumination is to lellen or remove many rellraints 
which the .^andions of religion lay on the indul- 
gence of very flrong paflions, and to diminifh our 
regard for a certain purity or corrc6lnefs of man- 
ners, which religion recommends as the only con- 

dua 



CHAF. iv« THE FRENCH REVOLUTION^ 3X9 

du£l fuitecl to our noble natures, and as abfolutely 
neeeffary for attaining that perfection and happi- 

nefs of which we are capable. For furely if we 

take away rehgion, it will be wifdom *' to eat and 
'* to drink, fmce to-morrow we die.'* If, more- 
over, we fee tliis Illumination extolled above all 
fciencc, as friendly to virtue, as improving the 
heart, and as producing a juit morality, which 
will lead to happinefs both for ourfelves and others^ 
but perceive at the fame time that thefe affertions 
are made at the expence of principles, which our 
natural feelings force us to venerate as fbpreme 
and paramount to all others, we may then be cer- 
tain that our informer is trying to midead and de- 

ceive us.- For all virtue and goodnefs both of 

heart and conduct, Js in perf^ft harmony, and 
there is no jarring or inconfiftency. But we mud 
pafs this fentence on the doftrincs of this lllumi- 
natiorii For it is a melancholy truth that they 
have been preached and recommended, for the 
moft part^ by clergymen, pariih-miniflers, who, 
in the prefence of invoked Deity, and in the face 
of the world, have fet their folemn ieal to a fyf- 
tem of doctrines dire£tly oppofite to thofe recom- 
mended in their writings ; which doctrines they 
folemnly profefs to believe, and folemnly fwear to 
inculcate. Surely the informations and indruc- 
tionsof fuch men lliould be rejedled. Where (hall 
wc find their real opinions ? In their folemn oaths? 
^-^or in thefe infidel differtations? — In either cafe, 
they are deceivers, whether mifled by vanity or 
by the mean defirc of church-emoluments ; or 
they are prcftitutes, courting the fociety of the 
wealthy and fenfual. Honedy, like juftice, admits 
of no degrees. A man is honed, or he is a knave, 
and who would trufb a knave ? But fuch men are 
unfuitable inftru6tors for another reai'on — they are 

unwife ; 



':>20 THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. CHAP, IV. 

unwife ; for, whatever they may think, they are 
not refpedled as men of worth, but are inwardly 
defpifed as parafites, by the rich, who admit them 
into their company, and treat them with civility, 
for their own realbns. We take inftrudlions not 
merely from the knowing, the learned, but from 
the wife — not therefore from men who give fuch 
evidences of wtaknefs. 

Such would be the condudl of a prudent man^ 
who lifcens to the inilru£tions of another with the 
ferious intention of profiting by them. In the pre- 
fent cafe he fees plain proofs of degraded ftlf ef- 
timation, of diflionefty, and of mean motives. But 
the prudent man will go further — he will remark 
that diifolute manners, and actions which are ine- 
vitably fubverfive of the peace and order, nay, 
of the very exiflence of fociety, are the natural 
and neceffary confequences of irreligion. Should 
any doubt of this remain in his mind ; (hould he 
fomctimcs think of an Epicftetus, or one or two in- 
dividuals of antiquity, who were eminently vir- 
tuous, without the influence of religious fan£tions, 
he fhould recollect, that the Stoics were animated 
by the thought, that while the wife man was play- 
ing the game of life, the gods were looking on, and 
pieafed with his fkiil. Let him read the beautiful 
account given by Dr. Smith of the rife of the 
Stoic philofcphy, and he will fee that it was an 
artificial but noble attempt of a few exalted minds, 
cnthufiafls in virtue, aiming to fteel their fouls 
againft the dreadful but unavoidable misfortunes 
to which they were continually expofed by the 
daily recurring revolutions in the turbulent demo- 
cracies of ancient Greece, There, a philofopher 
was this day a magiflrate, and the next day a cap- 
tive and a flave. He would fee that this fair pic- 
ture of mental happinefs and independence was 

fitted 



CHAP. IV, THE FRENCH B EVOLUTION. q:2I 



O 



fitte«l for the contemplation of only a few choice 
fphits, but had no influence on the bulk of man- 
kind. He muil admire the noble charaders who 
were animated by this manly enthLifiairij. and 
who have really exhibited fome wonderful pic- 
tures of virtuous heroifm ; but he will regret, that 
the influence of thefe manly, thcfe natural prin- 
ciples, was not more extenfive. lie will fayto 
himfelf, " How will a whole nation adt when re- 
*' ligious fanctions are removed, and men are ac- 
*' tuated by reafon alone?" — He is not without 
inflruction on this important fubjcdl. France has 
given an awful leiTon to furrounding nations, by 
lliewing them what is the natural erTect of fliaking; 
off the religious principle, and the veneration 
for that pure morality which characterifcs Chrii'- 
ftianity. By a decree of the Convention, (June 
6, 1794) it is declared, that there is nothing 
criminal in the promifcuous commerce of the 
fexes, and therefore nothing that derogates from 
the female character, when woman forgets that 
(he is the depofitary of all domeftic fatisfaclion 

that her honour is the facred bond of Co- 

cial life that on her modefty and delicacy 

depend all the refpetft and confidence that will 
make a man attach himfelf to her fociety, free 
her from labour, fliare with her the fruits of aii 
his own exertions, and work with willingnefs and de- 
light, that (lie may appear en all occahons his equal, 
and the ornament of all his acquifirions. In the ve- 
ry argument which this feleded body of fenators has 
given for the propriety of this decree, it has degraded 
woman below all eftiniation. '' It is to prevent her 
'* from i^iurdering the fruit of unlawful love, by re- 
*' moving her (hame, and by relieving her from the 
'' fear of want." The fenators fay, '' the Republic 
*' wantsxitizens, and therefore mufl not only re- 

" move 



322 



THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. 



CHAP. IV^' 



*' move this temptation of Ihame^ but miifl: take care 
*' of the mother while ihe nurfes the child.- It is 
*' the property of the nation, and muft not be loft." 
The woman all the while is confidered only as the 
fhe-aniraal, the breeder of Sans Culottes. This is 
ihejujl morality of Ilkmiiination. It is really amuf- 
ing (for things revolting to nature now amufe) to 
obferve with what fidelity the principles of the Illu- 
minati have expreffed the fentiments which take pof- 
feiTion of a people who have fliaken off the fan(fiions 
of Religion and morality. The following is part of 
the addrefs to Pfycharion and the company mention- 
ed in page 257 : '■' Once more, Pfycharion, I in- 
dulge you with a look behind you to the flowery 
days of childhood. Now look forwards, young 
woynan / the holy circle of the marriageable^ 
{ynannbaren) welcome you. Young men, honour 
the young woman^ the future breeder {gebaere- 
rin) !'^ Then, to all. — '' Rejoice in the dawn of" 
Illumination and of Freedom. Nature at laft en- 
joys her facred never-fading rights. Long was 
her voice kept dov/n by civil fubordination,^ but 
the days of your majority now draw nigh, and you 
v;ill no longer, under the authority of guardians, 
account it a reproach to conhder with enlighten- 
ed eyes the fecret workfhops of nature, and to en^ 
joy your work and duty." Minos thought thig 
very fine, but it raifed a terrible difturbance and 
broke up the aflembly. 

Such are the effecis of this boafted enlightening oi 
the human mind with refpecl. to religion and mora- 
lity. Let us next confider what is the refuit of the 
mighty informations which we have got in refpecl 
of our focial or political connexions. 

II. We have learned the fum total of this politi- 
cal Illumination, and fee that, if true, it is melancho- 
ly, deftruclivc of our prefent comforts, numerous as 

they 



CHAP. iv. THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. 323 

they are, and affords no profped of redrefs from 
which we can profit, but, on the contrary, plunges 
mankind into diffention, mutual injury, and univer- 
fal mifery, and all this for the chance only of prevail- 
ing in the contefi, and giving our pofterity a chance 
of going on in peace, if no change ihaii be produced, 
as in former times, by the efforts of ambitious men. 
But the Illumination appears to be partial, nay falfe. 
What is it ? It holds out to the prince nothing but 
the relignation of all hispofleffions, rights and claims, 
fandioned by the quiet poffeffion of ages, and by all 
the feelings of the human heart which give any no- 
tion of right to his lowed fubjed. All thefe poffef- 
lions and claims are difcovered to have arifen from 
ufurpations, and are therefore tyranny. It has been 
difcovered, that all fubordinate fubjedions were en- 
forced, therefore their continuance is Jlavery, But 
both of thefe hiflorical aflertions are in a great de- 
gree falfe, and the inferences from them are unrea- 
fonable. The world has gone on as we fee it go on 
at prefent. Moft principalities or fovereignties have 
ariien as we fee perfonal authorities and influence 
arife every day among ourfelves. Bufinefs for the 
whole muff be done. Moil men are fufiiciently oc- 
cupied by their private affairs, and they are indolent 
even in thefe — they are contented when another 
does the thing (or them. There is not a little vil- 
lage, nor a fjciety of men, where this is not feen 
every day. Some men have an enjoyment in 
this kind of vicarious employment. Other men 
like influence and power, and thus are compen- 
fated for their trouble. Thus many petty mana- 
gers of public affairs arife in every country. The 
mutual animofities or individuals, and ffiil more, 
the animohties of tribes, clans, and different af- 
fociations, give rife to another kind of fuperiors — 
io leaders, who dired the ffruggles of the reft, 

whether 



324 THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. CHAF. iv. 

whether for offence or defence. The defcendants of 
Ifrael faid, *' they wanted a man to go out before 
'' the people, like other nations." As the fmall buii- 
nefs of a few individuals requires a manager or a 
leader, fo do fome more general affairs of thefe petty 
fuperiors.-— Many of thefe alfo are indolent enough 
to wiih this trouble taken off their hands ; and thus 
another rank of fupericrs aiifes, and a third, and fo 
on, till a great State may be formed ; and in this 
gradation each clafs is a competent judge of the 
condud of that ciafs only which is immediately 



above it. 






All this may arife, and has often arifen, from vo- 
luntary conceflion alone. This concellion may pro- 
ceed from various caufes, — from confidence in fu- 
perior talents — from confidence in great worth, — 
mofi: generally from the refped or deference which 
all men feel for great poffeffions. This is frequent- 
ly founded in felf-intereff and expedations of ad- 
vantage ; but it is natural to man, and perhaps fprings 
rom our inflindive fympathy with the fatisfadions 
of others— we are unwilling to dillurb them, and 
even wi(h to promote them. 

But this fubordination may arife, and has often 
arifen, from other caufes — from the love of power 
and influence, which makes fome men eager to lead 
others, or even to manage their concerns. We fee 
this every day, and it may be perfedly innocent. It 
often arifes from the defire of gain of one kind or 
another. ---This alfo may frequently be indulged 
with perfed innocence, and even with general ad- 
vantage. Frequently, however, this fubordination 
J,s produced by the love of power or of gain pufhed 
loan immoderate degree of ambition, and rendered 
unjufl:. Now there arife oppreffion, tyranny, fuf- 
Jenngs, ^nd fiavrry. Now appears an oppofftion 
between the rights or claims of the ruler and of the 

people. 



CfiAP. iv. THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. 3^^ 

fjeople. Now the rulers come i6 confider them- 
ielves as a d ifferentclafs, and theirtranfadionsai enow- 
only with each other.— Prince becomes the rival or 
the enemy of Prince; and in their Cornells one pre- 
vails, and the dominion is enlarged. This rivalfhip 
may have began in any rank of fuperiors ; even be- 
tween the firli managers of the affairs of the fmalleft 
communities ; and it muft be remarked that thev 
only are the immediate gainers or lofers in the con- 
teli, while thofe below them live at eafe, enjoying 
many advantages of the delegation of their own 
concerns. 

No human fociety has ever proceeded purely in 
either of thefe two ways, but there has alwavs been 
a mixture of both. — But this procefs is indifpenfa- 
bly neceffary for the formation of a great nation, 
and for all the confequences that refult only from 
fuch a coalition.— Therefore it is neceffary forgiv- 
ing rife to all thofe comforts, and luxuries, and ele- 
gances, which are to be fotind only in great and 
Cultivated ftates. It is neceffary for producing fuch 
enjoyments as we fee around us in Europe, which 
we prize f© highly, and for which we are making ali 
this ftir and diftarbance, I believe that no man 
who expeds to be believed will pofitively affert that 
human nature and human enjoyments are not me- 
liorated by this cultivation.— It feems to be the in- 
tention of nature, and, notwithftanding the follies and 
vices of many, we can have little hefitation va fay- 
ing that there are in the mod cultivated nations of 
Europe, and even in the higheft ranks of thofe na- 
tions, men of great virtue and worth, and of high 
^ccomplifhment- — Nor can we deny that fuch men 
are the finefl: fpecimens of human nature. Roffeau 
indeed wrote a whiraiical pamphlet, in which he had 
the vanity to think that he had proved that all thefe 
fruits of cultivation were ioffes to humanity and vir- 
tue—Yet Rouffeau could not be contented with the 

2 S fociety 



3^6 TftE FRENCH REVOLUTION. CHAP. iV- 

focicty of the rude and unpoliflied, although he pre- 
tended that he was aKiioft the fole vvorfiiipper of pure 
virtue. — He fupported himfeh', not by alFifting the 
iimple peafant,. but by wriung inufic and lufcious 
novels for the pampered rich. 

This is the circumftance entirely overlooked, or 
anfully kept out of fight, in the boafted Illumina- 
tion of thefe days. No attention is paid to the im- 
portant changes which have happened in national 
greatnefs, in national connedion, in national im- 
provement — -yet we never think of parting with any 
of the advantages, real or imaginary, which thefe 
changes have produced — nor do we refled that in 
order to keep a great nation together — to make it 
ad with equality, or with preponderancy, among 
other nations, the individual exertions muft be con- 
centrated, mull be direded — and that this requires 
a ruler vefted with fupreme power, and interefied by 
fome great and endearing motive^ liich as hereditary 
pofleilion of this power and influence, to maintaiii 
and defend this coalition of men. — All this is over- 
looked, and we attend onlv to the fubordination 
which is indifpenfably neceffary. Its grievances are 
immediately felt, and they are heightened tenfold by 
a delicacy or fenfibility which fprings from the great 
improvements in the accommodations and enjoy- 
ments of life, which the gradual ufurpation and fub- 
iequent fubordination have produced, and continue 
to fupport. But we are determined to have the 
elegance and grandeur of a palace withoi;t the 
prince. — We will not give up any of our luxuries 
and refinements, yet will not fupport thofe high 
ranks and thofe nice minds which puoduced them, 
and which mull continue to keep them from degene- 
rating into barbarous hm.plicity and coarfe fenfuality. 
We would keep the philofophers, the poets, the 
artiiis, but not the Maeccnafes. It is very true that 
in fuch a ilate there would be no Conjiiraiion des 

Philofopkes ; 



onAP. ir. THE FRENCH IMtVOLUTlO:^. 327 

Philofophes ; for in fuch a fiate this vermin oi pbilo- 
fophes and fcribblers would not have exifled. In 
(hort, we would have what is impoflTible. 

I have no hehtation in faying, that the Britidi 
Conflitution is the form of government for a 
^reat and refined nation^ in which the ruling fenti- 
ments and propenhties of human nature feem 
moil happily blended and balanced. There is no 
occaiion to vaunt it as the ancient rights of Bri- 
tons, the wifdom of ages, &c. It has attained its 
prefent pitch of perfedion by degrees, and this 
not by the efforts of wifdom, but by the flruggles 
of vice and folly, working on a rich fund of good 
nature, and of manly fpirit, that are confpicuous 
in the Britifh charadler. I do not hefitate to fay- 
that it is the only form of government which will 
admit and give full excrcife to all the refpedlable 
propenfities of our nature, with the leail chance 
of difturbance and the greateft probability of 
man's arriving at the highefl: pitch of improve- 
ment in every thing that raifes him above the 
beads of the iield. Yet there is no part of it that 
may not, that is not, abufed, by pufhing it to an 
improper length, and the fame w^atchful care is 
neceifary for preferving our ineftimable bleilings 
that was employed in acquiring them. This is to 
be done, not by flying at once to an abfcradt theory 
of the rights of man. There is an evident folly in 
this procedure. What is this theory ? It is the 
beft general flietch that we can draw of focial life, 
deduced from our knowledge of human nature. 
And what is this knowledge? It is a well digefled 
abflra6t, or rather a declaration of uohat we have 
obfervedo^ human adlions. What is the uie tiiere- 
fore of this intermediate pi£lure, this theory of 
the rights of man ?—It has a chance of being un- 
like the original it muft certainly have imper- 

fe(ftions, 



* 



358 THE FRENCH REVOLUTION, CHAP. iv. 

feclions, therefore it can be of no ufe to us. We 
iliould go at once to the original — we {honld con-' 
fider how men have adted-. — what have been their 
mutual expedlations — their fond propenfities — ^ 
what of theie are inconfiftent with each other — 
what are the degrees of indulgence which have 
been admitted in them all without difturbance. — 
I will venture to fay that whoever does this, will 
find himfeif imperceptibly led to contemplate a 
mixed hereditary monarchy, and will figure to 
himfeif a parliament of King, Lords, and Com- 
mons, all looking at each othe^' with fomewhatof 
a cautious or jealous eye, while the reft of the na- 
tion are fitting, '' each under his ovvm vine and 
*' under his own fig-tree, and there is none to 
" make him afraid ;"— in one word, the Conlli- 
tution of Great Britain. 

A mod valuable r'fult of fuch contemplation 
will be a thorough convidlion that the grievance 
which is moft clamoroufly infilled on is the inevi- 
table confequence of the liberty and fecurity which 
we enjoy. I mean minifterial corruption, with all 
the dilmal tale of placemen, and penfioners, and 
rotten boroughs, &c. &c. Thefe are never fcen 

in a defpotic government there they are not 

Wanted — nor can they be very apparent in an un- 
cultivated and poor date — but in a luxurious na- 
tion, where pleafures abound, whete the returns 
of induftry are fecure; here an individual looks 
on every thing as his own acquifition- — he does not 
feel his relation to the flate — has no patriotifm— 
thinks that he would be much happier if the ftate 
would let him alone. He is fretted by the re- 
ftraints which the public weal lays on him — there- 
fore government and governors appear as checks 
and hindrances to his exertions— hence a general 
inclination to refill adminillration. Yet public 

bufmefs 



CHAP. IV. THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. 32^ 

bufinefs muft be done, that we may He down and 
rife again in fafety and peace. Admiifiilration mud: 
be fupported — there are always perions who wifii 
to poffefs the power that is exercifed by the pre- 
lent minifters, and would turn them out. How is 
all this to be remedied ? I ice no way but by ap- 
plying to the felfiQi views of individuals— by re- 
warding the friends of adminifbration — This may 
be done with perfect virtue— and from this the 
felfifli will conceive hopes, and will fupport a vir- 
tuous minidry— but they are as ready to help a 
wicked one. This becomes the greatefl misfor- 
tune of a free nation. Miniflers are tempted to 
bribe — and, if a fyilematic oppofition be coniider- 
ed as a neceffary part of a practical conftitution, 
it is almoft indifpenfable — and it is no where lb 
prevalent as in a pore democracy. Lav/s may be 
contrived to make it very troublefome, but can 
never extirpate it nor greatly diminifn it : this can 
be done only by defpotifm, or by national virtue. 
It is a (hameful complaint we (hould not repro- 
bate a few miniflers, but the thoufands who take 
the bribes. Nothing tends fo much to diminifli it 
in a corrupted nation as great limitations to the 
eligibility of reprefentatives — and this is the beauty 
of our conftitution. 

JVe have not difcovered^ therefore, by this boafl- 
ed Illumination, that Princes and fuperiors are 
nieiefs, and mud vanifh from the earth ; nor that 
the people have now attained full age, ?-nd are fit 
to govern themfelves. We want only to revel a 
little on the laft fruits of national cultivation, 
which we would quickly confume, and never al- 
low to be railed again. No matter how this pro- 
grefs began, whether from conceflion or ufurpa- 
tion — We pofTefs it, and, if wife, we will preferve 
it, by preferving its indifpenfable fupports. They 

have 



ti 



330 THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. CHAP. IV. 

have indeed been frequently employed very im- 
properly, but their mo(l pernicious abufe has been 
this breed of fcribbling vermin, which have made 
the body politic fmart in every limb. 

Hear what opinion was entertained of the fages 
of France by their Prince, the father of Louis 
XVL the unfortunate martyr of Monarchy. *' By 
" the principles of our new Philofophers, the 
" Throne no longer wears the fplendour^t^f divi* 
nity. They maintain that it arofe from vio- 
lence, and that by the fame juitice that force 
erected it, force may again (hake it, and over- 
" turn it. The people can never give up their 
" power. They only let it out for their own ad- 
*' vantage, and always retain the right to refcind 
" the contract, and rcfume it whenever their per- 
^' fonal advantage, their only rule of condu£t, 
" requires it. Our philofophers teach in public 
*' what our pailions fuggefl only in fecret. They 
** fay to the Prince that all is permitted only 
" when all is in his power, and that his duty is 
" fulfilled when he has pleafed his fancy. Then, 
*' furely, if the laws of felf-interelt, that is, the 
'' felf-will of human paHions, (liall be fo generally 
" admitted, that we thereupon forget the eternal 
'' laws of God and of Nature, ?dl conceptions of 
'^ right and wrong, of virtue and vice, of good 
" and evil, mud be extirpated from the human 
*' heart. The throne mud totter, the fubjefts 
*' mud become unmanageable and mutinous, and 
'' their ruler hard-hearted and inhuman. The 
" people will be inceifantly oppreffed or in an 
" uproar."—" What fervice will it be if I order 
" fuch a book to be burnt, ^ — the author can Vv^rite 
*' another to-morrow,'' This opinion of a Prince 
is unpoHQicd indetd, and homely, hut itJs juft. 

Weiihaupt 



CHAP. iv. T«E FRENCH REVOLUTION, 33I 

Wciftiaupt grants, that " there will be a terri- 
" ble convulfion, and a ftorm — but this Vvill be 
" fucceeded by a calm— -the unequal will now be 
" equal — and when the caufe of difienlion is thus 
*' removed, the world will be in peace."-— True, 
when the caufesof diiFenfion are removed. Thus, 
the deflrudtion of our crop by vermin is at an end 
when a flood has fwcpt every thing away — but 
as new plants will fpring up in the wade, and, if 
not indantly devoured, will again cover the ground 
with verdure, fo the induftry of man, and his de- 
lire of comfort and confideration, will again ac- 
cumulate in the hands of the diligent a greater 
proportion of the good things of life. In this in- 
fant (late of the emerging remains of former cul- 
tivation, comforts, which the prefent inhabitants 
of Europe would look on with contempt, will be 
great, improper, and hazardous acquifitions. The 
principles which authorife the propofed dreadful 
equalifation will as judly entitle the idleorunfuc- 
cefsful of future days to ilrip the pofleiTor of his 
advantages, and things mud ever remain on their 
favage level. 

III. I think that the impreffion which the in- 
iincerity of condud: of thole inftructors will leave 
on the mind, mud be highly ufeful. They are evi- 
dently teaching vv'hat they do not believe them- 
felves — and here I do not confine my remark to 
their preparatory doctrines, which they after- 
wards explode. I make it chiciiy with refpect 
to their grand odenfible principle, which per- 
vades the whole, a principle whicii they arc 
obliged to adopt againd their will, -They knovy 
that the principles of virtue are rooted in the 

heart, and that they can only be fmothered 

but did they pretend to eradicate them and pro- 
claiai bominem homini lupura. all would fourn at their 

irircruidion 



# 



33'2 TME FRENCH REVOLL'TION. CHAP. iVi 

inflrudion. We are wheedled, by tickling our fan- 
cy with a notion that facred virtue is not onjy fecure, 
but that it is only in fuch hearts that it exerts its na- 
tive energy. Senfible that the levelling maxims now 
fpoken of are revolting to the mind, the Illumina- 
tors are under the neceffity of keeping us from look- 
ing at the fhocking pidure, by difplaying a beauti- 
ful fcene of Utopian happinefs — and they rock us 
afleep by the eternal lullaby of morality and univer- 
fal phitanthropyi Therefore the foregoing narra- 
tion of the perfonal condud of thefe inftrudorsand 
reformers of the worlds is highly ufeful. All this is 
to be brought about by the native lovelinefs of pure 
virtue, purged of the corruptions which fuperfli- 
tious fears have introduced, and alfo purged of the 
leififh thoughts which are avowed by the advocates 
of what their opponents call true religion. This is 
faid to hold forth eternal rewards to the good, and to 
threaten the wicked with dreadful punifhment. Ex- 
perience has fhovvn how inefficient fuch motives 
are. Can they be otherwife? lay our Illuminators. 
Are they not addrelTed to s principle that is ungene- 
rous and felfilh ? But our dodrines, fay they, touch 
the hearts of the worthy. Virtue is beloved for her 
own fake, and all will yield to her gentle fway. Bu6 
look, Reader, look at Spartacus the murderer, at 
Cato the keeper of poifons and the thief— Look at 
Tiberius^ at Alcibiades, and the relief the Bavarian 
Pandemonium. Look at poor Bahrdt. Go to 
France — look at Lequinio, at Condorcet*. Look 

* De la Metherie fays, (Journ. de Phyf. Nov. 1792,) thaE 
CondQrcet was brought up in the houfe of the old Duke of Ro- 
thefoucault, who treated him as his fon — -got Turgot to create a 
hicrative office for him, and raifed him to all his eminence — yet 
he purfued him with malicious reports — and adlually employed 
ruffians to afTaffinate him Yet is Condorcet's writing a model of 
Aimianity and tcndernefs. 

at 



kllAP. iVi THE FRENCH REVOLUTIONTw 



333 



at the Monfter Orleans, 'All were liars. Their 

Hivinity had no influence on tht^ir profligate minds. 
They only wanted to wheedle yon, by touching the? 
firings of huraanity and goodnefs which are yet 
braced up in your heart, and which ftill yield fweet 
harmony if you wil! accompany their notes with 
thofe of religion, and neither clog them vvith the 
groveling pleafures of fenfe, nor damp the whole 
with the thouscht of eternal lilence. 

A moil worthy and accomplifhed gentleman, who 
took refuge in this country, leaving behind him his 
property, and friends to whom he was moft tenderly 
attached, often faid to nie that no'hirig fo much af- 
fecled him as the revolution in the hearts of men. 
^M^haraders which were unfpotted, hearts thorough- 
ly known to himfelf, having been tried by many 
things which fearch the inmoll folds of felfifhnefs or 
malevolence — in (hcrt, perfens whofe judgments 
were excellent, and on whofe worth he could have 
relied his honour and his life, fo fafcinated by the 
contagion, that they came at lall: to behold, and even 
to commit the moft atrocious crimes with delight. — 
He ufed foraetimes to utter a figh which pierced my 
heart, and would fay, that it was caufed by fome of 
thofe things that had come acrofs his thoughts. He 
breathed his laft among us, declaring that it was im- 
poflible to recover peace of mind, without a total ob- 
livion of the wickednefs and miferies he had beheld. 
—What a valuable advice, '* Let him that thinketh 
he ftandeth, take heed left he fall."— When the pro- 
phet told Hazael that he would betray his Prince, he 
exclaimed, '' Is thy fervant a dog, that he fhould do 
fuch a thing ?" Yet next day he murdered him. 

Never lince the beginning of the world, has true 
religion received fo complete an acknowledgment of 
her excellence, as has been extorted from the fana- 
tics who have attempted to deflroy her. Religion 

2 T ftood 



;^54 TfiE FRENCH REVOLUTION, CHAI*. 11% 

ftood in their way, and the wretch Marat, as well as 
the fteady villain Weifliaupt, faw that they could 
nor. proceed till they had eradicated all fentiments of 
of the moral government of the univerfe. Human 
nature, improved as it has been by religion, flirunk 
from the tafks that were impofed, and it mufl: there- 
fore be brutalized — The grand conlederation was fo- 
lemniy fworn to by millions in every corner of 
France— -but, as Mirabeau faid of the declaration of 
the Rights of Man, it mult be made only the '* Al- 
manack of the bygone year"— Therefore Lequinio 
muft write a book, declaring oaths to be nonfenfe, 
unworthy of San Culottes, and all religion to be a 
farce. Not long after, they found that they had fome 
ufe for a God — but he was gone-— and they could 
not nnd another. Their conflitution was gone— 
and they have not yet found another. What is now 
left them on which they can depend for awing a man 
into a refpecl for truth in his judicial declarations ? 
what but the honour of a Citizen of France, who 
laughs at all engagements, which he has broken 
again and again ? Religion has taken off with her 
every fenfe of human duty. What can we expecl: 
but villainy from an ArchbiQiop of Paris and his 
chapter, who made a public profefTion that they had 
been playing the villains for many ^ears, teaching 
wdiat they thought to be a bundle of lies ? What 
but the very thing which they have done, cutting 
each other's throats ? — Have not the enlightened ci- 
tizens of France applauded the execution of their fa- 
thers ? Have not the furies of Paris denounced 
their own children ? But turn your eyes from the 
horrifying fpeciacle, and think on your own noble 
defcent and alliance. You are not the accidental 
productions of a fatal chaos, but the w'ork of a Great 
Artift, creatures that are cared for, born to noble 
profpeds, and conduded to them by the plaineil 

and 



CHAP. IV. THE FRSNSH REVOLUTION. 33^ 

and moil fimple precepts, " to do juftly, to love 
" mercy, and to walk humbly before God," not be- 
ivlldered by the falfe and fluttering glare of French 
Philofophy, but conduced by this clear, tingle light, 
perceivable by all, "Do to others what you (hould 
" reafonably expedl them to do to you." 

Think not the Mufe whofe fober voice you hear, 
, Contra(?ts with bigot fr©\vn her fullen brow, 
Cafts round Religion's orb the mills of Fear, 

Or (hades with horror what with fmiles fhould jHow. 

No — (he would warn you with feraphic fire, 

Heirs as ye are of Heaven's eternal day. 
Would bid you boldly to that Heaven afplre, 

Not link and fiumber in your cells of clay. 

Is this the bigot's rant ? Away, ye vain, 

Your doubts, your fears, in gloomy dulnefs fteep ; 

Go — foothe yeur fouls in ficknefs, death, or pain, 
With the fad folace of eternal fleep. 

Yet know, vain fceptics, know, th' Almighty Mind, 

Who breath'd on man a portion of his fire, 
Bade his free foul, by earth nor time confin'd. 

To Heaven, to immortality afpire. 

Nor ihall this pile of hope his bounty rear'd, 
. By vain philofophy be e'er deftroy'd ; 
Eternity, by all or hop'd or fear'd, 
Shall be by all or fuffer'd or enjoy'd^ 

Mason. 

The unfortunate Prince who has taken refuse iri 
this kingdom, and whofe fituation among us is an 
iiiuflrious mark of the generofity of the nation, and 
of the fovereignty of its laws, faid to one of the 
Gentleman about him, that '' if this country was to 
*' efcape the general wreck of nations, it would 
" owe its prefervation to Religion." — -When this 
was doubted, and it was obferved, that there had 
not been wanting many Religionifls in Fnuice : 

- Tiue,^-'' 



336 THE FRENCH REVOLUTJON. €HAP, iVc 

*' True," faid the Prince, " but they were not in 
*' earned.— I fee here a ferious intereft in the thing, 
*' The people know what they aie doing when they 
*' go to church — they underilaod fomething of ir, 
" and take an intereil in it." May his obfervation 
be jutt, and his expedations be fulfilled ! 

IV. I would again call upon my coLintrywomen 
with the moil earnefl concern^ and befcech them to 
iconiider this fubjecl as of more particular imporiance 
10 themfelves than even to the men.— While wo- 
man is confidered as a refpeflable nioral agent, train- 
ing along with ourfelves for endiefs improvement j 
then, and only then, will (he be confidered by lord- 
ly man as his equal ;-— then, and only then, will fhe 
be allowed to have any rights, and thofe rights be 
refpeded. Strip women of this prerogative, and 
they become the drudges of man's indolence, or the 
pampered playthings of liis idle hours, fubjeci to 
his caprices, and flaves to his mean paflions. Soon 
will their prefent empire of gallantry be over. It 
is a refinement of manners v;hich fprang from 
Chriflianity ; and when Chriftianity is forgotten, 
this artificial diadem will be taken from their heads, 
and unlels they adopc the ferocious fentim.ents of 
their Gallic neighbour;;, and join in the general 
uproar, they will link into the ififignincance of the 
women in the turbulent republics of Greece, 
wheie they are never feen in the bufy haunts of 
*Tnen, if we except four or five, w-ho, during the 
pourfe of as many centuries, emerged from the 
general obfcurity, and appear in the hilioric page, 
by their uncoramon talents, and by the facrifice 
of Vvhat my fair country v^omen ftill hold to be 
the ornament of their fex. I would remind them, 
that they have it in thtir power to retain their 
prelent honourable llation in fociety. They are 
our early inftru(itors 5 and while mothers in the 

refpettable 



iJHAP, IV* THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. 33^ 

refpe^lable ftations of life continued to inculcate 
on the tender minds of their Tons a veneration 
for the precepts of R.cIigion, their pliant children, 
receiving their initrudions along with the affec- 
tionate careiles of their mothers, got impreifions 
which long retained their force, and which pro- 
tected them from the impulfes of youthful paffions, 
till ripening years fitted their minds for liftening 
to fcrious inllru£lion from their public teachers. 
Sobriety and decency of manners were then no 
liar on the character of a youth, and he was 
thought capable of flruggling for independence, 
or pre-eminence, fit either for fupporting or de- 
fending the iiiate, although he was neither a toper 
nor a rake. 1 believe that no man who has feen 
thirty or forty yearg of life will deny that the 
manners of youth are fadly changed in this refpeft. 
And, without prefuiTiing to fay that this has pro- 
ceeded from the negle6t, and almoll total ceifa- 
tion of the moral education of the nurfery, I think 
myfelf well warranted, from my own obiervation, 
to fay that this education and the fober manners 
of young men have quitted us together. 

Some will call this prudery, and croaking. But 
I am almod tranfcribing from Cicero, and from 
Quintilian. Cornelia, Aurelia, Attia, and other 
ladies of the firft rank, are praifed by Cicero only 
for their eminence in this refpecl ; but not becaufe 
they vv^ere (ingular, Ouintilian fays, that in the 
time immediately prior to his own, it had been 
the general pra£lice of the ladies of rank to fuper- 
intend the moral education both of fons and 
daughters. But of late, fays he, they are fo engag- 
ed in continual and corrupting amufements, fuch 
as the fhows of gladiators, horfe-racing, and deep 
play, that they have no time, and have yielded 
their places to Greek governeires and tutors, out 

call" 
s 



33^ THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. CHAP. FV, 

caftsof a nation more fubdued by their own vices 

than by the Roman arms 1 dare fay this was 

laughed at, as croaking about the corruption of 
the age. But what was the confequence of all 
this? — The Romans became the mofl abandoned 
vokiptuaiies, and, to preferve their mean plea- 
fures, they crouched as willing Haves to a fuccef- 
lion of the vilefl tyrants that ever difgraced hu- 
manity. 

What a noble fund of felf-eftimation would our 
fair partners acquire to themfeives, if, by reform- 
ing the manners of the young generation, tiiey 
(hould be the means of reftoring peace to the 
world ! They have it in their pouuer, by the re- 
newal of the good old cuftom of early inilruc- 
tion, and perhaps dill more, by impreiling on the 
minds of their daughters the fame fentiments, and 
obliging them to refpe£t fobriety and decency in 
the youth, and pointedly to withhold their fmiles 
and civilities from all who tranlgrefs thefe in the 
fmaileil degree. This is a method of proceeding 
that will mo ft certainly be vidorious. Then indeed 
will the women be the faviours of their country. 
While therefore the German fair have been re- 
peatedly branded with having welcomed the 
French invaders*, let our ladies ftand up for the 
honour of free-born Britons, by turning agaiuR 
the pretended ealighteners of the world, the arms 
which nature has put into their hands, and which 
thofe proiiigates have prefumptuouily expeded to 

* I have met with this charge in many places ; and one book 
in particular, written by a Pruflian General Officer, who was m 
the country over-run by tne French troop7, gives a detail of the 
coudud of the women that Is very remarkable. He idfo fays, that 
infidelity has become very prevalent among the ladles in the higher 
circles. Indeed this melancholy account is to be found in many 
paiTages of the private correfpondence of the Illaminatl. 

employ 



CHAP. IV, THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. 33^ 

employ in extending their influence over mankind. 
The empire of beaut}^ is but fhort, but the em- 
pire of virtue is durable ; nor is there an indance 
to be met with of its decline. If it be yet podible 
to reform the world, it is poilible for the fair. By 
the conditution of human nature, they muft al- 
ways appear as the ornament of human life, and 
be the objects of fondnefs and affe£lion ; fo that 
if any thing can make head againft the felfifh and 
overbearing difpofitions of man, it is his refpedful 
regard for the fex. But mere fondnefs has but lit- 
tle of the rational creature in it, and we fee it har- 
bour every day in the bread that is filled with the 
meanefl and mofl turbulent pallions. No where is 
it fo llrong as in the harems of the eaft; and as 
long as the women afl^ nothing of the men but 
fondnefs and admiration, they will get nothing 
clfe — they will never be refpedled. But let them 
roufe themfelves, afTert their dignity, by fliewing 
their own elevated fentiments of human nature, 
and by afting up to this claim, and they may then 
command the world. 

V. Another good confequencc that (liould re- 
fblt from the account that has been given of tlie 
proceedings of this confpiracy is, that lince the 
fafcinatiug picture of human life, by which men 
have been wheedled into immediate anarchy and 
rebellion, is infmcere, and a mere artificial crea- 
ture of the imagination, it can have no (leadinefs, 
but muft be changed by every freak of fancy, or 
by every ingenious fophifl, who can give an equal 
plaufibility to whatever fuits his prefcnt views. It 
is as much an airy phantom as any other whim of 
Free Mafonry, and has no prototype, no original 
pattern in human nature, to which recourfe may 
always be had, to correal mifcakes, and keep things 
in a conllant tenor. Has not France given the 

moft 



340 THE FREKCH REVOLUTION. CHAP, Ws 

moil unequivocal proofs of this? Was not the de- 
cJaration of the Rights of Man, the produ£tion of 
their mod brilliant Iliuminators, a picture, in ab- 
flraCio^ where man was placed at a diftance from 
the eye, that no faHc light of local fituation might 
pervert the judgment or engage the paflions? Wa5 
it not declared to be the mafter-piece of human 
wifdom? Did not the nation confider it at leifure? 
and, having it continually before their eyes, did 
they not, flep by flep, give their affent to the dif- 
ferent articles of their Conftitution, derived from 
it, and fabricated by their moH choice Illumina- 
tors? And did not this Conftitution draw the ap- 
plaufes of tlie bright geniufes of other nations^ 
who by this time were bufy in perfuading^ each 
his countrymen, that they were ignoramufes in 
ftatiftics, and patient flaves of opprcllion or of an-* 
cient prejudices? Did not panegyrics on it ifTue 
from every garret in London ? Where is it now ? 
where is its (uccefTor ? Has any one plan of govern- 
ment fubfiiled, except v/hile it was fupported by 
the incontroulable and inexorable power of the 
guillotine? Is not the prefent adminiftration of 
France as much as ever the object of difcontent 
and of terror, and its coercions as like aS ever to 
the fummary jullice of the Paridan mob? Is there 
any probability of its permanency in a flate of 
peace, w hen the fears of a foreign enemy no lon-^ 
ger give a confoiidation to their meafures, and 
oblige them either to agree among themfelvcs, or 
immediately to perifh? 

VI. The above accounts evince in the mofL 
uncontrovertible manner the dangerous tendency 
of all myftical focieties, and of all aflbciations 
who hold iccret meetings We fee that their uni- 
form progrefs has been from frivolity and nonfenfe 
to wickcdneis and fedition. Wciftiaupt has been 

at 



CHAP, iv, tHE FRENCH REYOLUTION. 34! 

at great pains to fliew the good effe^i-s of fecrecy iii 
the Aflbciation, and the arguments are valid for 
this purpofe. But all his arguments are fo many 
dilTuafive advices to every thinking and fober 
mind. The man who really wi{hes to dilcover ail 
abftrnfe truth will place himfclf, if poflible in a 
valin fituation, and will by no means cxpofe him- 
felf to the impatient hankering for fecrets and 
wonders-— and he will always fear that a thing 
which refolutely conceals itfelf cannot bear the 
light. All wilo have ferioufly employed them- 
felves in the difcovery of truth have found the 
great advantages of open communication of fen- 
timent. And it is againfl common fenfe to ima- 
gine that there is any thing of vafl importance td 
mankind which is yet a fecret, and which mufh 
be kept a fecret in order to be ufeful. This is 
againft the whole experience of mankind- — And 
furcly to hug in one's breall: a fecret of fuch mighty 
importance, is to give the lie to ail our profeflions 
of brotherly love. What a folecifm ! a fecret to 
fenlighten and reform the whole world. We ren- 
der all our endeavours impotent when we grafp at 
a tiling beyond our power. Let an aflbciation be 
formed with a ferious plan for reforming its own 
members, and let them extend in numbers in pro- 
portion as they fucceed — this miglit do fome good; 
But mud the way of doing this be a fecret? — It 
Inay be to many— who will not look for it where 
it is to be found— It is this: 

<« Do good, — 'feek peace,— and purfue it.** 

but it is almofh aifronting the reader to fuppofe 
Arguments neceffary on this point. If there be 1 
ncceffity for fecrecy, the purpofe of the aflbcia- 
tion is either frivolous, or it is felfifli. 

2 U Now 



343 THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. C}iAf, lY^ 

Now, in either cafe, the danger of fuch fecrefe 
afiemblies is manifefl. Mere frivolity can never 
ferioufly occupy men come to age. And accord- 
ingly we fee that in every quarter of Europe where 
Free Mafonry has been eilabliQied, the Lodges 
have become feed-beds of public mifchief. I be- 
lieve that no ordinary brother will fay that the 
occupations in the Lodges are any thing better 
than frivolous, very frivolous indeed. The diflri- 
bution of charity needs be no.fecret, and it is but 
a very fmall part of the employment of the meet- 
ing. This being the cafe it is in human nature 
that the greater we fuppofe the frivolity of fuch 
an affociation to be, the greater is the chance of 
its ceafing to give fufficient occupation to the 
mind, and the greater is the riilc that the m.eet- 
ings may be employed to other purpofes which 
require concealment. When this happens, felf- 
interefl alone mufc prompt and rule, and now 
there is no length that fome men will not go, when 
they think themfelves in no danger of detedtion 
and punifhment. The whole proceedings of the 
fecret focieties of Free Mafons on the Continent 
(and J am authorifed to fay, of fome Lodges in 
Britain) have taken one turn, and this turn is 
«erfe6liy natural. In all countries there are men 
of licentious morals. Such men wifh to have a 
iafe opportunity of indulging their wits in fatire 
and farcafm ; and they are pleafed with the fup- 
port of others. The defne of making profelytes is 
in every breaft — andit is whetted by the reftraints 
of fociety. And all countries have difcontented 
men, whofe grumblings will raife difcontent in 
otliers, v/ho might not have attended to fome of 
the trifling hardfhips and injuries they met with,. 
had they not been reminded of them. To be dif- 
contented, and not to think of fchcmes of redrefs^ 

is 



CHAP. iv. THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. 343 

is what we cannot think natural or manly — and 
where can fuch fentiments and fchemes find fuch 
fafe utterance and fuch probable fupport as in a 
fecret fociety? Free Malbnry is innocent of all 
thefe things; but Free Mafonry has been abufed, 
and at lafl totally perverted — and fo will and muft 
any fuch lecret affociation, as long as men are li- 
centious in their opinions or wicked in their dif- 
pofitions. 

It were devoutly to be wifhed therefore that the 
whole fraternity would imitate the truly benevo- 
lent conduft of thofe German Lodges who have 
formally broken up, and made a patriotic facrifice 
of their amufement to the fafety of the flate. I 
cannot think the facrifice great or coftly. It can 
be no difRcult matter to find as pleafing a way of 

palling a vacant hour and the charitable deeds 

of the members need not diminilli in the fmallefl 
degree. Every perfon's little circle of acquaint- 
ance will give him opportunities of gratifying his 
kind difpofitions, without the chance of being mif- 
taken in the worth of the perfon on whom he be- 
llows his favours. There is no occafion to go to 
St. Peterfburg for a poor Brother, nor to India for 
a convert to Chriftianity, as long as we fee fo 
many futferers and infidels among ourfelves. 

But not only are fecret focieties dangerous, but 
all focieties whofe objedl is myClerious. The whole 
hiftory of man is a proof of this pofition. In no 
age or country has there ever appeared a myfteri- 
ous affociation which did not in time become a 
public nuifance. Ingenious or defigning men of 
letters have attempted to (how that fome of the 
ancient myfteries were ufeful to mankind, con- 
taining rational dodrines of natural religion. This 
was the ilrong hold of Wcilhaupt, and he quotes 
the Eleufmian, the Pythagorean, and other myf- 

teries. 



344 THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. CHAP, iv, 

teries. Biitfiirely their external fignsand tokens were 
every thing that is (liocking to decency and civil 
order. It is uncommon preturaption for the learn- 
ed of the eighteenth century to pretend to know- 
more about them than their contemporaries, the 
philofophers, the lawgivers of antiquity. Thefe 
give no fuch account of them. I would defire any 
perfon who admires the ingenious diifertations of 
Dr. Warburton to read a dull German book, calU 
Caraderjftik der Myjitrien der Altern^ publiilied 
at Frankfort in 1787. The author conteiits him 
fclf with a patient colledion of every fcrap of 
every ancient author who h^s faid any thing about 
^hem. If the reader can fee anything in them hut 
the moil abfurd and immoral polytheifm and fa- 
ble, he muil take words in a ien{e that is ufelefs ia 
reading any other piece of ancient compofition, 
I haye a notion that the Dionyfiacs of lona had 
ibme fcientific fecrets, vi^. all the knowledo-e of 
practical mechanics which was employed by their 
architects and engineers, and that they were re • 
ally a Mafonic Fraternity. But, like the Illuminati^ 
they tagged to the fecrets of Mafonry the fecret 
of drunkennefs and debauchery ; they had their 
Sifter Lodges, and at laft became rebels, fubver- 
tcrs of the ftates where they were protected, till 
aiming at the dominion of all Ionia, they were 
attacked by the neighbouring dates and difperfed. 
They v^ere Illuminators too, and wanted to in- 
troduce the worfhip of Bacchus over the whole 
country, as appears in the account of them given 
by Strabo. Perhaps the Pythagoreans had alio 
fome icientific (ecrets ; but they too were Illumi- 
nators, and thought it their duty to overfet the 
State, and were themfelves overiet. 

Nothing is fo dangerous as a myilic AiTnciation. 
The objc£t remaining a fecret ii) the hands of the 

managers 



I3HAP, iv, THE FRENCH P.EVOi.UTlOM. 54* 

managers, the reft fimply put a ring in their own 
nofes, by whicli they may be led about at pieafure j 
and flill panting after the fecret, thej are the bet- 
ter pleafed the lefs they fee of their way. A myf- 
tical object enables the leader to (luft his ground 
as he pleafes, and to ^accommodate himfelf to 
every current fafhion or prejudice. This again 
gives him almoll unhniited power ; for he can 
make ufe of thefe prejudices to lead men by troops. 
He finds them already alTociated by their preju- 
dices, and waiting for a leader to concentrate 
their ilrengtii and i'et them in motion. And wheti 
once great bodies of men are fet in motion, with 
a creature of their fancy for a guide, even the 
engineer himfelf can^iot fay, " Thus far (halt thou 
*' go, and no farther.'* 

VII. We may alfo gather from what we have feeii 
that all declamations on univerfal philanthropy are 
dansrerous. Their natural and immediate eifed on 
the mind is to increafe the difcontents of the un~ 
fortunate, and of thofe in the laborious ranks of life. 
No one, even of the Illuminators, will deny that 
thofe ranks muft be filled, if fociety exills in any de- 
gree of cultivation whatever, and that there will al- 
ways be a greater number of men who have no far- 
ther profpecft. Surely it is unkind to put fuch men 
continually in mind of a ftate in which they might 
be at their eafe 5 and it is unkindnefs unmixed, be- 
caufeall the change that they will produce will be, that 
James will ferve John, who formerly was the fervant 
of James. Such declamations naturally tend to 
caufe men to make light of the obligations and du- 
ties of common patriotifm, becaufe thefe are repre- 
fented as llibordinate and inferior to the greater and 
more noble affection of univerfal benevolence. I 
do not pretend to fay that patriotifm is founded in a 
rationally perceived pre-eminence or excellence of 

the 



g^6 THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. CHAP. iv. 

the foclety with which we are conneded. But if it 
be a fad that fociety will not advance unlefs its mem- 
bers take an intereft in it, and that human nature 
improves only in fociety, furely this interefl (fiould 
be cherifhed in every bread. Perhaps national 
union arifes from national animofity ; — but they are 
plainly diftinguiftiable, and union is not neceflarily 
produdive of injullice. The fame arguments that 
have any force again il patriotifm are equally good 
againfl: the preference which natural inllind gives 
parents for their children, and furely no one can 
doubt of the propriety of maintaining this in its 
full force, fubjed however to the precife laws of 
jullice. 

But I am in the wroiig to adduce paternal or fi- 
lial affedion in defence of patriotifm and loyalty, 
fince even thofe natural inftinds are reprobated by 
the llluminati, as hoilile to the all-comprehending 
philanthropy. Mr. de laMetherie fays, that among 
the memorials fent from the clubs in England to the 
National Affembly, he read two, (printed,) in which 
the Affembly was requeued to eftabiifli a communi- 
ty of wives, and to take children from their parents 
and educate them for the nation. In full compli- 
ance v^ith this didate of univerfal philanthropy, 
Weifhaupt would have murdered his own child and 
his concubine,— and Orleans voted the death of his 
near relation. 

Indeed, of all the confequences of Illumination, 
the mofi melancholy is this revolution which it feems 
to operate in the heart of man, — this forcible facri- 
fice of every affedion of the heart to an ideal divi- 
nity, a mere creature of the imagination. — It feems 
a prodigy, yet it is a matter of experience, that the 
farther we advance, or vainly fuppofe that we do ad- 
vance, in the knowledge of our mental po^vers, the 
more are our moral feelings fiatteiied and done away. 

I remember 



CMaP. iv. THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. 3^^ 

I remember reading, long ago, a differtation on the 
nurfing of infants by a French academician, Le 
Cointre of Verfailles. He indelicately fupports his 
theories by the cafe of his own fon, a weak puny in- 
fant, whom his mother was obliged to keep continu- 
ally applied to her bofom, fo that fiie rarely could 
get two hours of fleep during the time of fuckling 
him. Mr. Le Cointre fays, that Ihe contraded for 
this infant *' tine partialite toutf^-a-fait deraifonahle,'' 
— Plato, or Socrates, or Cicero, would probably 
have explained this by the habitual exercife of pity, 
a very endearing emotion. ---But our Academician, 
better illuminated, folves it by ilimuli on th^ papillte 
and on the nerves of the fkin, and by the meeting 
of the humifying aura^ &:c. and does not feem to 
think that young Le Cointre was much indebted to 
his mother. It would amufe me to learn that this 
was the wretch Le Cointre, Major of the National 
Guards of Verfailles, who countenanced and en- 
couraged the fliocking treafon and barbarity of thofe 
ruffians on the 5th and 6th of Odober 1789. Com- 
plete freezing of the heart would (I think) be the 
Gonfequence of a theory which could perfectly ex- 
plain the affedions by vibrations or cryflallizations, 
— Nay, any very perfed theory of moral fentiments 
mull; have fomething of this tendency. — Perhaps 
the ancient fyftems of moral philoiophy, which were 
chiefly fearches after \.hQ fuvimum Lonura, and fyftems 
of moral duties, tended more to form and flrength- 
en the heart, and produce a worthy man, than the 
mofi: perfed theory of modern times, which explains 
every phenomenon by means of a nice anatomy of 
our affedions. 

So far therefore as we are really more illuminated, 
it may chance to give us an ealier vidory over the 
natural or inftindive attachments of mankind, and 
make the facrifice to univerfal philanthropy lets 

eofiiy 



g^8 THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. CHAP. iVs 

coftly to the heart. I do not however pretend to fay- 
that this is really the cafe : but I think myfelf fully 
warranted to fay^ that increafe of virtuous affecflions 
in general has not been the fruit of modern Illumi- 
nation. I will not again ficken the reader, by call- 
ing his attention to Weilhaupt and his affociates or 
fucceffors. But let us candidly contemplate the 
world around us, and particularly the perpetual 
advocates of univerfal philanthropy. What have 
been the general effeds of their continual declama- 
tions? Surely very melancholy; nor can it eafily 
be otherwlfe.^ — An ideal Ibndard is continually re- 
ferred to. This is made gigantic, by being always 
feen indiftindly, as through a mift^ or rather a flut- 
tering air. in compariion with this, every feeling 
that we have been accuftomed to refped vanifties as 
iniignificant ; and, adopting the Jefuitical maxim^ 
that '' the great end fanclifies every mean," this fum 
of Cofmo-political good is made to eclipfe or cover 
all the prefent evils which mufi: be endured for it. 
The fad now is, that we are become fo familiarifed 
with enormities^ fuch as brutality to the weaker fex^ 
cruelty to t^ld age, wanton refinement on barbarit}^, 
that we now hear unmoved accounts of fcenes, from 
which, a few years ago, we wolild have fhrunk back 
with horror. With cold hearts, and a metaphyfical 
fcale, we meafure the prefent rniferies of our fellow 
creatures, and compare them with the accurnulated 
rniferies of former times, occalioned through a courfei 
of ages, and afcribed to the ambition of Princes. In 
this artificial manner are the atrocities of France ex- 
tenuated; and we ftruggle, and partly fucceed, in 
reafoning ourfelves out of all the feelings which link 
men together in fociety. — The ties of father, huf- 
band, brother, friend—- all are abandoned for an 
emotion which we mud even ilrive to excite, — uni- 
verfal philanthropy. But this is fad petverlion of 

nature. 



C^AP. IV. ti-iE FRENCH REVOLUTION. 3 



\j 



49 






iiature. *' He that loveth not his brother whom he 
hath feen, how can he love God whom he hath rcl 
feen r" Still lefs can he love this ideal being, of 
which he labours to conjure up fome indifiind and 
fleeting notion. It is aifo highly abfurd ; for, in 
trying to coliedl the circumflances which conditute 
the enjoyments of this Citizen of the World, we find 
ourfelves jufi brought back to the very moral feel- 
ings v/hich we are wantonly throwing away. Weif* 
haupt allures us by the happinefs of the patriarchal 
life as \.hQ/ummum bonum of man. But xi it is any 
thing more than eating andfleeping, and fquabbling 
with the neighbouring patriarchs, it mufl confill: in 
the domeflic and neighbourly affections, and every 
other agreeable moral feeling, all which are to be 
had in our prefent fiate, in greater abundance. 

But this is all a pretence ; — the wicked corrupters 
of mankind have no fuch views of human felicity, 
nor would they be contented with it ; they want to 
intrigue and to lead ; and their patriarchal life an- 
fwers the fame purpofe of tickling the fancy as the 
Arcadia of the poets. Horace (hows the frivolity of 
thefe declamations, without formally enouncing the 
moral, in his pretty Ode, 

Beatus ille qui procul negotils* 

The ufurer, after expatiating on this Arcadian fell- 
city, hurries awav to change, and puts his whole 
cafli again out to ufury. 

Equally ineffective are the declamations of Cof- 
jTio-politifm on a mind filled with felfiili paffions ; — • 
they jufl ferve it for a fubterfuge. — The ties of or- 
dinary life aTe broken in the firit place, and the Ci- 
tizen of the World is a wolf of the defart. 
^ The unhappy conlequence is, that the natural 
progrefs of liberty is retarded. Had this ignis fa- 

2 V tuus 



35^ 



THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. CHAP. 1^% 



iuus not appeared and milled us, the improvements 
v;hich true Illumination has really produced, the 
increafe in fciences and* arts, and the improvement 
in our eftimate of life and happinefs, would hsvc 
continued to work fiiently and gradually in all na- 
tions ; and thofe which are lefs fortunate in point 
of government would alfo have improved, by little 
and little, without lofing any fenfible portion of their 
prefent enjoyments in the poffefTion of riches, or 
honours, or power. Thofe pretenfions would gra- 
dually have come to balance each other, and true 
liberty, fuch as Britons enjoy, might have taken 
place over all. 

Inflead of this, the inhabitants of every flate are 
put into a iituation where every individual is alarm-* 
ed and injured by the fuccefs of another, becaufe all 
pre-eminence is criminal. Therefore there muft be 
perpetual jealoufy and flruggle. Princes are now 
alarmed, fince they fee the aim of the lower clafles, 
and they repent of their former liberal conceflions. 
All parties maintain a fullen diflance and referve ; 
—the people become unruly, and the fovereign 
hard-hearted ; fo that liberty, fuch as can be enjoyed 
in peace, is banifhed from the country. 

VIII. When we fee how eagerly the Illuminati 
endeavoured to inlinuate their Brethren into all of- 
fices which gave them influence on the public mind, 
and particularly into feminaries of education, we 
fhould be particularly careful to prevent them, and 
ought to examine with anxious attention the manner 
of thinking of all who offer themfelves for teachers 
of youth. There is no part of the fecret corref- 
pondence of Spartacus and his Affociates, in v^hich 
we fee moie varied and artful methods for fecuring 
pnpils, than in his own condud refpecfting the ffu- 
dents in the Univerfity, and the injundions he gives 
to others. There are two men, Socher and Drexl, 

who 



CHAP. IV. THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. 3^1 

who had the general infpedion of the fchools in the 
Eledorate. They are treated by Spartacus as perfons 
of the greatetl: confequence, and the inilruvftions 
given them (lick at no kind of corruption. Wei- 
ftiaupt is at pains, circuitous and mean arts, to in- 
duce young gentlemen to come under his care, and, 
to one whom he defcribes in another letter as a little 
mafter who muft have much indulgence, he caufes it 
to be intimated, that in the quarters where he is to 
be lodged, he will get the key of the ftreet-door, fo 
that be can admit whom he will. In all this can- 
vafling he never quits the great objed, the forming 
the mind of the young man according to the princi- 
ples of univerfal Liberty and Equality, and to gain 
this point, fcruples not to flatter, aud even to excite 
his dangerous paflfions. We may be certain, that 
the zeal of Cofmo-politifm will operate in the fame 
way in other men, and we ought therefore to be fo- 
licitous to have all that are the inftru6lors of youth, 
perfons of the mofi: decent manners. No queflion 
but fobriety and hypocrify may inhabit the fame 
brealL But its immediate effedl on the pupil is at 
leaft fafe, and it is always eafy for a fenfible parent 
to reprefent the reftridions laid on the pupil by 
fuch a man as the effeds of uncommon anxiety for 
his fafety. Whereas there is no cure for the lax 
principles that may ileal upon the tender mind that 
is not early put on its guard. Weifhaupt undoubt- 
edly thought that the principles of civil anarchy 
would be eafiefl: inculcated on minds, that had al- 
ready fhaken off the reftraints of Religion, and en- 
tered into habits of fenfual indulgence. We fhall 
be fafe if we irufl: his judguient in this matter. — 
We ftiould be particularly obfervant of the charac- 
ter and principles of Men of Talents^ who offer 
themfelves for thefe offices, becaufe their influence 
muft be very great. Indeed this anxiety (liould ex- 
tend 



35^2 THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. CHAP, iv, 

tend to all offices which in any way give holders any 
remarkable influence on the minds of conhderable 
numbers. Such (hould always be filled by men of 
immaculate characters and approved principles; and, 
in times like the prefent, where the moil: eflential 
queftions are the fubjeds of frequent difcuiTion, we 
ihould always confider with fome diflruil: the men 
who are very cautious in declaring their opinions 
on thefe quefiions. 

It is a great misfortune undoubtedly to feel our- 
ielves in a lituaLion which makes us damp the en- 
joyments of life with fo much fufpicicn. But the 
hiflory of mankind (hows us that many great revo- 
lutionsi have been produced by remote and appa- 
rently frivolous caufes. When things come to a 
height, it is frequently impoilible to tind a cure — - 
at any rate rnedicinafero paratur^ and it is much bet- 
ter to prevent the dAitdS^^—principiis ohjia — venienti 
occurriie morbo, 

IX. Nor can it be faid that thefe are vain fears. 
We know that the enemy is working among us, and 
that there are many appearances in thefe kingdoms 
which ftrongly refemble the contrivance of this daii- 
eerous affociation. We know that before the Order 
of Ilium inati was broken up by the Eledor of Bava- 
lia, there were feveral Lodges in Britain, and we 
may be certain that they are not all broken up. I 
know that they are not, and that within thefe tvro 
years fome Lodges were ignorant or affeded to be 
fo, of the corrupted principles and dangerous deligns 
of the liluminati. The conflitution of the Order 
fhcws that this mav be, for the L<idges themfelves 
were illuminated by degrees. But I muft remark, 
that we can hardly fappofe a Lodge to be effabliflied 
in any place, unlefs there be fome very zealous Bro- 
ther at hand to inilrucf and direct it. And I think 
th:}t a perfon can hardly be advanced as far as the 

rank 



CHAP. iv. THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. 353 

rank of Scotch Knight of the Order, and be a fafc 
man either for our Church or State. I am very well 
informed, that there arefeveral thoufands of fubfcrib- 
ing Brethren in London alone, and we can hardly 
doubt, but that many of that number are vs^ell advan- 
ced. The vocabularv alfo of the Illuminati is cur- 
rent in certain focieties among us. Thefe focieties 
have taken the very name and conftitution of the 
French and German focieties. Correfponding — 

Affiliated— Provincial — Refcript — Convention 

Reading Societies— Citizen of the World — Liberty 
and Equality, the Imprefciiptible Rights of Man, 
^c. &c. And mull: it not be acknowledged that our 
public arbiters of literary merit have greatly chang- 
ed their manner of treatment of Theological and po- 
litical writings of late years ? I'ill Paine's Age of 
Reafon appeared, the mofl: fceptical writings of Eng- 
land kept within the bounds of decency and of argu- 
ment, and we have not, in the courfe of two centu- 
ries, one piece that (hould be compared with many 
of the blackguard produdions of the German prefTes. 
Vet even thofe performances generally met with 
fharp reproof as well as judicious refutation. This 
is a tribute of coramendacion to Vvhich mv countrv 
is moll juilly entitled. In a former part of my life 
I was pretty converlant in writings oi this kind, and 
have feen aimoll every Engiifli performance of note. 
I cannot exprefs the furpriie and difgufl which I felt 
atthe number and the grofs indecency of the German 
dilTertations which have come in mv way fince I be- 
gan this little hiftory,— and many of the titles which 
I obferve in the Leipzig catalogues are fuch as I 
think no Britifh writer would make ufe of. I am 
told that the iicentioufnefs of the prefs has been 
equally remarkable in France, even before the Re- 
volution. — May this fenfe of propriety and decen- 
cy long continue to protcd us, and fupport the na- 
tional 



354 "^"^ FRENCH REVOLUTION. CHAP, JV, 

tional character for real good breeding, as our aN 
tainmerjts in manly fcience have hitherto gained 
us the reipeft of the furrounding nations ! 

I cannot help thinking that BritiHi fentiment, 
or Britifti delicacy, is changed ; for Paine's book 
is treated by moil of our Reviewers with an af- 
fected liberality and candour, and is laid before 
the public as quite new matter, and a fair field for 
difculiion-rr—and it ftrikes me as if our critics were 
more careful to let no fault of his ppponents pafs 
unnoticed than to expofe the futility and rudenefs 
of this indelicate writer. In the review^ of poli^ 
tical w^ritings we fee fgw of thole kind endeavours, 
which real love for our conftitutional government 
would induce a writer to employ in order to le{^ 
fen the fretful difcontents of the people ; and 
there is frequently betrayed a fatisfadljon at find- 
ing adminiftration in flraits, either through mif- 
conducit or misfortune. Real love for our coun- 
try and its government would (I think) induce a 
perfon to mix with his criticifms fome fentiments 
of fympathy with the embarraiTirtent of a minifter 
loaded with the builncfs of a great nation, in a li- 
tuation never before experienced by any minifler. 
The critic would recollect that the minifter was a 
man, fubjeift to error, but not necefTarily nor alto- 
gether bale. But it ieems to be an afiumed prin- 
ciple with fome of our political writers and re- 
viewers that government mud always be in fault, 
and that every thing needs a reform. Such w^ere 
the beginnings on the continent, and we cannot 
doubt but that attempts are made to influence 
the public mind in this country, in the very way 
that has been pra(^ifed abro^id. — Nay, 

X, The detcftable dodlrines of Illuminatifm 
have been openly preached among us. Has not 
Dr. Frieftley faid, (1 think in one of his letters on 

the 



4( 



CHAP* IV. tHE FR£NCH REVOLUTIOxN. 3^ | 

the Birmingham riots,) " That if the condition of 
other nations be as much improved as that ©f 
France will be by the change in her fyftcm of 
government, tlie great crifis, dreadful as it may 
appear, will be a confummation devoutly to be 
wifhcd for ;i-^and though calamitous to many^ 
perhaps to many innocent perfons, v^ili be even- 
tually glorious and happy ?" — Is not this equi- 
valent to Spartacus faying, *' True— there will be 
*' a ftorm, a convulfion — but all v/ill be calm 
" again ?".^~Does Dr. Prieflley think that the Bri- 
tifli will part more eafiily than their neighbours in 
France with their property and honours, fecured 
by ages of peaceable poiTellaon, protedled by law, 
and acquiefced in by all who wifli and hope that 
their own defcendants may reap the fruits of their 
honeft induftry ?— Will they make a lefs manly 
ftruggle ? — Are they lefs numerous ? — Mufl his 
friends, his patrons, whom he has thanked, and 
praifed, and flattered^ yield up all peaceably, or 
fall in the general ftruggle ? This writer has al- 
ready given the moft promifing fpecimens of his 
own docility in the principles of Illuminatifm, and 
has already paffed through feveral degrees of ini- 
tiation. He has refined and refined on Chrifti- 
anity, and boafts, like another Spartacus, that he 
has, at laft, hit on the true fecret. — Has he not 
been preparing the minds of his rea<lers for Athe- 
ifm by his theory of mind, and by his commen- 
tary on the unmeaning jargon of Dr. Hartley ? 
I call it unmeaning jargon, that I may avoid giv- 
ing it a more appolite and difgraceful name. 
For, if intelligence and defign be nothing but a 
certain modihcation of the vib?atiuncula or un- 
dulations of any kind, what is fupreme intelli- 
gence, but a more extenfive, and (perhaps they 
will call it) refined undulation, pervading or mix- 
ing 



35^ '^HE FRENCH REVOLUTION. GHAP. IV i 

ing with all others ? Indeed it is in this very man- 
ner that the univerfal operation of intelligence is 
pretended to be explained* As any new or par- 
tial undulation may be fuperinduced on any otliei- 
already exiftinpf, and this without the leaft diflurb- 
ance or confuiion, fo may the inferior intelligen- 
ces in the univerfe be only fuperinduftions on the 
operations of this fupreme intelligence which per- 
vades them all, — -And thus an undulation (of w^hat? 
furely of fomething prior to and independent of 
this modification) is the caufe of all the beings in 
the univerfe, and of all the harmony and beauty 
that we obferve, — And this undulation is the ob- \ 
jedl of love, and gratitude, and confidence (that 
is, of other kinds of undulations.) — Fortunately 
ail this has no meaning. — ^But furely, if any thing 
can tend to diminilh the force of our religious 
fentiments, and make all Dr. Prieftley's difcoveries 
in Chriftianity infignificant, this will do it. 

Were it poflible for the departed foul of New^- 
ton to feel pain, he would furely recolleft with re- 
gret that unhappy hour, when provoked by Dr. 
Hooke's charge of plagiarifm, be firft threw out his 
ivhim of a vibrating ether, to fliew what might be 
made of an hypothehs. — For Sir Ifaac Newton mud 
be allowed to have paved the way for much of the 
atomical philofophy of the moderns. Newton's 
aether is aifumed as a fac totum by every precipitate 
fciolifl, who, in defpite of logic, and in contradic- 
tion to all the principles of mechanics,, gives us the- 
ories of mufcular motion, of animal fen-^ation, and 
even of intelligence and volition, by the undula- 
tions of setherial fluids. Not one of a hundred of 
thefe theories can go through the fundamental theo- 
rem of all this dodrine, the 47th prop, of the 'Sd . 
book of the Principia, and not one in a thouiand 
know that Newton's inveftigation is inconcluiive. — 



Yet 



CHAP. IV. THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. 2>S1 

Yet they talk ofthe effects and modificatioriS of chofe un- 
dulations as familiariy andconndentjyasif they could 
dernonllrate the propolitions in Euclid's Elements. 
Yet fuch is the reaion that fatisfies Dr. Prieftly. — 
But I do not fappoie that he has yet attained his acme 
of likimination. His genius has been cramped by 
Britifh prejudices. — -Theie need not fway his mind 
any longer. lie is now in that " rard temporis {^ct 
*' loci) feiici tut e^ ubi /entire qu^e veils ^ etquajentias 
^' dic^te licet ^' — in the country which was honour- 
ed by giving the world the firil: avowed edition of the 
Age of Reajon^ with the name of the (hop and pub- 
liiher. I make no doubt but that his mind will now 
take a higher i^ight, — and we may expect to fee him 
fire " that train by which he boalled that he would 
*' blow up the religious eftablifhrnent of his ftupid , 
*- and enflaved native country."— Peace be with 
him. — But I grieve that he has left any of his friends 
and abettors among us, who declaim, in the moil 
violent and unqualified terms, againit all national 
EflabliQiments of Religion, and in no friendly 
terms of any ellablifliments which maintain or allow 
any privileged Orders. Difcanting much on fuch 
topics increafes the difiatisfaclion of the lefs fortu- 
liate part of mankind, who naturally repine at ad- 
vantivges which do not arlfe from the peribnal merit 
of th.^ pcfTeiTor, akhoui>h thev are the natural and 
necellary fruits of m€rit in their anceflors, and of 
the JLifiice and fecurity of our happy Conilitution. 
No well informed and feniible man will deny that 
the greateft injury was done to pure Religion v/hen 
Coniiantine deciaied Chriftianity to beihe Religion 
of the Empire, and vefced the Church with all the rich- 
es and power of the Heathen Prieflhood. Butit is falfe 
that this wasthe fourceof ail orof the woril corruptions 
of Chrillianity. The mereii novice in Church Hiftory 
knows that the errors of the GncHics, of the Cerin- 

2 X thians. 



^5^ THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. CHAP, iv^ 

thians, and others, long preceded this event, and 
that thoufands lofl their lives in thofe naetaphyfical 
dil'putes. But I cannot help thinking that, in the 
prefent condition of Europe, religion would defert 
the world, if the opinions of men were not dired- 
ed, in fome proper degree, by National Eliabiifli- 
ments. Teachers among the Independents will 
court popuh^rity, as they have always courted it ; by 
foflering fome favourite and difcriininating opinion 
Qt their hearers. The old fubjevfts of debate have 
now loil their zeit, and I iliouid fear that tlie teach- 
ers would find it a fuccelsful, as it is an eafy road to 
popularity, to lead their hearers through a feries of 
refinements, till they are landed, much to their fa- 
tisfaclion, in the Materialifm of Dr. Prieftley, from 
which it is but a Rep to the Atheifm of Diderot and 
Condorcet. 

Seeing that there are fuch grounds of apprehen- 
fion, I tliink that we have caufe to be upon our 
guard, and that every man who has enjoyed the 
fw^eets of Britifli liberty fliould be ver^ anxious in- 
deed to preferve it. We fhould difcourage all fe- 
cret alTemblies, which afford opportunities to the 
difaffecled, and all converfations which fofter any 
notions of political perfection, and create hanker- 
ings after unattainable happinefs. Thefe only in- 
creafe the difcontents of the unfortunate, the idle, 
and the worthlefs.— Above all, we fliould be careful 
to difcourage and check immorality and licentiouf- 
nefs in every (liape. For this will of itfelf fubvert 
every government, and will fubjecl us to the vile 
tyranny of a profligate mob. 

XI. If there has ever been a feafon in which it 
was proper to call upon the public inflruclors of the 
nation to exert themielves in the caufe of Religion 
and Virtue, it is furely the prefent. It appears, 
from the tenor of the whole narration before the 

reader, - 



CHAP. IV. THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. 3^^ 

reader, that Religion and Virtue are confidcred as 
the great obllacles to the completion of this plan 
for overturning the governments of Europe— and 
I hope that I have made it evident thatthofe con- 
fpirators have prefuppofed that there is deeply 
rooted in the heart of man a fincere veneration 
for unfophirticated virtue, and an affeCiionate pro- 
peniity toR.eligion ; that is, to confider this beau- 
tiful world as the produd:ion of wifdom and pow- 
er, refiding in a Being different from the world 
itfelf, and the natural obj eel of admiration and of 
love — I do not fpeak of the truth of this princi- 
ple at prefent, but only of its reality, as an im- 
prelTion on the heart of man, Thefe principles 
mull therefore be worked on, — and they are ac- 
knowledged to be ilrong, becaufs much art is em- 
ployed to eradicate them, or to overwhelm them 
by other powerful agents. — We alfo fee that Re- 
ligion and Virtue are confidered by tliofe corrupt- 
ers as clofely united, and as mutually fupporting 
each other. This they admit as a facl, and la- 
bour to prove it to be a millake. — And lallly, they 
entertain no hopes of complete fuccefs till they 
have exploded both. 

This being the cafe, I hope that I (liali be clear 
of all charge of impropriety, when I addrefsour 
national inllrudlors, and earneltly defn^e them to 
confider this caufe as peculiarly theirs. The world 
has been corrupted under pretence of moral in- 

ftrutiion. Backwardnefs, therefore, on their 

part, may do inconceivable harm, becaufe it will 
mofc certainly be interpreted as an acknov/ledg- 
ment of defeat, and they will be accufed of in- 
difference and inftiicerity. I know that a modefl 
man reluftantly comes forward with any thing 
that has the appearance of thinking himfelf wifer 
or better than his neighbours. But if all are fo 

bafliful 



3^0 THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. CilAP. iv, 

balliful, where will it end ? Muft we allow a parcel 
of worthleis profligates, whom no man would trull 
with the management of the mofi: trifling concern, 
to pafs with the ignorant and indolent for teachers 
of true wifdom, and thus entice the whole world 
into a trap ? They have lucceeded with our unfor- 
tunate neighbours on the continent, and, in Ger- 
many, (to their fhame be it fpoken) they have been 
alTilled even by fome faithlefs clergymen. 

But I will hope better of my countrymen, and I 
think that our clergy have encouragement even from 
the native character of Britons. National compari-^ 
fons are indeed ungraceful, and are rarely candid — * 
but I think they may be indulged in this inilance. 
It is of his own countrymen that Voltaire fpeaks, 
when he fays, that '' they refemble a mixed breed 
*' of the monkey and the tiger," animals that mix 
fun with mifchief, and that fport wkh the torments 
of their prey. — They have indeed given the moft 
1] locking proofs of the juiinefs of his portrait. It is 
with a conhderable degree of national pride, there- 
fore, that I compare the behaviour of the French 
with that of the Britifli in a very fimiiar fituation^ 
during the civil wars and the uiurpation of Crom- 
well. There have been more numerous, and in- 
iinitely more atrocious, crimes commiitted in France 
during any one half year fince the beginning of the 
Revolution, than during the whole of that tumultu- 
ous period. And it fliould be remembered, that in 
Britain, at that period, to all other grounds of dif- 
content v^7^^s added no fmall fl^are of religious fanati- 
cifm, a pafTion (may I call it) which feldom fails to 
roufe every angry thought of the heart. — Much may 
be hoped for from an earnefi and judicious addrefs 
to that rich fund of manly kindnefs that isconfpicu- 
ous in the BviliQi charaifler, — -3 fund to which I am 
perfuaded we owe the excellence of ourconflitution- 

al 



eHAP. iv, THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. C>6l 



O' 



al governiiient — No where elfe in Europe are the 
claims of the different ranks in fociety fo generally 
and fo candidly admitted. All feel their force, and 
all allow them to others. Hence it happens that they 

are enjoyed in fo much peace hence it happens 

that the gentry live among the yeomen and farmers 
with fo eafy and familiar a fuperiority : 



-Extrema per lllos 



jftt/tltia excedens terns vejligia fecii. 

Our clergy are alfo well prepared for the tafk. 
For our anceilors differed exceedingly from the pre- 
fent Illuminators in their notions, and have enacled 
that the clergy fhall be well indrudted in natural 
philofophy, judging that a knowledge of the fym.- 
metry of nature, and the beautiful adjuftment of all 
her operations, would produce a firm belief of a 
wifdom and power which is the fource of all this 
fair order, the Author and Condu^or of all, and 
therefore the natural objed of admiration and of 
love. A good heart is open to this impreiTion, and 
feels no reludance, but on the contrary a pleafure, 
in thinking man the fubjecl of his government, and 
the objev^ of his care. This point being once gain- 
ed, I fliould think that the falutarv truths of Reli- 
gion will be hie>hlv welcome. I fhould think that 
it will be eafy to convince fuch minds, that in 
the midft of the immenfe variety of the works of 
God there is one great plan to Vv'hich every thing 
feems to refer, namely, the crowding this world, 
to the utmofl degree of poiTibilitv, with life, with 
beings that enjoy the things around them, each in 
its own degree and manner. Among thefe, man 
makes a moli conspicuous figure, and the maxi- 
mum of his enjoyments feems a capital article in the 
u'ays of Providence. It will, I think, require little 
trouble tofhew that the natural didaces of Religion, 
or the immediate refults of the belief of God's mo- 
ral 



302 THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. CHAP. IV, 

ral government of the univerfe, coincide in every 
circumftance of fentiment, difpofition, and condad!, 
with thofe that are moR: produdive of enjoy ment 
(on the whole) in focial life. The fame train of 
thought will fhew, that the real improvements in 
the pleafures of fociety, are, in fa(fl, improvements 
of man's rational nature, and fo many fteps toward 
that perfection which our own confciences tell us we 
are capable of, and which Religion encourages us to 
hope for in another flate of being. — -And thus will 
'' the ways of V/ifdom appear to be ways of plea- 
*' fantnefs, and all her paths to be peace." 

Dwelling on fuch topics, there is no occafion for 
any political difculTion. This would be equally im- 
proper and hurtful. Such difcuffions never fail to 
produce ill-humour^ — But furcly the highefl: com- 
placence muPt refdk from the thought that we are 
co-operating with the Author of all v/ifdom and 
goodnefs, and helping forward the favourite plans of 
his providence. Such a thought muft elevate the 
mind which thus recognifes a fort of alliance with 
, the Author of nature. — Our brethren in fociety ap- 
pear brethren indeed, heirs of the fame hopes, and 
travelling to the fame country. This will be a fort 
of moral patriotifm, and fhould, I think, produce 
mutual forbearance, fince we difcover im per fe(fi ions 
in all creatures, and are confcious of them in our- 
lelves — notwithrianding v/hich, we hope to be all 
equal at la ft in worth and in happinefs. 

I Ihould gladly hope that I Ihall not be accufed of 
prefumption in this addrefs. There is no profeihon 
that I more fincerely refped than that of the reli- 
gious and moral inllruclor of my country. I am 
faying nothing here that I am not accuffomed to 
urge at much greater length in the courfe of my pro- 
fchional duty. And I do not think that I am'juflly 
ch.^rgeablc with vanity, when 1 fuppofe that many 
years of delightful ftudy of the works of God have 

given 



Chap. Iv. the fRench Revolution, 303 

given me fomewhat more acquaintance with tbem 
than is probably attained by thofe who never think 
of the matter, being continually engaged in the 
buftle of life. Should one of this defcriptiorj fay 
that all is fate or chance, and that " the fame thing 
*' happens to all," kc. as is but too common, I 
fhould think that a prudent man will give fo much 
preference to my airertion, as at iealt to think feri^ 
oufly about the thing, before he allow himfelf any 
indulgence in things which I affirm to bs highly 

dangerous to his future peace and happinefs. For 

this reaion 1 hope not to be accufed of going out of 
my line, nor hear any one fay '* hs Jutor ultra ere- 
*'• pidavi,'" The prefent is a feafcn of anxiety, and 
it is the duty of evicry man to contribute his mite to 
the general good. 

It is in fome fuch hopes that I have written thefe 
pages ; and if they have any fuch effed, I Ihali 
think myfelf fortunate in having by chance hit on 
foraething ufeful, when I was only trying to amufe 
myfelf durine the tedious hours of bad health and 
confinement. No perfon is more fenfible of the 
many imperfeflions of this performance than my- 
felf. But, as I have no motive for the publication 
but the hopes of doing fome good, I trud that I fhall 
obtain a favourable acceptance of my endeavours 
from an intelligent, a candid, and a good-natured 
public. I mult entreat that it be remembered that 
thefe iheets are not the work of an author deter- 
mined to write a book. They were for the moft 
part notes, which I took from books I had borrowed, 
that I might occaiionally have recourfe to them 
when occupied with Free Mafonry, the hrft cbjevft 
of my curiofity. My curiofity was diverted to ma- 
ny other things as I went along,, and when the II- 
luminati came in my way, I regretted the time 1 
had thrown away on Free Mafonry,-— But, obferving 

their 



\ 



3^4 THE FIIENCH REVOLUTION. CKAP. iv^ 

their conneclion, I thoueht that I Derceived the 
progrefs of one and the iair-e deiign. This made 
me eager to find out any renaains cf Weifhaiipt's 
AiTociation. I was not iurprized when I faw marks 
of its inteiference in the French Revolution. — In 
hunting for clearer proofs I found out the German 
Union — and^ in fine, the whole appeared to be one 
great and wicked projecl,- fermenting and w^orking 
over ail Europe.— -Some highly relpected friends 
encouraged me in the hope of doing fome fervice by 
laying my informations before the public, and faid 
that no time fiiculd be loll:.-—! therefore fet about 
colleclingmy fcattered favf^s.— I undertook this tafk 
at a time when my official duty prefled hard on me, 
and bad health made me very unfit for ifudy,— -The 
effects of this mull: appear in many faults, which 1 
fee, without being able at prefect to am^end them. I 
owe this apology to the public, and I truft that my 
good inlentions will procure it acceptance*. 

Nothing 

* While the (heet commencing p. 341 was printing off, I got 
a fiirht of a v/ork pubhilied in Paris lalt year entitled La Conjura^ 
tlon d' Orleans* It conHrms all that I have faid refpedHng the life 
made of the Free Mafon Lodges. — It gives a particular account 
of the fGrmatirn of the Jacobin Club, by the Club Breton. This 
iafl appears to have been the x'Mfociation formed with the affiilancc 
of the German deputies. The Jacobin Club had feveral com- 
mittees, fimilar to thofe of the National Affembly. Amoi g 
others, it had a Committee of Enquiry and Correfpondence, 
whofe hufinefs it was to gain partizans, to difcover enemies, to 
decide on the merits of tlie Brethren, and to form fimilar Clubs 
in other places. 

The author of the above-mentioned work writes as follows, 
(vol. iii. p, 19.) We may judge of what the D. of Orleans 
could do in other places, by what he did during his flay in Eng- 
land. During his flay in London, he gained over to his intereft 
Lord Stanhope and Dr. Price, two 01 the mofl refpe<^able 
inembcrs of the Revoluiion Society* This Society had no other 

objedl 



CM A p. iy, THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. 365 

Nothing would give me more iincere pleafure than 
to fee the whole proved to be a mifiake ; — to be 
convinced that there is no fuch plot, and that we 
run no rifk of tlje coniagion ; but that Britain will 
continue, by the abiding prevalence of honour, of 
virtue, and of true religion, to exhibit the fairell 
fpecimen of civil government that ever was feen on 
earth, and a national character and conduct not un- 
vv^orthy of the ineinmable bleilings that we enjoy. 
Our excellent Sovereign, at his acceffion to the 
throne, declared to his Parliament that he gloried 

IN HAVING BEEN BORN A BriTON. --Wouid tO God 

th^t 



obje£l (it faid) but to fupport the Revolution, which had dri- 
ven James II. from the throne of his anceftors. 

Orleans made of this affociation a true Jacobin Club. — It en- 
tered into correfpondence with the Committee of Enquiry of our 
Commune, with the fame Committee of our Jacobin Ckib, and 
at laft; with our National AlTembly. It even fent to the AfTem- 
bly an oftenfible letter, in which wc may fee the following pafFages : 

" The Society congratulate the National Aflembly of France 
*■* on the Revolution which has taken place in that country. It. 
** cannot but earneftly wilh for the happy conciufion of io irrs- 
** portant a Revolution, and, at the fame time, exprefs the ex- 
** trem.e fatisfaclion whiih it feels in refledting on the glorious 
** example v/hich France has given to the world." (The Reader 
will remark, that in this example are contained all the horrors 
which had been exhibited in France before the month of March 
1790; and that before this time, the condudx of the Duke of 
Orleans on the 5th and 6th of October 1789, with all the fhock- 
frig atrocities of thofe days, were fully known in England.) 

*' The Society refolves unanimoufly to invite all the people of 
** England to eftablifli Societies through the kingdom, to fupport 
*' the principles of the Revolution, to form correfpondence be- 
" tween themfelves, and by thefe means to ellablifii a great con- 
** certed Union of all the trueFriends of Liberty.*' 

Accordingly (fays the French author) this wis executed, and 
Jacobin Clubs were ellablifhed in fevcral cities of England, Scot- 
land, and Ireland, 2 Y 



2,66 THE FRENCH KEVOLUTION. CHAP. iv. 

that all and each of his fubieds had entertained the 
fame lefty notions of this good fortune ! Then 
woviid they have laboured, as he has done for near 
forty years, to fupport the honour of the Britilh 
name by fetting as bright an example of domeftic 
and of public virtue. — Then would Britons have 
been indeed the boaft of humanity — then we fhould 
have viewed thefe wicked plots of our neighbours 
with a fmile of contempt, and of lincere pity — and 
there would have been no need of this impeifed 
but well-meant performance. 



f 367 J 

Pojlfcrlpt, 



A 



LTHOUGH I faw noreafon to doubt of the 
validity of the proofs which I have offered in the 
preceding pages, of a confpiracy againll the 
deareft interefts of every nation of Europe, nor 
of the importance of the information to my own 
countrymen, it gives me great fatisfa6tion to 
learn that it has been received with favour and 
indulgence. This I may conclude from the im- 
preifion's being exhaufted in a few days, and be- 
caufe the pubiiilier informs me that another edi- 
tion is wanted immediately, I could have wi{h- 
ed that this were deferred for fome time, that I 
might have availed myfelf of the obfervationsof 
others, and be enabled to correct the miftakes 
into which I have been led by my fcanty know- 
ledge of the German language, and the miftakes 
of the writers from whom I derived all my in- 
formations. I fhould, in that cafe, have attempt- 
ed to make the work more worthy of the public 
eye, by corre£ling many imperfedtions, which 
the continual diftradlion of bad health, and my 
hafte to bring it before the public, have occafion- 
ed. I fliould have made the difpofition more na- 
tural and perfpicuoiis, and have lopped off fome 
redundances and repetitions. But the printer tells 
me, that this would greatly retard the publication, 
by changing the feries of the pages. At any 
rate, I am not at prefent in a condition to engage 
in any work that requires difpatch, I mult yield 
therefore to thofe reafons, and content myfelf 
with fuch corrections as can be made immediately. 
I have found, after minute enquiry, that I 
was miflaken as to the exprefRon of an eminent 

follower 



^6S ' FOSTCRIPT. 

follower of Dr. PriefLley, mentioned before, 
The peifbn alluded to difclaims all fanguinary 
proceedings, and my information arofe from a 
vei'y erroneous account which w^as circulated of 
the converfation. But I ftiii think the caution 
equally neceifary, which I recommended to tlie 
hearers of the frequent and violent decltimations 
made by thofe alluded to, againlf all religious 
eilabliilunents.^ 

Except the anecdote of Diderot's library, I do 
not recoiled another alTertion in the book, for 
which I have not the authority of printed evidence. 
Thisilory was told me by fo many perfons of cre- 
dit, v\ho were on the fpot at the time, that I 
have no doubt of its truth. 

I alfo find that I was miilaken in my conjec- 
ture that Mr. Zf F;7z;7(: communicated his fuipi- 
cions of the horrid defigns of the Free Mafons 
to Archbuliop Gobet. It nuift have been to Mr, 
Lc Clerc de Jiugne^ a mofi: worthy prelate, whom 
the hatred of the Jacobins obliged to fly into 
Switzerland. The Catholic clergy were butch- 
ered or banidied, and the Jacobins fubftituted in 
vheir places fuch as would iecond their views, 
Gobet was worthy of their confidence, and the 
Archbifnop of ThGuloiife ( Brkmie )\\\m.^^\x could 
not have ferved the caufe of the philofophiits 
more effeftuaily, had they fucceeded in their at- 
tempts to get him continued Archbifliop of Paris. 

As the poetical pichire of unqualified Liberty 
and Equality, and the indolent pleafures of the 
patriarchal life, are the charm by which thelllu- 
minators hope to fafcinate ail hearts, and as they 
reprobate every conilrudlion of fociety which to- 
lerates any permanent fubordination, and parti- 
cularly fuch as found this fubordination or^ dif- 

tindlions 



POSTSCRIPT. 369- 

tindlions of ranks, and fcoiit all privileges allow- 
ed to particular orders of men, I hope that it 
will not be thought foreign to the general purpofe 
of the foregoing Work, if, I with great defer- 
ence, lay before the Rxader fome of my reafons 
for afferting, without hefitation, in a former part, 
that the Britifriconftitution is the only one that will 
give permanent happinefs to a great and luxurious 
nation, and is peculiarly calculated to give full 
exercife to the bed propenfities of cultivated 
minds, i am the more defirous of doing this, be- 
caufe it feems to me that moft of the political 
v/riters on the Continent, and many of my coun- . 
trymen, have not attended to important circum- 
llances which diftinguifti our conititution from the 
States General of France and other countries. 
The republicans in France have, fmce the Revo- 
lution, employed the pains in fearching their re- 
cords, which ought to have been taken before 
the convocation of the States, and which would 
probably have prevented that iiep altogether. 
They have (liewn that the meetings of the States, 
if we except that in 1614 and 1483, were uni- 
formly occafions of mutual contefts between the 
different Orders, in which the interefts of the na- 
tion and the authority of the Crown were equally 
forgotten, and the kingdom was plunged into ail 
the horrors of a rancorous civil war. Of this 
they give us a remarkable inftance during the 
captivity of King John in 1355 and 1356, the 
horrors of which were l>ardly exceeded by any 
thing that has happened in our days. They have 
fhewn the fame difmal confequcnces of the affeni- 
bly of the different Orders in Brabant ; and Hill 
more remarkably in Sweden and Denmark, where 
they have frequently produced a revolution and 
change of government, all of which have termi- 
nated 



37<3 POSTCRIPT, 

nated in the abfolnte government, cither of the 
Crown, or of one of the contending Orders. They 
laugh at the fimplicity of the Britifh for expe«Sl- 
ing that the permanent fruits of our conftitution, 
which is founded on the fame jarring principles, 
fhall be any better ; and affert, that the peaceable 
exercife of its feveral powers for fomewhat more 
than a century, (a thing never experienced by 
us in former times,) has proceeded from circum- 
flances merely accidental. With much addrefs 
they have rele(Si:ed the former diiturbances, and 
have conne£ted them by a fort of principle, fo as 
to Iwpport their fyftemi, " that a States General 
" or Parliament, confilling of a reprefentation of 
the different clafTes of citizens, can never deli- 
berate for the general good, but muft always 
occupy their time in contentions about their 
'* mutual invafions of privilege, and will faddle 
'' every aid to the executive power, with fomc 
" unjuil and ruinous aggrandifement of the vifto- 
" rious Order." They have the effrontery to 
give the Magna Chart a as an inftance of an 
ufurpation of the great feudatories, and have re- 
prefented it in fuch a light as to make it the game 
of their writers and of the tribunes.— All this 
they have done in order to reconcile the minds of 
the few thinking men of the nation to the aboli- 
tion of the different Orders of the State, and to 
their National Convention in the form of a chao- 
tic mafs of Frenchmen, one and indivifible : 

Non bene junclarum d'tfcordia femma rerum, 
Uh'i frigida puegnahant cal'idis^ humentia Jiccls, 
Moll'ia cum duris J Jlne pondere habentia pondus. 

Their reafonings would be jufl, Lind their proofs 
from hiflory v. ould be convincing, if their pre- 

oiifes 






POSTSCKIPT. 371 

mi ies were true ; if the Britifh Parliament were 
really an aflembly of three Orders, either perfon- 
aily, or by repreieiitation, deliberating apart, each 
having a veto on the deciiions of the other twij. 
And I apprehend that moil: of my countrymen, 
who have not had occahon to canvas the fiibjedt 
with nuich attention, fuppofe this to be really the 
Britifti Conilitution : for, in the ordinary table 
converfations on the fubjedt, they feldom go far* 
ther, and talk with great complacence of the bal- 
ance of hoftile powers, of the King as the umpire 
of differences, and of the peace and profperity 
that refults from the whole. 

But I cannot help thinking that this is a mifcon- 
ception, almofl in every circumltance. I do not 
know any oppofite interefts in the State, except 
the general one of the governor and the governed, 
the king and the fubjedt. — -If there is an umpire 
in our conilitution, it is the houfe of Lords — but 
this is not as a reprefentation of the perlbns of 
birth, but as a court of hereditary magiftrates : 
the Peers do not meet to defend their own privi- 
leges as citizens, but either as the counfeliors of 
the King, or as judges in the lad refort. The 
privileges for which we fee them (bmetimes con- 
tend, are not the privileges of the high-born, of 
the great vaifals of the Crown, but the privileges 
of the Houfe of Lords, of the fupreme Court of 
Judicature, or of the King's Council. In all the 
nations on the Continent, the different Orders, as 
they are called, of the State, are corporations, 
bodies politic, which have jurifdidlion within 
themfelves, and rights w^hich they can maintain 
at their own hand, and privileges which mark 
them mod diftindtly, and produce fuch a complete 
fcparation between the different Orders, that they 
can no more mix than oil and v/ater. Yet the 

2;reat 



*!.: 



372 FOSTSCRIPfi 

great prefidcnt Montclquieu fays, that the Pccragi^ 
of England is a body of Nobility ; and he ufes the 
term body in the itri£t ienfc now mentioned, asfy* 
nonymous to corporation. He has repeatedly uled 
this term to denote the fecond order of French- 
men, perfons of noble birth, or ennobled, (that 
Js, veiled in the privileges and dillin£lions of the 
Jiobly born,) united bylaw, and having authority 
to rnaintani their privileges. The hiilory of 
France, nay of our ovv^n country, fliows us that 
this body may enjoy all its diftindions of nobility, 
and that the Great Barons may enjoy the preroga- 
tives of their baronies, although the authority of 
the Crown is almofc annihilated. — We have no 
cogent reafon, therefore, for thinking that they 
will be conilantly careful to fupport the authority 
of the Crown ; and much lefs to believe that they 
will, at the fame time, watch over the liberties 
of the people. In the elevSiiion of their reprefenta- 
tives, (for the whole body of the gentlemen muft ap- 
pear hy reprefentation,) we muft not expedl that 
they will fele(Sl; fuch of their own number as will 
take care of thofe two eiiential objects of our con- 
ilitntion. — -Equally jealous of the authority of the 
Crown and of the encroachments of all thofe who 
are not gentlemen, and even fearful of the af- 
llimptions of the Great Barons, the powerful in- 
clividuals of their own order, they will always 
ehooie fuch reprefentatives as will defend their 
own rights in the firil: place. Such perfons are by 
no means lit for maintaining the proper authority 
of the Crown, and keeping the rcprcfentativesof 
the lower clafTes within proper bounds. 

Bat this is not the nature of our Houie of Lords 
)n the prefentday. It was fo formerly in a great 
mcafure, and had the fame eiie£ts as in other 
countries. But ('iv.Qfi the Revolution, the Peers 

of 



V 



POSTSCPvIPt. J7J 



of Great-Britain have no imporrant privileges which 
relate merely or chiefly to birth. Thefe -all refer 
to their fijn61:ions as Magiflrates of the Supreme 
Courc. The King can, at any time, place in this 
Houfe any eminent perfon whom, he thinks worthy 
of the office of hereditary mao-ifrrate. The Peers 
are noble — that is, remiarkable, illuftrious ; but are 
not neceiliirily, nor in every inftance, perfons of' 
hiffh birth. This Houfe therefore is nor, in any 
fort, the reprefentarive of what is called in France 
the Nobjeffe — a particular cad of the nation ;— -nor 
is it a jun6i:ion of th(: proprietors of the great fees 
of the Crown, as fuchi — for many, very many, of 
the greateil baronies arc in the hands of thofe we 
call Comimnners.— Thcv fit as the King's Counfei- 
lors, or as Judges. — Therefore the members of our 
Upper Houfe are not fwayed by the prejudices of 

any clafs of the citizens. Thev are hereditary ma- 

■J J J 

giflrates, created by the Sovereign, for his counfei, 
to defend his prerogatives, to hold the balance be- 
tween the throne and the people. The greatefl; pare 
of the Nobility (in the continental fenfe of the word) 
are not called into this Houfe, but they may be 
members of the Lower Houfe, which we call ths 
Commons; nay the fons and the brothers of the 
Peers arc in the fame iituation. The Peers there- 
fore cannot be hofiile or indilferent to the liberrv, 
the rights, or the happinefs of the Commons, with- 
out being the enemies of their own famdlies. 

Nor is our Houfe of Commons at all rimilar to 
the Third E/lale of ^ny of the neiehbourin.o- kino-- 
doms. They are not the reprefenratives of the ig- 
nobly born, or of any clafs of citizens. The mem- 
bers are the proper reprefentatives of the zubok na- 
tioUy and confifr of perfons of every clafs, perfons 
of the highefi: birth, perfons of great fortune, perfons 
of education, of knowledge, of raients. 

2 Z Thus 



374 POSTSCRIPT. 

Thus the caiifes of diiTtrriiion which refer to the 
diftinc^live rights or prerogatives of the different 
clalfts of citizens are removed, becaufe in each 
Hoiife there are many individuals feiedted from all 
the clafles. 

A Peer, havino^ attained the his-heft honours of 
the ftate, muft be an enemy to every revolution. 
Revolution m.ull certainly degrade him, whether ic 
places an abfolute monarch> or. a democratic junto, 
on the throne. 

The Sovereign naturally looks for the fuppoi t of 
the Upper Houfe, and in every m.eafure agreeable 
to the conftitution, and to the public v/eal, exerts 
his influence on the Houfe of Commons. Kere 
the character of the monarch and his choice of mi- 
nifters muil appear, as in any other coj>fl"itution ; 
but with much lefs chance of danger to political li- 
berty. — The great engine of m.onarchy in Europe, 
has been the jarring privileges of the different Or- 
ders ; and the Sovereign, by fiding with one of 
them, obtained acceflions of prerogative and pow- 
er. — It v/as thus that, under the Houfe of Tudor, 
our confticution advanced with hafty ftrides to ab- 
iblute monarchy ; and would have attained it, had 
James the Firft been as able as he was willing to fe- 
cure what he firmly believed to be the divine rights 
of his Crown. 

I do not recollect hearing the lower ranks of the 
State ventino; much of their difcontents acrainfl: the 
Peers, and they feem to perceive pretty clearly 
the advantages arifing from their prerogatives. 
They feem to look up to them as the firft who will 
prote61: them againil the agents of fovercignty. 
They know that a man may rife from the loweft 
llaticn to the peerage, and that in that exaltation 
he remains conneded with thcmlclves by the dear- 
eft 



POSTSCRIPT. 37 



r 



efl ties ; and the Houfe of Commons take no of- 
fence at the creation of new Peers, becaufe their 
privileges as a Court, and their private rights, arc 
not atftcled by it. Accordingly, the Houfe has al- 
ways oppofcd every projecl of limiting the King's 
prerogative in this refpecl. 

How unlike is ail this to the conllitution ccnfift- 
ing of the pure reprefentatives of the Privileged 
Orders of the Continental States. The felf-con- 
ceited confticutionalifts of France faw fomething 
in the Britifh Parliament which did not fall in v/ith 
their own hafty notions, and prided themfelves in 
not copying from us. This would have indicated 
great poverty of invention in a nation accuftcmcd 
to confider itfelf as the teacher of m.ankind. The 
moll fcnlible, of them, however, v/iilied to have a 
conllitution which they called 2iX\mprovcment of ours: 
and this was the fimple plan of a rep^ejentation of the 
two or three Orders of the State. Their Upper 
Houfe fiiould contain the reprefentatives of lOO, coo 
noblcfle. The Princes of the Blood and Great 
Barons fliould fit in it of their own right, and the 
reft by deputies. The Lower Houfe, or 'riers Etat, 
fhould confift of deputies from thcfe ignobly born ; 
fuch as merchants, perfons in the lov^/er offices of 
the law, artifans, peafants, and a fmall number of 
freeholders. Surely it needs no deep reflection to 
teach us what fort of deliberations would occupy 
fuch a houfe. It would be a moft ufeful occupation 
however, to perufc the hiftory of France, and ofother 
nations, and fee v^lvix. really did occupy the Tiers Etat 
thus conftru6led, and what were their proceedings, 
their decifions, and the fteps which they took to 
make them effedtual. I have no doubt but that this 
ftudy would cure moft of our advocates for general 
eligibility, and for general fuffrage. I have lately 

read 



376 POSTSCRIPT. 

read Velley and Viilarec's Hiflory of France^, (by 
the bye, the Abbe Barruel has ihewn that the Chib 
d'Holbach managed the publication or this Hif- 
tory after tiie firll: eight or ten volumes, and flipped 
into it many things fuited to their impious project,) 
and the accounts of the troublefome reigns of John, 
and Charles his fucceilbr, by authors who wrote 
long befoie the Revoiucion; and they filled me with 
horror, I'he only inftance that I met with of any 
thing like moderation in the claims and difputes of 
the different Orders of their States General, and of 
patriotifm, or regard for the general interefrs of the 
State, is in their meetings during the minority of 
Charles \ ill. 

With refpecl to the limitations of the eligibility 
into the Houfe of Commons, I think that there can 
be no doubt that thole fhouid be excluded whole 
habits of needy and laborious liie have precluded 
them from all opportunities of acquiring fome gene* 
ral views of political^ relations. Such perfons are 
totally unfit for deliberations, where general or 
comprehenfive views only are to be the fubjedts of 
difcuiTion ; they can have no conceptions of the fub- 
jecc, and therefore no ileady notions or opinions, 
but mud change them after every fpeaker^ and muit 
becomxe the dupes of every demagogue. 

But there are other circumiitances which maice me 
think that^ of all the clafies of citizens, the land 
proprietors are the fitteft~for holding this important 
oiHce. I do not infer this from, their having a more 
real connection with the nation, and a ftronger in- 
rereil in its fate-^I prefer them on account of their 
general habits of thouQ-ht. Almoft all their ordina- 
ry tranfadions are fuch as make them acquainted 
vAth the interefts of others, caufe them to confider 
thole in 9;eneral points of view 3 and, in fliorc, moft 

or 



POSTSCRIPT. 211 

of their occupations are, in feme degree, national. 
They are accuilomed to fettle differences between 
thofe of lower ftations — they are frequently in the * 
King's commiffion as Juftices of the Peace. All 
thefe circurr.fcances make them much aoter fchciars 
in that political knowledge, which is abfolutely ne- 
ceiTary for a member of the Floufe of Commons. 
But, befides this, I have no hefiration in faying 
that their turn of mind, their principles of condud:, 
are more generally fuch as become a Senator, than 
thofe oi a'ny ether clafs of men. This clafs includes 
aimofb all men of family. I cannot help think- 
ing that even what is called family pride is a fenti- 
ment in their favour. I am convinced that all our 
propenficies are ufeful in fociety, and that their bad 
eiteds arife wholly from want of moderation in the 
indul^-ence of them, or fometimes from the imrro- 
priery of the occafion on which they arc exerted. 
What p;ropenf]ty is miOre general than the deiire of 
acquiring permanent confideration for ourfelves and 
our fanYilies ? Where is the man to be found fomtan- 
fpirired as not to value him.felf {(^.r being born of 
creditable paients, and for creditable domeftic con- 
ne6lions ? Is this wrong becaufe it has been abufed ? 
So then is every pre-eminence of office j and the 
directors of republican France are as criminal as 
her former Nobles. This propeniity of the human 
heart fliould no m.ore be rejected than the defire of 
power. It fhould be regulated — but it iliould cer- 
tainly be made ufe of as one of the m.eans of car- 
rying on the national bufmefs. I thiiik that w^e know 
fomje of its good tffccls — It incites to a certain pro- 
priety of condud that, is generally agreeable^ — its 
honefiv is embellifhed by a manner that makes it 
more pleafing. There is fomething that we call the 
behaviour cf a Genilcman th?.t is imm.cdiatly and uni-t 
formly underftood. The plainell peafant or labour- 
er 



2J% * POSTSCP.IPT. 

er will fay of a man whom he efleems in a certain 
way, " He is a Gentleman, every bit of him," — 
.and he is perfedtiy iinderiiood by all who hear Him 
to mean, not a rank in life, but a turn of mind, a 
tenor of condu6b that is amiable and worthy, and 
the ground of confidence. — I /remark, with fome 
feeling of patriotic pride, that thefe are phrafes al- 
moft peculiar to our language — in Ruilia the words 
v/ould have no meaning. But there, the Sovereign 
is a defpot, and all but the Gentry are ilavcs ; and 
the Gentry are at no pains to recommend their clafs 
by fuch a diftindlion, nor to give currency to fuch 
a phrafe. — -1 would infer from this peculiarity, that 
Britain is the happy land, where the wifeft ufe has 
been made of this propenfity of the human heart. 

If therefore there be a foundation for this pecu- 
liarity, the Gentry are proper objects of our choice 
for filling the Houfe of Commons. 

If theoretical confiderations are of any value in 
queftions of political difculTion, I would fay, that 
we have ^ood reafons for giving this clafs of citizens 
a great Ihare in the public deliberations. Befides 
what I have already noticed of their habits of conii- 
dering things in general points of view, and their 
feeling a clofer conncdion with the nation than any 
other clafs, I v/ould fay that the power and influence 
which naturally attach to their being called to oftjces 
of public truft, will probably be better lodged in 
.rheir hands. If they are generally feleded for thefe 
offices, they come to confider them as parts of their 
civil condition, as fuuations natural to them. They 
will therefore exercife this power and influence with 
the moderation and calmnefs of habit, — they are no 
novelties tothem~they are notafraid of lofmgthem; 
— therefore, when in olEce, they do not catch at the 
opportunities of exercifing them.. This is the ordi- 
nary 



POSTSCRIPT. 279 

nary conciuft of men, and therefore Is a ground of 
probable-reafoning. — In fhort, 1 f}iouldexpe6l from 
our Gentry fomewhat of gcnerofiry and candour, 
which would temper the commercial principle, 
which feems to reG;ulate the national tranfaclions of 
modern Europe, and whofc eifedts feem Icfs friend- 
ly to the beft intercils of humanity, than even the 
Roman principle of glory. 

The Reader will now believe that I would not 
recommend the filling the Houle of Commons with 
merchants, although they feem to be the natural Re- 
prefentatives of the monied intereft of the nation. 
But I do not wiih to confiderthat Houfe as the Re- 
prefentative of any Orders whatever, or to dilturb 
its deliberations with any debates on their jarring 
interefts. The man of purely commercial notions 
difclaims all generofity — recommends honefty be- 
caufe it is the befb policy — in Hiort, *• places the 
" value of a thing in as much money as 'twill bring.'* 
I fhould watch the conduct of fuch men more nar- 
rowly than that of the Nobles. Indeed, the hiftory 
of Parliament will fhow that the Gentry have not 
been the moil venal part of the Houfe. The Illu- 
mination which now dazzles the world aims diredly 
at multiplying the number of venal members, by 
filling the fenates of Europe with m.en who may be 
bought aD a low price. Ivlinifterial corruption is 
the fruit of Liberty, and freedom dawned in this na- 
tion in Queen Elizabeth's time, wdien her minifter 
bribed Wentworth. — A wife and free. Legiflation 
will endeavour to make this as expenfive and trou- 
blefome as poffible, and therefore will neither ad- 
mit univerfal fuffrao;e nor a vervextenfiveelig-lbility. 
Thefe two circumftances, befid&s opening a Vv'ider 
door to corruption, tend to defiroy the very inten- 
tion of all civil confcitctions. The e;rcar obiedl in 

them 



380 POSTSCRIPT. 



y 1 



them is, to make a great number of people haoD^ 
Some men place their chief enjoyment in meafunnrr 
their flrength with others, and love to be continuaiiy 
employed in canvaiilng, intriguing, and carrying on 
ibme little pieces of a fort of public bufinefs -, to 
fuch men univerfal fuftrage and eligibility would be 
paradife — but it is to be hoped that the number of 
fuch is not very great : for this occupation muit be 
accompanied by much difquitt among their neigh- 
bours, much diffenfion, and mutual ofrencc and ill- 
\yili~Yand the peaceable, the indolent, the fcudious, 
and cne half of the nation, the women, will be great 
fulFerers by all this. In a nation "^Oklf^^ing many 
of the comforts and pleafurcs of life, the hapoiell 
government is thiit which will leave the greateil 
number poiTible totally unoccupied with national 
alfairs, and at full liberty to enjoy all their domef- 
tic and focial pieaiures, and to do this with fecurity 
and permanency. Great limitations in the ri^jit of 
elecling feems therefore a circumfcance neceifary 
for this purpofe -, and limitations are equally ne- 
ceifary on the eligibility^ When the ofnces of 
power and emolument are open to all, the fcramible 
becomes univerfal, and the nation is never at peace. 
The road to a feat in Parliament iliould be accefli- 
ble to all; but it fnoulJ be long, lb that many 
rhings, which all may in time obtain, fhall be re- 
quifite for qualifying the candidate. The road 
fhouid alio be fuch that all iliould be induced to walk 
in it, in the profecution of their ordinary bufinefs; 
and their admiiTion into public ofiices (liould depend 
on the prcgrefs which they have made in the ad- 
vancement of their own fortunes. Such regula- 
tions would, I think, give the grrateft chance of 
filling the ofnces with perfons hctefb for them, by 

their 



POSTSCRIPT, 381 

their talents^ their experience, and their habits of 
thinking. Thefe habits, and the views of life which 
a man forms in confequence of his fituation, are of 
the utmoft importance. 

After all thefe obfervations, I miin; dill recur to 
a pofuion which I have repeated more than once^ 
namely, that our conftitution, which nearly em- 
fe'races all thefe circumftances, has attained its pre- 
fent excellence chiefiy in confequence of the innate 
worth of the Britifh charafler. About the time of 
the Conqueft, our conftitution hardly differed from 
that of France. But the clafliing of interefis be- 
tween the different Orders. of the fubjeds was not 
fo rancorous and obftinate—thefe Orders melted 
more eafily together — -the purity cf the principle 
of Reprefentation in the States was lefs attended 
to ; and while the French Peers gradually left off 
minding any buhnefs but their own, and left the 
High Court of Judicature to the lawyers, and the 
King to his Cabinet Council, the Peers of Greac 
Britain, overlooking their own lefs important diftinc- 
tions, attended more to the State, became a perma- 
nent Council to the Sovereign in the adminiftration 
and legiHation; and, with a patriotifm and a pati- 
ence that are unknown to the Oiher Grandees of 
Europe, continued to hear and to judge in all quef- 
tions of juftice and property between the inferior 
citizens of the State. NBritifh Liberty is the highly- 
prized fruit of all this worthy conduft, and moft 
people afcribe it to the fuperior fpirit and indepen- 
dence of the national charader. It ftrikes me, 
however, as more furely indicating fuperior virtue, 
and more judicious patriotifm; and our happy con- 
ftitution is not more iuftly entitled to the admira- 
tion and refpecft that is paid to it by all Europe, 

3 A than 



3S2 rOSTSCRlPT. 

than to the affedllonatc and grateful attachment of 
every true-hearted Briton. 

Since the publication of this volume I have {ecn 
a very remarkable v^^ork indeed, on the fame fub- 
je6l. Memoir es pour fervir a VHiftoire du Jacohinijmey 
par M. l^ Ahhe Barruel. This author confirms all 
that I have faid of the Enlighteners , whom he very 
aptly calls Philojophifts ; and of the abiifes of Free 
Mafonry in France. He fhows, unequeftionably, 
that a formal and fyftematic confpiracy againft Re- 
ligion was formed and zealoufly profecuted by Vol- 
taire, d'Alembert, and Diderot, alTifted by Frede- 
ric II. King of PrulTia; and 1 fee that their princi- 
ples and their manner of procedure have been the 
fame with thofe of the German atheifts and anar- 
chifts. Like them they hired an Army of Writers ; 
they induftrioufly puflied their writings into every 
houfe and every cottage. Thofe writings were 
equally calculated for inflaming the fenfual appetites 
of men, and for perverting their judgments. They 
endeavoured to get the command of the Schools, 
particularly thofe for the lower clafTes ; and they 
ere6led and managed a prodigious number of Cir- 
culating Libraries and RcadinQ- Societies. M. Bar- 
ruel lays, that this gang of public corruptors have 
held their meetings for many years in the Hotel dc 
Holbach at Paris, and that Voltaire was their hono- 
rary Prefident. The mofl eminent members were 
d' Alemherty Diderot, Ccndorcety La Harpe, Turgot^ 
hamoignon. They took the name of (^Economists, 
and affc6i:ed to be continually occupied with plans 
'for improving Commerce, Manufactures, Agricul- 
ture, Finance, &c. and publifhed from time to 
time refpeclable performances on thofe fubje(51:s. — 
But their darling projedt was to deflroy Chriftianity 
and all Religion, and to brines about a total change 



I 



1»0STSCRIPT. 383 

of Government. They employed writers to com- 
pofe corrupting and impious books — ihefe were 
revifed by the Society, and corrected till they fuited 
their purpofe. A number were printed in a hand- 
fome manner, to defray the expence ; and then a 
much greater number were printed in the cheapefl 
form poflible, and given for nothing, or at very 
low prices, to hawkers and pedlars, with injunctions 
to diftribute them fecretly through the cities and 
villages. They even hired perfons to read them to 
conventicles of thofe who had not learned to read.* 

(See vol. i. 343—3550 

I am particularly (truck by a pofition of Abbe 
Barruel, " That Irreligion and unqualified Liberty and 
*^ Equality are the genuine and original Secrets of Free 
^^ Mafonry, and the ultimatum of a regular progrefs 
^^ through all its degrees,'' He fupports this re- 
markable pofition with great ingenuity, and many 
very pertinent fa6ls. I confcfs that now, when I 
have got this impreffion, I iliall find it very difficult 
to efface it. But I muft alfo fay, that this thought 
never ftruck me, during all the time that I have 

been 

* The author makes an obfervation which is as juft as it is 
agreeable. This atrocious gang folicited, with the moil anxious 
affiduity, the participation and patronage of the great ones of 
the world, and boaft of feveral very exalted names ; Frederic 
II. of Prufiia, whom they call the Solomon of the North, Ca- 
tharine II. Guftavus King of Sweden, the King of Denmark, 
&c. &c. But in the whole feries of their correfpondence there 
is not the leaft trace of any encouragement or any hopes from 
our excellent Sovereign George III. Defpifing the incenfe of 
fuch wretches, and detefting their fcience, he has truly merited 
the title of Philofopher, by having done more for the real Illu- 
mination of the World, by the promotion of true Science, tliati 
Louis XIV. with his penfioned Academicians, or than all th« 
prefent Sovereigns of Europe united ; and has uniformly diftin- 
guilhed himfelf by his regard for true Religion, and every thing 
that is venerable and facred. This omillion is above all praife* 



3^4 POSTSCRIPT. 

been occupied with its nor have I ever heard it ex- 
prefled by any Brother, except fuch as had been 
illuminated -, and fuch Brethren always confidered | 
this as an innovation or improvement on genuine 
Britilli Free Malbnry. I recoileci;, indeed, that 
Nicholai, in his account of the German Rofycru- 
cians, fays, that the object of l^ree Mafonry in 
England^ fince the time of James II. \i Toleration in 
Religious Gpnions^ as RoyaUjm had been the obje6b 
before that time. 

The account which the Abbe gives of the Che- 
Valerie du Soleil is very conformable to one of the 
three rituals in my polTefiion. His account of the 
Chevalerie de Rcfe Croix, and fome others, differs 
confiderably from thofe in my box. I have reafon 
to think that my materials are tranfcripts from the 
rituals;"^ &c. which Rofa introduced into the Ger- 
nian Lodges, becaufe the writer of the greatcil part 
of them is an inhabitant of that city. 

I think that the Abbe Barruel's account of this 
matter fuggeils a pleafmg reflection. All the Bre- 
thren on the Continent agree in faying, that Free 
Mafonry was imported from Great Britain about 
the beginning of this century, and this in the form 
of a Myflical Society. It has been affiduoufiy cul- 
tivated in Britain ever fmce that time, and I believe 
that the Fraternity is more numerous here, in pro- 
portion to the population of the country, than in 
any other kingdom ; yet in Britain the Brethren 
have never fufpedied that its principles were fedi- 
tious or atheiftical. While the Free Mafonry of 
the Continent was tricked up with all the frippery 
of ftars and ribands, or was perverted to the molt 
profligate and impious purpofes, and the Lodges 
became fcminaries of Foppery, of Sedition, and 
Lmpiety, it has retained in Britain its original form, 

fimple 



POSTSCRIPT. 385 

fimple and unadorned, and the Lodges have re- 
mained the fcenes of innocent merriment, or meet- 
ings of Charity and Beneficence. As the good 
fcnfe and found judgments of Britons Iiave preferved 
them from the abfurd follies of Tranfmucacion, of 
Ghoft-raifing, and of Magic, fo their honed hearts 
and their innate good difpofitions have made them 
dcteft and reject the mad proje6ls and impious doc- 
trines of Colmopolites, Epicurifts, and Atheifts. 

O fortiinatos nimium, Jiiafi bona nor rat 
Anglkolas I 

I have miOre confidence than ever in the fenti- 
raent which I exprelled as an encouragement for 
our moral inii:ru6tors ; and with greater earneR:- 
nefs do I call on them to refcue from corruption 
and impending ruin a nation fo highly deferving 
of their care. 

Mr. Barruel, in the eighteenth chapter of his 
work, has fup-s;e{led fome reflections, which hiehlv 
merit attention, and greatly tend to efface the mi- 
prelTion which is naturally made on the minds of 
the unthinking and precipitant, when they oblerve 
fuch a lift of authors, whom they have been accuf- 
tomed to admire, ail leagued againft Religion. 1 
think, however, that nothing can more effectually 
remove it, than what I have already fhown of the 
vile and difgraceful tricks which thefe fophifts have 
been guilty of to fupport their caufe. The caufe 
-of this numerous affociation is diitin£l;Jy feen in their 
very procedure. The very firil ftep in their pro - 
grefs is depravation of manners. In this they have 
laboured with as much earneftnefs as either Sparta- 
c\is, or Minos, or Bahrdt. It was a treat to me 10 
learn that La Clofe's abominable book Les Liaifuns 

Dan^ereijcs, 



j86 POSTSCRIPT. 

Dangereufes, was not merely pandering for his pa- 
tron Orleans, but alfo working for his maftcrs at 
the Hotel d'Holbach. Nothing gives fuch certain 
bread to thofe authors, in the beginning of their 
career, as immoral and impure writings j — and with 
fuch did even their chief fet out, and fill his pock- 
ets; witnefs his Pucelle d' Orleans ; and even after 
they became the Jages of France^ they continued, 
cither from coarfe taile or from fcrious principle, 
for the diabolical purpofc of inflaming the palTions 
of others, to interlard their graveft performances 
with impure thoughts and fentiments. Nay, the 
fecret of the Hotel d'Holbach fliews us that, for 
any thing we know to the contrary, the vileft pro- 
duclions of their prefs may have been the compofi- 
tions of the o6togenary Voltaire, of the fly d'Alem- 
bert, or of the author of the Fere de Famille. What 
a pity it is that the Decline of the Roman Empire was 
not all written in England, and that its learned and 
elegant author, by going into their fociety, has 
allowed himfelf to be drawn into this muddy and 
degrading vortex ! 

I fnould fcarceiy aflc for more to difgufl: me with 
the philofophy of thefe fages, and to make me dil- 
truil all their pretenfions to knowledge. The 
mcannefs of the conduct fuited the original poverty 
of the whole of them -, but its continuance ftrips 
them of all claims to the name of philofophers. 
Their pretended wifdom is only cunning, — and we 
mud acknowledge that their condud was clever : 
for this mean of corruption, concealed or embel- 
lilhed by their talents for frntimental flang, (I can 
give it no better name,) made their converfation 
and their writings moll acceptable to their noble 
patrons. — Now it is that Religion, of necelTity, 
comes on the iieldi for Religion tells us, that thefe 

are 



POSTSCRIPT. 387 

are mean pleafures for creatures born to our prof- 
pe6bs ; and Chriftianity tells us, chat they are grofs 
tranfgreflions o^ the only jujt morality. The progrefs 
of the pupil will now be rapid ; for he will liften 
with willing ears to lefTons which flatter his paf- 
fions. Yet Voltaire thinks it neceflary to enliven 
the lefTons by a little of the Jalaijon, quelques hons 
mots a-p'O'pos aupres des femmes^ which he recom- 
mends to d'Alembert, who, it feems, was deficient 
in this kind of fmall talk. 

Surely all this is very unlike to wifdom ; and 
when we fee that it is part of a plan, and this an 
obvious one, it fliould greatly lelfen our wonder at 
the number of thefe admired infidels. If we would 
now proceed to examine their pretenfions to fcience, 
on which they found their claim to the name of 
philofophers, we muft be careful to take the word 
in a fenfe that is unequivocal. Its true meaning is 
by no means what is commonly afTigned to it, a 
lover of knowledo-c. It is a lover of wifdom ^ and 
philofophy profcffes to teach us what are the con- 
ftituents of human felicity, and what are the means 
of attaining it; what are our duties, and the gene- 
ral rules for our conduct. The floics were philo-» 
fophers. The Chriflians arc alfo philofophers. 
The Epicureans and the Sophifls of France would 
alfo be called philofophers. I have put in my ob- 
je6tion to this claim already, and need not repeat 
my reafons for faying that their do6lrines are not 
diftates of wifdom. I fhall only add, that their 
own conduct fhows plainly that their principles had 
no effect on themlelves, becaufe we fee, from the 
feries of correfpondence which Mr. Barruel has laid 
before us, that they do not fcruple to pradlife vil- 
lanous and hypocritical tricks, which never fail to 
difgrace a man, and are totally irreconcilable with 

our 



jSo POSTSCRIPT. 

our notions of human dignity. Voltaire patiently 
took a caning from an officer at Frankfort, for ha- 
ving wittily told lies of his fcholar Frederic, and 
his wifdom told him that his honour was cleared by 
offering to meet the Major, each of them provided 
with an injection f]/ringe. This was thought fub- 
lime wit at Ferney. I do not fuppofe that the flave 
Epi6letus, or the foldier Digby, would have ended 
the affair in this manner. Many of the deeds of 
wifdom of the club d'Holbach were more degrading 
than even this ; and I am confident that the whole 
of this phalanx of fages were confcious that they 
were treated by their patrons and pupils as Voltaire 
was treated by the Solomon of the North, and that 
their notions of the vraie /(^-gejls v/erc alfo the fame 
with his. He gives this account of it in his letter 
to his niece : ^' Le Roi iui avoit repondu ; ' j'aurai 
*' >befoin de Voltaire un an tout au plus — On prefTe 
*^ Torange, et on jette I'ecorce.* Je me fuis fait 
^^ repeter ces douces paroles" — (How poor Vol- 
taire would grin !) — ^^ Je vois bien qu'on a preiTe 
" I'orange — il faut penfer a fauver Tecorce.'* 

But, as things fland at prefent, philofopher means 
a man of fcience, and in this fenfe of the word our 
fages claim great refpeft. No claim can be worfe 
founded. It is amufing to obferve the earnetlnefs 
with which they recommend the (ludy of natural 
hiftory. One does not readily fee the conne6i:ion 
of this with their oftenfible objeft, the happinefs of 
man. A perufal of Voltaire's letters betrays the 
fecret. Many years ago he heard that fome obfer- 
vations on the formation of ftrata, and the folTils 
found in them, were incompatible with the age 
which the Mofaic hiftory feems to affign to this 
globe. He mentions this with great exultation 
in fome of his early letters ; and, from that time 

forward. 



POSTSCRIPT. 3S9 

forward, never ceafes to enjoin his colleagues to 
prefs the fludy of natural hiilory and cofmogony, 
and carefully to bring forward every fa6l: v/hich was 
hoftile to the Mofaic accounts. It became a ferious 
part of the exercifes of their wealthy pupils, and 
their perplexing difcoveries were niofr oilentatioufly 
difpiayed. M. de Luc, a very eminent naturaiiit, 
has Ihewn, in a letter to the Chevalier Dr. Zim- 
iTiermann, (pubiifhed, I think, about the year 1790,) 
how very icanty the knowledge of rhefe obfervers 
has been, and hov/ precipitate have been their con- 
clufions. For my own part, I think the affair is 
of little confequence. Mofes writes the hiftory, 
not of this globe, but of the race of Adam. 

The fcience of thefe philofophers is not remark- 
able in other branches, if we except M. d'Alem- 
bert's mathematics"'. Yet the irnpofing confidence 
of Voltaire was fuch, that he pailes for a perfon 
fully informed, and he pronounces on every fubjed: 
v/ich fo much authority, with fuch a force of expref- 
fion, and generally with fo much wit or pleafanrry, 
that his hearers and readers are fafcinated, and foon 
convinced of what they v^ifh to be true. 

It is not by the ' wifdom nor by tht profound 
knowledge which thefe waiters difplay, that they 

3 B have 

* Never Vv^as there any thing more contemptible than the 
phylical and mechanical pofitions in Diderot's great work, th» 
Syjleme de la NaturCy (Barruel ailirrns, ihat he was the author, 
and got 100 piftoles for the copy, from the perfon who related 
the ftory to him,) that long ago found that Diderot had alTifled 
Robinet to make a book out of his Mafonic Oration, which I 
mentioned in page 41. Robinet tru lied to Diderot's knowledges 
in natural philofophy. But the Junto were afhamed of the book 
De la Nature, Diderot feems to have, afcer this, read T>r. 
Hartley's book, and has greatly refined on the crude fyilem of 
Robinet. But after all, the Syfteme de la Nattire is contemptible, 
if it be confidered as pretending to what is received as fcience 
by a mechanical phiiofopher. 



^QO POSTSCRIPT. 

have acquired celebrity, a fame which has been fo 
pernicious. It is by fine writing, by works ad- 
drelFed to the imagination and to the affeclions, 
by excellent dramas, by affedting moral efiays, full 
of exprefiions of the greatell refpc6l for virtue, the 
mofl tender benevolence, and the higheft fenti- 
ments of honour and dignity. — By thefe means 
they fafcinate all readers ; they gain the efteem of 
the worthv, who imasrine them fincere, and their 
pernicious dodrines are thus fpread abroad, and 
fceal into the minds of the diiToluce, the licentious, 
and the unwary. 

But I am writing to Britons, who are confider- 
cd by our neighbours on the Continent as a nation 
of philofophers — to the country lO en of Bacon, 
of Locke, of Newton — v/ho arc not to be wheedled 
like children, but muft be reafoned with as men. — 
Voltaire, who decides vvithout hefitation on the cha- 
ra6!:er of the moftdiftant nations in the moft remote 
antiquity, did not know us : he came among us, 
in the beginning of his career, with the higheft 
expe61ations of our fupport, and hoped to make his 
fortune by his Pucelle d'Orleans. It was rejected 
with difdain — but we publifned his Henriade for 
hj.'Ti : and, notwithftanding his repeated difappoint- 
iti^Dts of the fame kind, he durft not ofi'end his 
countrymen by flandering us, but joined in the pro- 
found refpcci: paid by all to Britifh fcience. — Our 
writers, whether on natural or moral fcience, are 
ftill regarded as ftandard clafTics, and are ftudied 
with care. Lord Verulam is acknowledged by eve- 
ry man of fcience to have given the tirfl; juft de- 
fcription of true philofophy, pointed out its objects, 
and afcertained its mode of procedure — And New- 
ton is equally allowed to have evinced the propriety 
of the Baconian precepus by his unequalled fuccefs, 

fud 



POSTSCRIPT. 391 

Jud Mathefi facem freferente. — The moft celebrated 
philofophers on the Continent are thofe who have 
completed by demonftration the wonderful guefles 
of his penetrating genius. Bailli, or Condorcet, 
(I forget which,) ftruck with the inconceivable 
reaches of Newton's thoughts, breaks out, in the 
words of Lucretius, 

Tefeqmr^ magn£ gentls deciis^ inque tuls nunc 
Fix a -pedum pom prejjis vefiigia figms, 
Tu pater et rerum invent or ^ tu p atria nobis 
Suppeditas precepta^ tuifque ex inclute chartls^ 
Floriferis ut apes in fait i bus omnia libant^ 
Omnia nos iiidem depafcimur aurea di6ia\ 
Aurea^ perpetud femper digniffima vita. 

After fuch avowals of our capacity to inflru6t 
ourfelves, fliall we ftiil fly to thofe difturbers of the 
world for our lefTons ? No — Let us rally round our 
own flandards — let us take the path pointed out by 
Bacon — let us follow the fteps of Newton — and, to 
conclude, let us ferioufly confider a moft excellent 
advice by the higheft authority : 

" Beware of falfe prophets, who come to you 
" in fheep's cloathing, but inwardly they are r:^ 
" vening wolves — by their fruits ye sua ;. 
" KNOW THEM — Do mtn gather grapes of thoidS, 
'' or figs of thifiles?" 



THE END. 



To the Binder. 

* 2 B, and * 2 C, are to be placed before 2 B, 
thcfe pages being repeated. 



py- 



^4